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  • What would you do if you thought your country was on the path to tyranny?

    若你的國家正走向暴政,你會怎麼辦?

  • If you saw one man gaining too much power, would you try to stop him?

    若你看到某人得到過大的權力,你會嘗試阻止他嗎?

  • Even if that man was one of your closest friends and allies?

    就算他是你最親密的友人和同盟也一樣?

  • These were the questions haunting Roman Senator Marcus Junius Brutus in 44 BCE,

    這些問題在西元前44年不斷困擾著羅馬元老議員馬爾庫斯·尤利烏斯·布魯圖斯

  • the year Julius Caesar would be assassinated.

    也就是尤利烏斯·凱撒遭到暗殺的那年

  • Opposing unchecked power wasn't just a political matter for Brutus;

    反對無限制的權力對布魯圖斯來說,不只是政治考量

  • it was a personal one.

    更有個人因素

  • He claimed dissent from Lucius Junius Brutus,

    他稱自己與盧基烏斯·尤利烏斯·布魯圖斯政見相左

  • who had helped overthrow the tyrannical king known as Tarquin the Proud.

    這人曾協助推翻暴君──「高傲者塔克文」的統治

  • Instead of seizing power himself,

    但他並未自擁權力

  • the elder Brutus led the people in a rousing oath

    老布魯圖斯帶領人民進行覺醒的宣示:

  • to never again allow a king to rule.

    「羅馬將永遠脫離君主的統治」

  • Rome became a republic

    羅馬開始實施共和

  • based on the principle that no one man should hold too much power.

    根據的原則即是「沒有人可以獨掌過大的權力」

  • Now, four and a half centuries later, this principle was threatened.

    現在,四個半世紀過後,這項原則受到了威脅

  • Julius Ceasar's rise to the powerful position of consul

    尤利烏斯·凱撒崛起成為執政官

  • had been dramatic.

    以驚人姿態獲取權力

  • Years of military triumphs had made him the wealthiest man in Rome.

    多年的軍功使他成為全羅馬最有錢的人

  • And after defeating his rival Pompey the Great in a bitter civil war,

    而在激烈的內戰中打敗了對手龐培之後

  • his power was at its peak.

    他的權力達到顛峰

  • His victories and initiatives, such as distributing lands to the poor,

    他獲得的勝利與主動分送土地給窮人等行為

  • had made him popular with the public,

    使他深受群眾歡迎

  • and many senators vied for his favor by showering him with honors.

    許多議員競相逢迎諂媚以博得青睞

  • Statues were built, temples were dedicated,

    為他樹立雕像、為他奉獻廟宇

  • and a whole month was renamed, still called July today.

    甚至為他重新命名月份,至今七月仍以凱撒為名

  • More importantly, the title of dictator,

    更重要的是,獨裁官的頭銜

  • meant to grant temporary emergency powers in wartime,

    本意在戰爭期間授予暫時性的緊急權力

  • had been bestowed upon Caesar several times in succession.

    卻已接連數次被賦予凱撒

  • And in 44 BCE, he was made dictator perpetuo,

    在西元前44年,他成為「永遠的獨裁官」

  • dictator for a potentially unlimited term.

    即沒有任期限制的終身獨裁官

  • All of this was too much for the senators

    對於議員而言,這一切太超過了

  • who feared a return to the monarchy their ancestors had fought to abolish,

    有人擔心會回到自己祖先曾致力廢除的君主制狀態

  • as well as those whose own power and ambition

    其中也有部分人的權力和野心

  • were impeded by Caesar's rule.

    被凱撒的統治阻撓了

  • A group of conspirators calling themselves the liberators

    有一群謀反者自稱為解放者

  • began to secretly discuss plans for assassination.

    開始祕密地討論暗殺計畫

  • Leading them were the senator Gaius Cassius Longinus

    主導者為議員蓋烏斯·卡西烏斯·朗基努斯

  • and his friend and brother-in-law, Brutus.

    以及他的朋友兼妹夫──布魯圖斯

  • Joining the conspiracy was not an easy choice for Brutus.

    參與此陰謀對於布魯圖斯並不是簡單的選擇

  • Even though Brutus had sided with Pompey in the ill-fated civil war,

    即便在內戰中,布魯圖斯投靠的是戰敗的龐培陣營

  • Caesar had personally intervened to save his life,

    凱撒卻曾私下干預,救了他一命

  • not only pardoning him but even accepting him as a close advisor

    不只寬恕了他,甚至將他當作貼身幕僚

  • and elevating him to important posts.

    更拔擢他到重要崗位

  • Brutus was hesitant to conspire against the man who had treated him like a son,

    布魯圖斯對於背叛一個將自己視如己出的人感到很猶豫

  • but in the end,

    然而,到了最後

  • Cassius's insistence and Brutus's own fear of Caesar's ambitions won out.

    卡西烏斯的堅持和布魯圖斯對於凱撒野心的恐懼戰勝了

  • The moment they had been waiting for came on March 15.

    他們等待已久的時機在3月15日到來

  • At a senate meeting

    元老院會議之中

  • held shortly before Caesar was to depart on his next military campaign,

    在凱撒準備啟程前往下一次軍事戰役之前

  • as many as 60 conspirators surrounded him,

    60多位謀反者包圍住他

  • unsheathing daggers from their togas and stabbing at him from all sides.

    自寬外袍中抽出匕首,從四面八方刺向他

  • As the story goes,

    據說

  • Caesar struggled fiercely until he saw Brutus.

    凱撒奮力地抵抗,直到他看見布魯圖斯

  • Despite the famous line, "Et tu, Brute?" written by Shakespeare,

    雖然莎士比亞曾寫下傳世名句「吾兒,亦有汝焉?」

  • we don't know Caesar's actual dying words.

    但我們並不知道凱撒真正的遺言為何

  • Some ancient sources claim he said nothing,

    根據部分古老文獻的記載,他什麼也沒講

  • while others record the phrase, "And you, child?",

    但其他文獻則記載下一句話「還有你嗎,我的兒子?」

  • fueling speculation that Brutus may have actually been Caesar's illegitimate son.

    為布魯圖斯是凱撒私生子的猜測提供了有力佐證

  • But all agree that when Caesar saw Brutus among his attackers,

    但無庸置疑的是:當凱撒在攻擊者中看見布魯圖斯之後

  • he covered his face and gave up the fight,

    他掩面放棄了抵抗

  • falling to the ground after being stabbed 23 times.

    在身中23刀後倒地身亡

  • Unfortunately for Brutus,

    對布魯圖斯而言,不幸的是,

  • he and the other conspirators had underestimated Caesar's popularity

    他與其他的謀反者低估了

  • among the Roman public,

    凱撒在羅馬人民當中的聲望

  • many of whom saw him as an effective leader,

    許多人將他視為有力的領導者

  • and the senate as a corrupt aristocracy.

    而把元老院當成腐敗的貴族

  • Within moments of Caesar's assassination, Rome was in a state of panic.

    在凱撒遭到暗殺後,羅馬隨即陷入恐慌

  • Most of the other senators had fled,

    大部分議員都逃離了

  • while the assassins barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill.

    其他暗殺者則躲在卡比托利歐山丘

  • Mark Antony, Caesar's friend and co-consul,

    馬克·安東尼,凱撒的朋友及副官

  • was swift to seize the upper hand,

    迅速地掌握優勢

  • delivering a passionate speech at Caesar's funeral days later

    在幾天後的凱撒喪禮發表了激昂的演說

  • that whipped the crowd into a frenzy of grief and anger.

    煽動人們陷入悲傷與憤怒的狂潮

  • As a result, the liberators were forced out of Rome.

    結果,解放者們被逐出羅馬

  • The ensuing power vacuum led to a series of civil wars,

    隨之而來的權力真空導致一連串的內戰

  • during which Brutus, facing certain defeat, took his own life.

    在此期間,布魯圖斯因為面臨某些挫敗而自殺了

  • Ironically, the ultimate result

    諷刺的是,最終的結局

  • would be the opposite of what the conspirators had hoped to accomplish:

    與謀反者最初期望的目標完全相反:

  • the end of the Republic

    羅馬共和至此結束

  • and the concentration of power under the office of Emperor.

    權力集中在羅馬皇帝之手

  • Opinions over the assassination of Caesar were divided from the start

    對於暗殺凱撒的意見從初始便存在分歧

  • and have remained so.

    至今依然

  • As for Brutus himself,

    對布魯圖斯本人來說

  • few historical figures have inspired such a conflicting legacy.

    極少有歷史人物曾啟發這麼多彼此衝突的衍生角色

  • In Dante's "Inferno," he was placed in the very center of Hell

    在但丁的《神曲》地獄篇中,他被放在地獄正中央

  • and eternally chewed by Satan himself for his crime of betrayal.

    且因為背叛的罪行被撒旦本人無止盡地啃噬

  • But Swift's "Gulliver's Travels"

    但在斯威夫特所著的《格列佛遊記》中

  • described him as one of the most virtuous and benevolent people to have lived.

    將他形容成世上最賢良仁慈的人之一

  • The interpretation of Brutus as either a selfless fighter against dictatorship

    布魯圖斯要不是被當作對抗獨裁的無私鬥士

  • or an opportunistic traitor

    就是被視為投機的叛徒

  • has shifted with the tides of history and politics.

    這兩種解釋隨著歷史和政治的潮流不斷轉換

  • But even today, over 2000 years later,

    即使到了兩千年後的今天

  • questions about the price of liberty,

    自由的代價、

  • the conflict between personal loyalties and universal ideals,

    個人忠誠與普世價值的衝突、

  • and unintended consequences remain more relevant than ever.

    以及意外的結果,這些問題之間的關聯卻前所未有的緊密

What would you do if you thought your country was on the path to tyranny?

若你的國家正走向暴政,你會怎麼辦?

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 凱撒 羅馬 權力 議員 內戰

【TED-Ed】反對凱撒大帝的大陰謀--凱瑟琳-坦普斯特。 (【TED-Ed】The great conspiracy against Julius Caesar - Kathryn Tempest)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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