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How many times does the chorus repeat in your favorite song?
And, take a moment to think, how many times have you listened to it?
Chances are you've heard that chorus repeated dozens, if not, hundreds of times,
and it's not just popular songs in the West that repeat a lot.
Repetition is a feature that music from cultures around the world tends to share.
So, why does music rely so heavily on repetition?
One part of the answer comes from what psychologists call the mere-exposure effect.
In short, people tend to prefer things they've been exposed to before.
For example, a song comes on the radio that we don't particularly like,
but then we hear the song at the grocery store, at the movie theater, and again on the street corner.
Soon, we are tapping to the beat, singing the words, even downloading the track.
This mere-exposure effect doesn't just work for songs.
It also works for everything from shapes to Super Bowl ads, so what makes repetition so uniquely prevalent in music?
To investigate, psychologists asked people to listen to musical compositions that avoided exact repetition.
They heard excerpts from these pieces in either their original form, or in a version that had been digitally altered to include repetition.
Although the original versions had been composed by some of the most respected 20th century composers,
and the repetitive versions had been assembled by brute force audio editing,
people rated the repetitive versions as more enjoyable, more interesting, and more likely to have been composed by a human artist.
Musical repetition is deeply compelling.
Think about the Muppets classic, "Mahna Mahna."
If you've heard it before, it's almost impossible after I sing "Mahna mahna" not to respond "Do doo do do do."
Repetition connects each bit of music irresistibly to the next bit of music that follows it,
so when you hear a few notes, you're already imagining what's coming next.
Your mind is unconsciously singing along, and without noticing, you might start humming out loud.
Recent studies have shown that when people hear a segment of music repeated, they are more likely to move or tap along to it.
Repetition invites us into music as imagined participants, rather than as passive listeners.
Research has also shown that listeners shift their attention across musical repetitions, focusing on different aspects of the sound on each new listen.
You might notice the melody of a phrase the first time, but when it's repeated, your attention shifts to how the guitarist bends a pitch.
This also occurs in language, with something called semantic satiation.
Repeating a word like "atlas" ad nauseam can make you stop thinking about what the word means,
and instead focus on the sounds: the odd way the "L" follows the "T."
In this way, repetition can open up new worlds of sound not accessible on first hearing.
The "L" following the "T" might not be aesthetically relevant to "atlas,"
but the guitarist pitch bending might be of critical expressive importance.
"The speech to song illusion" captures how simply repeating a sentence a number of times
shifts listeners attention to the pitch and temporal aspects of the sound,
so that the repeated spoken language actually begins to sound like it is being sung.
A similar effect happens with random sequences of sound.
People will rate random sequences they've heard on repeated loop, as more musical than a random sequence they've only heard once.
Repetition gives rise to a kind of orientation to sound that we think of as distinctively musical,
where we're listening along with the sound, engaging imaginatively with the note about to happen.
This mode of listening ties in with our susceptibility to musical ear worms,
where segments of music burrow into our head, and play again and again, as if stuck on repeat.
Critics are often embarrassed by music's repetitiveness, finding it childish or regressive,
but repetition, far from an embarrassment, is actually a key feature that gives rise to the kind of experience we think about as musical.
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【Ted-Ed】為什麼我們喜歡重複的音樂 (Why we love repetition in music - Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis)

109978 分類 收藏
稲葉白兎 發佈於 2017 年 7 月 16 日

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有想過為什麼有些音樂讓你覺得很悅耳?有些卻難以入耳?試試看改變歌曲的結構也許會發現聽起來順很多喔!

1excerpt1:16
這個單字源自於拉丁文,原意為拔出的意思,後來就引申為「摘要;引用」的意思,字首的 ex- 除了有前任的意思之外,也有「向外」的意思,認識一些以 ex- 為字首的單字:
express 表達 [ ex-向外 + press 擠壓 ]
expect 期待 [ ex-向外 + spect 看 ]
expel 驅逐 [ ex-向外 + pel 驅使 ]

2Muppets classic1:45
《大青蛙劇場》The Muppet Show 是美國1970年代著名的布偶喜劇秀,與《芝麻街》一同活躍於當時每個家庭裡的電視螢幕上,影片中的 Mahna Mahna 則是在布偶秀第一集裡的歌曲,因爲旋律簡單重複,至今仍讓很多人聽過就能琅琅上口喔。

3pitch bending3:08
bend 的本意是「彎曲」,特別用在吉他上的時候就是指「推弦」,就是讓吉他上的弦彎曲以產生不同高低的音調, bend 還有一些有趣的用法喔:
bend one's elbow 喝酒
bend one's knee 讓步
around the bend 瘋狂的


4ear worm3:52
耳朵裡長蟲了?這個片語是用來形容一首歌在你的腦海裡迴盪不止,科學術語稱作「非自主音樂意象」,曾經有不經意地就哼出某段旋律?或是不斷想到某段音樂覺得揮之不去?那你可能就是長了 ear worm 了!
E.g., Damn, I have an ear worm, I can not get the song out of my head.
可惡,我腦子有停不下來的音樂,沒辦法讓那首歌離開我的腦袋。

常常覺得聽到的和看見的是不一樣的東西?一起來瞭解視覺和聽覺之間的關係!

*同場加映

你能相信自己聽到的聲音嗎?


5burrow into3:55
burrow 有「挖掘;地洞」的意思,這個片語就是指「探查」。講到洞穴就會想到卡通裡面常常出現的土撥鼠洞的預言,在英文裡叫 Groundhog day ,這是在北美的一個傳統節日:每年二月二日都會由土撥鼠擔任預報時令的任務,傳說如果牠能看見自己的影子,冬天就會持續;看不見的話則表示春天即將到來。
E.g., The crab burrowed into cracks in the mud.
螃蟹鑽進泥土的縫隙裡。

還在懷疑音樂的重複性使旋律更迷人嗎?聽聽數學家怎麼分析!

*同場加映

【TED】世上最難聽的音樂



你聽過任何難聽到魔音穿腦的音樂嗎?可以在下面留言分享喔!

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