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It's 4 a.m., and the big test is in eight hours,
followed by a piano recital.
You've been studying and playing for days, but you still don't feel ready for either.
So, what can you do?
Well, you can drink another cup of coffee
and spend the next few hours cramming and practicing,
but believe it or not,
you might be better off closing the books, putting away the music,
and going to sleep.
Sleep occupies nearly a third of our lives,
but many of us give surprisingly little attention and care to it.
This neglect is often the result of a major misunderstanding.
Sleep isn't lost time, or just a way to rest when all our important work is done.
Instead, it's a critical function,
during which your body balances and regulates its vital systems,
effecting respiration
and regulating everything from circulation to growth and immune response.
That's great, but you can worry about all those things after this test, right?
Well, not so fast.
It turns out that sleep is also crucial for your brain,
with a fifth of your body's circulatory blood
being channeled to it as you drift off.
And what goes on in your brain while you sleep
is an intensely active period of restructuring
that's crucial for how our memory works.
At first glance,
our ability to remember things doesn't seem very impressive at all.
19th century psychologist Herman Ebbinghaus
demonstrated that we normally forget 40% of new material
within the first twenty minutes,
a phenomenon known as the forgetting curve.
But this loss can be prevented through memory consolidation,
the process by which information is moved
from our fleeting short-term memory to our more durable long-term memory.
This consolidation occurs with the help of a major part of the brain,
known as the hippocampus.
Its role in long-term memory formation
was demonstrated in the 1950s by Brenda Milner
in her research with a patient known as H.M.
After having his hippocampus removed,
H.M.'s ability to form new short-term memories was damaged,
but he was able to learn physical tasks through repetition.
Due to the removal of his hippocampus,
H.M.'s ability to form long-term memories was also damaged.
What this case revealed, among other things,
was that the hippocampus was specifically involved
in the consolidation of long-term declarative memory,
such as the facts and concepts you need to remember for that test,
rather than procedural memory,
such as the finger movements you need to master for that recital.
Milner's findings, along with work by Eric Kandel in the 90's,
have given us our current model of how this consolidation process works.
Sensory data is initially transcribed
and temporarily recorded in the neurons as short-term memory.
From there, it travels to the hippocampus,
which strengthens and enhances the neurons in that cortical area.
Thanks to the phenomenon of neuroplasticity,
new synaptic buds are formed, allowing new connections between neurons,
and strengthening the neural network
where the information will be returned as long-term memory.
So why do we remember some things and not others?
Well, there are a few ways to influence
the extent and effectiveness of memory retention.
For example, memories that are formed in times of heightened feeling,
or even stress,
will be better recorded due to the hippocampus' link with emotion.
But one of the major factors contributing to memory consolidation is,
you guessed it,
a good night's sleep.
Sleep is composed of four stages,
the deepest of which are known as slow-wave sleep
and rapid eye movement.
EEG machines monitoring people during these stages
have shown electrical impulses
moving between the brainstem, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex,
which serve as relay stations of memory formation.
And the different stages of sleep have been shown to help consolidate
different types of memories.
During the non-REM slow-wave sleep,
declarative memory is encoded into a temporary store
in the anterior part of the hippocampus.
Through a continuing dialogue between the cortex and hippocampus,
it is then repeatedly reactivated,
driving its gradual redistribution to long-term storage in the cortex.
REM sleep, on the other hand, with its similarity to waking brain activity,
is associated with the consolidation of procedural memory.
So based on the studies,
going to sleep three hours after memorizing your formulas
and one hour after practicing your scales would be the most ideal.
So hopefully you can see now that skimping on sleep
not only harms your long-term health,
but actually makes it less likely
that you'll retain all that knowledge and practice from the previous night,
all of which just goes to affirm the wisdom of the phrase,"sleep on it."
When you think about all the internal restructuring
and forming of new connections that occurs while you slumber,
you could even say that proper sleep
will have you waking up every morning with a new and improved brain,
ready to face the challenges ahead.
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【TED-Ed】你愛睡覺嗎?睡好覺的好處(The benefits of a good night's sleep)

82653 分類 收藏
稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 18 日

影片簡介

你總是喜歡在考試前一晚徹夜K書嗎?總覺得前一晚不睡覺把記憶留住才考得好嗎?其實真正有效的記憶,是讀完書後好好睡一覺呢!讓 Shai Marcu 用完整的邏輯、清楚的論述,幫你破除這些迷思!

1
be better off0:30
better 本身就是 good 的二級比較級,所以是更好的意思。be better off 指的是比以前環境更富裕、更快樂、生活情況更好或者是有錢人,而在影片中 you might be better off closing the books, putting away the music 的 be better off 指的則是會更好的意思,也就是 be in a better situation

情況會更好
You will be better off once you’ve found out the truth.
一旦你知道了真相,情況會更好。


有錢人
People are angry with the new law for it seems to be protecting the better off.
人們對於新的法律感到生氣,因為法條似乎在保護那些有錢人。


well off 這個詞也可以用來表示富裕
Her parents are well off.
他的父母親很富裕。


be better off 的反義詞則是 be worse off,也就是比以前更窮、 更不愉、快更不健康。
Kids tend to be worse off when they first transfer to a new school.
當小孩轉到一個新學校時,他們傾向於比前更不快樂。


跟 off 有關的片語還有
come off 成功,或是達到預期效果:
The novel didn’t quite come off.
這本小說並沒有很暢銷。


cut off 中斷
Her mother cut off her daily allowance.
他母親不再每天給他零用錢了。


drop off 打瞌睡(也等於 doze off)
I accidentally dropped off and missed half of the class.
我因為不小心睡著而錯過了半堂課。


2
vital0:54
當你想說一件事很重要的時候,除了 this is important 以外,你還可以說 this is vital。vital跟important 都是表達重要的意思,但因為 vital 前面的 vita 指的是生命的意思,事關重大,重要程度又超過了important。以後如果上班遲到要跟老闆找藉口,就告訴老闆你有很 vital 的事情吧!
It is vital for me to get the full scholarship when I study abroad.
拿到全額獎學金出國留學對我來說是一件非常重要的事


我們來看看除了vital 還有哪些字是表示重要的吧 !

important
It is important to wash your hand before eating.
吃東西前洗手是很重要的。


crucial
It is crucial to have at least 6 hours of sleep every day.
一天至少睡六個小時是很重要的。


significant
There is a significant change of the policy in the company.
公司的政策有重大改變。


essential
The love of parents is essential to the child.
對小孩子來說,父母的愛是很重要的。


3
impulse03:59
im 通常是指「不」但這裡則是「更加的」, pulse 則是「脈搏」。 impulse 和在一起,就是脈搏跳得很快——也就是指衝動。
I bought a cute dog on an impulse.
我在衝動之下買了那隻可愛的小狗。


類似的字有
urge 迫切想要
I’ve been having the urge to travel ever since the winter break starts.
從寒假一開始,我便迫切地想要去旅行。


**同場加映
【TED】計劃好的事總是被耽誤?來談談「自制力」Self Control


4
anterior4:26
字首 ante 是「前」的意思,anterior 則是前面的、前部的或者是以前的意思 。在影片中 in the anterior part of the hippocampus 則是採用前端的意思。
The anterior part of the apple is starting to rot.
蘋果的前端開始腐爛了。


ante- 有關的字還有

antecedent to 前事
This story is antecedent to my birth.
這是在我出生前發生的事。


antenatal 產前
It is vital for the mother to have antenatal check-ups before giving birth to the baby.
產前的健康檢查是很重要的。


5
sleep on it5:09
當你被問到一個你還需要思考的問題的時候你會怎麼說呢?Let me think about it 意思是讓我思考一下,但是除了這句話我們還可以說 Let me sleep on it,也就是考慮一下的意思。而影片中的 sleep on it 則是適用了字面上的雙關,就是希望你能先睡一下,隔天再解決。
考慮一下
A: Mom, can I buy that beautiful dress ?
B: Let me sleep on it.
A: 媽媽,我可以買那件漂亮的洋裝嗎 ?
B:讓我考慮一下。


除了 sleep on it 其他相似的詞還有
think about
I will think about which film we should watch.
我會考慮我們該看哪部電影。


consider
I am considering moving to England.
我正考慮搬去英國住。


take account of
Have you taken account of possible ways to celebrate her birthday?
你有考慮過幾種幫她慶生的辦法嗎?


ponder of/over
She is pondering over what to do next.
他正在思考接下來該怎麼做。


give thought to

I will call you once I give some thought 當我通盤考慮完這個計畫後,我會再打給你。


其他跟 sleep 有關的片語也有很多像是:
sleep like log 睡的跟木頭一樣,一動也不動
sleep like a baby 睡得很甜
sleep in 不早起、睡到自然醒
oversleep 睡過頭
do something in one’s sleep 在睡覺時也能做到,指非常熟練的事
let the sleeping dog lie 不要去惹正在睡覺的狗(否則你會被咬);意指別招惹不必要的麻煩
sleeping giant 沉睡的巨人;指有潛力的人

**同場加映
睡覺好像很重要?不過我們到底為什麼要睡覺! (Why Do We Have To Sleep?)


很多人喜歡在考試前做所謂的「考前衝刺」,在漫畫中也常常出現考前衝刺隔天考出好成績的橋段。但其實真正有效的讀書方式,應該是在平常就充分學習,並且妥善利用睡前時間。在睡前好好學習,把學習的記憶留在腦中後,就讓自己充分睡眠吧!平時不努力,臨時抱佛腳可是不行的喔!

所以最有效的英文學習方法,就是每天睡前好好看一段 VoiceTube 的影片,然後上 pronunciation challenge 做完你的每日口說挑戰!還在等什麼?快點一起來睡眠學英文吧!

*Pronunciation Challenge
每日口說挑戰從這部影片節錄一句英文,配上主持人詳細的講解,讓你輕鬆搞懂英文發音!

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