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  • Diabetes mellitus has been a scourge of the developed world

    糖尿病一直是現代文明社會中 使人聞之色變的疾病

  • with an estimated 400,000,000 people worldwide suffering from this disease,

    全世界總計約有4億人口患有此疾

  • and 50% more predicted within twenty years.

    在接下來的二十年中, 更有預計2億人會得糖尿病

  • Its early symptoms, which include increased thirst and large volumes of urine,

    它的早期症狀包含不時感到口渴及大量地排尿

  • were recognized as far back as 1500 BCE in Egypt.

    這是早在西元前1500年的埃及,就已經被發現的症狀

  • While the term diabetes, meaning "to pass through,"

    「糖尿病」一詞的原意是指「穿過、經歷」

  • was first used in 250 BCE by the Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis,

    最早是在西元前250年由一位希臘醫生 Apollonius of Memphis

  • Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes,

    開始稱為第一型及第二型糖尿病

  • associated respectively with youth and obesity,

    分別與其發病年齡的老幼有關

  • were identified as separate conditions

    此區分是在西元五世紀時

  • by Indian physicians somewhere in the 5th century CE.

    由印度的醫生所定義而成

  • But despite the disease being known, a diagnosis of diabetes in a human patient

    然而,儘管糖尿病為世人所熟知, 當一個人被診斷出糖尿病時

  • would remain tantamount to a death sentence until the early 20th century,

    卻猶如被判死刑 直到20世紀初

  • its causes unknown.

    糖尿病的病因仍不為人所知

  • What changed this dire situation was the help of humanity's longtime animal partner:

    改變了這可怕局面的, 正是人類長久以來在動物界的好夥伴

  • canis lupus familiaris, domesticated from grey wolves thousands of years ago.

    家犬類,又幾千年前的灰狼馴化演變而來

  • In 1890, the German scientists von Mering and Minkowski

    在1890年,德國科學家馮·梅林和閔可夫斯基

  • demonstrated that removing a dog's pancreas

    展示了移除狗的胰腺

  • caused it to develop all the signs of diabetes,

    能導致它出現各種糖尿病的症狀

  • thus establishing the organ's central role in the disease.

    因此,胰腺被確認為糖尿病的關鍵所在

  • But the exact mechanism by which this occurred remained a mystery until 1920

    但這其中具體的原理仍是個謎, 直到1920年才被人解開

  • when a young Canadian surgeon named Frederick Banting

    一個年輕的加拿大外科醫生弗雷德里克·班廷

  • and his student, Charles Best, advanced the findings of their German colleagues.

    和他的學生查理斯·貝斯特, 在多倫多大學麥克勞德教授的手下

  • Working under Professor Macleod at the University of Toronto,

    進一步推進了兩位德國科學家前輩的研究發現

  • they confirmed that the pancreas was responsible for regulating blood glucose,

    他們確認了胰腺是負責調整血糖的器官

  • successfully treating diabetic dogs by injecting them with an extract

    並通過給得了糖尿病的狗並注射一種胰腺組織的提取物

  • they had prepared from pancreas tissue.

    治好了這些狗的頑疾

  • By 1922, the researchers working with biochemist James Collip

    到了1922年,與生物化學家 詹姆斯·科利普共事的研究者們

  • were able to develop a similar extract from beef pancreas

    研發出一種近似牛胰腺的提取物

  • to first treat a fourteen-year-old diabetic boy,

    用以治療一個身患糖尿病的14歲男孩

  • followed by six additional patients.

    之後,更又治療了6位病人

  • The manufacturing process for this extract, now known as insulin,

    這種目前被稱為胰島素的提取物的批量生產

  • was eventually turned over to a pharmaceutical company

    最終被一家製藥公司接手

  • that makes different types of injectable insulin to this day.

    直至今日,他們生產了 各種不同的可注射型胰島素

  • Banting and Macleod received

    班廷和麥克勞德也因他們的研究發現

  • the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1923 for their discovery.

    而榮獲1923年的諾貝爾醫學獎

  • But Banting chose to share his portion with Charles Best,

    但是班廷選擇將他的獎項 與查爾斯·貝斯特分享

  • for his help in the initial studies involving dogs.

    因為後者在當時對狗 進行實驗的初期給予了他幫助

  • But while medical experimentation on animals remains controversial,

    儘管在動物身上做醫學實驗 這一話題仍然充滿爭議

  • in this case at least, it was not just a matter of exploiting dogs for human needs.

    但至少在這一例子中,這不單單是為了人類的利益而剝削狗

  • Dogs develop diabetes at the rate of two cases per 1,000 dogs,

    在1000隻狗中,就會有2例糖尿病的出現

  • almost the same as that of humans under 20.

    和20歲以下人群的患病機率一樣高

  • Most canine cases are of Type 1 diabetes,

    大多數狗所得的糖尿病都是第一類

  • similar to the type that young children develop

    類似人類兒童所患的類型

  • following immune system destruction of the pancreas,

    伴隨著的症狀,是胰腺免疫系統的崩潰

  • and genetic studies have shown that

    而且,基因研究已經表明

  • the dog disease has many similar hallmarks of the human disease.

    狗的疾病在許多方面和人類疾病有共通之處

  • This has allowed veterinarians to turn the tables,

    這讓獸醫得以反其道而行

  • successfully using insulin to treat diabetes in men's best friend for over 60 years.

    60年來成功地利用胰島素 治療了人類最好的夥伴

  • Many dog owners commit to managing their dogs' diabetes

    許多狗地主人十分投入地治療他們狗狗的糖尿病

  • with insulin injected twice daily, regimented feedings,

    為狗狗一天注射兩次胰島素 節制餵食

  • and periodic blood measurements

    並週期性地測量血壓

  • using the same home testing glucose monitors used by human patients.

    用的正是和人類糖尿病患者相同的「家庭測試型血糖檢測器」

  • And if the purifed pig insulin commonly used for dogs

    如果通常給狗狗用的精制豬胰島素

  • fails to work for a particular dog,

    在一隻狗狗身上無效

  • the vet may even turn to a formulation of human insulin,

    那麼獸醫可能甚至採用人類胰島素

  • bringing the process full circle.

    來完善整個治療過程

  • After all that dogs have done for us throughout the ages,

    別忘了幾個世紀以來,狗狗們為我們付出了那麼多

  • including their role in a medical discovery that has saved countless human lives,

    包括他們在醫學發現中的貢都讓無數人得救

  • using that same knowledge to help them is the least we could do.

    用同樣的知識去幫助狗狗也是我們人類的本分

Diabetes mellitus has been a scourge of the developed world

糖尿病一直是現代文明社會中 使人聞之色變的疾病

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 糖尿病 狗狗 胰島素 人類 治療

【TED-Ed】狗狗在糖尿病領域教會了人類什麼? - 鄧肯 C. 弗格森- Duncan C. Ferguson (What did dogs teach humans about diabetes? - Duncan C. Ferguson)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 01 月 17 日
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