Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • "Sorry, my phone died."

    「抱歉,我手機沒電了。」

  • "It's nothing. I'm fine."

    「沒事,我很好。」

  • "These allegations are completely unfounded."

    「這些指控毫無根據。」

  • "The company was not aware of any wrongdoing."

    「本公司對於任何違法行為一概不知。」

  • "I love you."

    「我愛你。」

  • We hear anywhere from 10 to 200 lies a day.

    我們每天聽到約 10-200 個謊

  • And we spent much of our history coming up with the ways to detect them, from medieval torture devices to polygraphs, blood pressure and breathing monitors, voice stress analyzers, eye trackers, infrared brain scanners, and even the 400-pound electroencephalogram.

    自古以來,我們不斷想辦法辨識這些謊言,從中世紀的刑具到現代的測謊機、血壓心跳偵測器、聲音壓力分析儀、眼動追蹤器、紅外線大腦掃描機,甚至重達 180 公斤的腦波儀。

  • But although such tools have worked under certain circumstances, most can be fooled with enough preparation, and none are considered reliable enough to even be admissible in court.

    雖然這些工具在特定情況下能發揮作用,但只要充分準備,大多能唬弄過去,因此沒有一項測謊工具被法庭認可。

  • But, what if the problem is not with the techniques, but the underlying assumption that lying spurs physiological changes?

    但如果問題不在於技術,而在對「說謊會引起生理變化」的潛在認定呢?

  • What if we took a more direct approach, using communication science to analyze the lies themselves?

    我們何不直接一點,從溝通學的角度來分析謊言?

  • On a psychological level, we lie partly to paint a better picture of ourselves, connecting our fantasies to the person we wish we were rather than the person we are.

    從心理層面來看,說謊是為了呈現自己美好的一面,以連結幻想中的完美自我,而不是現實中的自我。

  • But while our brain is busy dreaming, it's letting plenty of signals slip by.

    但當腦袋忙著編織美夢,許多訊號正悄悄溜過。

  • Our conscious mind only controls about 5% of our cognitive function, including communication, while the other 95% occurs beyond our awareness, and according to the literature on reality monitoring, stories based on imagined experiences are qualitatively different from those based on real experiences.

    我們的意識只控制 5% 的認知功能,包含溝通,其餘的 95% 則由潛意識控制,根據文獻中的實際觀察,謊言與現實之間,實質上存在很大的差異。

  • This suggests that creating a false story about a personal topic takes work and results in a different pattern of language use.

    這意味著捏造故事很費功夫,導致用字遺詞不同於以往。

  • A technology known as linguistic text analysis has helped to identify four such common patterns in the subconscious language of deception.

    一種叫做「語境分析」的技術歸納出四種常見的潛意識謊言特徵。

  • First, liars reference themselves less, when making deceptive statements.

    第一、說謊者迴避提及自己。

  • They write or talk more about others, often using the third person to distance and disassociate themselves from their lie.

    他們把焦點擺在別人身上,時常談及他人,好讓自己從謊言中抽身。

  • Which sounds more false?

    哪個聽起來比較假?

  • "Absolutely no party took place at this house," or "I didn't host a party here."

    「絕對沒有任何派對在這裡舉行。」和「我沒有在這裡舉辦派對。」

  • Second, liars tend to be more negative, because on a subconscious level, they feel guilty about lying.

    第二、說謊者比較負面,因為潛意識上,他們因撒謊而良心不安。

  • For example, a liar might say something like, "Sorry, my stupid phone battery died. I hate that thing."

    舉個例子,說謊者可能會說「抱歉我的爛手機掛了,恨死它了!」

  • Third, liars typically explain events in simple terms since our brains struggle to build a complex lie.

    說謊者傾向使用淺白的說詞,因為我們的腦袋不擅於編織複雜的謊言。

  • Judgement and evaluation are complex things for our brains to compute.

    判斷及評估對大腦而言相當複雜。

  • As a U.S. President once famously insisted: "I did not have sexual relations with that woman."

    如同前美國總統著名的發言:「我跟那位女士沒有發生性關係。」

  • And finally, even though liars keep descriptions simple, they tend to use longer and more convoluted sentence structure, inserting unnecessary words and irrelevant but factual sounding details in order to pad the lie.

    最後一點,雖然說謊者用字淺白,卻常常拐彎抹角,穿插著多餘的字句和似乎合理但無關緊要的鎖事,來陪襯謊言。

  • Another President confronted with a scandal proclaimed: "I can say, categorically, that this investigation indicates that no one on the White House staff, no one in this administration presently employed was involved in this very bizarre incident."

    另一位美國總統面對醜聞時聲稱:「我敢說,絕對地,調查結果顯示,沒有任何一位白宮人員、沒有任何一位現任公務員涉入這起荒謬的醜聞。」

  • Let's apply linguistic analysis to some famous examples.

    讓我們從語言的角度來分析一些有名的例子。

  • Take seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong.

    以七次環法自行車賽冠軍——藍斯阿姆斯壯為例。

  • When comparing a 2005 interview, in which he had denied taking performance-enhancing drugs to a 2013 interview, in which he admitted it, his use of personal pronouns increased by nearly 3/4.

    他在 2005 年的訪問中否認服用禁藥,相較於 2013 年他承認服藥,前次聲明中多了將近四分之三的代名詞。

  • Note the contrast between the following two quotes.

    比較以下兩句發言。

  • First: "Okay, you know, a guy in a French, in a Parisian laboratory opens up your sample, you know, Jean-Francis so-and-so, and he tests it. And then you get a phone call from a newspaper that says: 'We found you to be positive six times for EPO."

    第一句:「好,有個巴黎實驗室的傢伙,叫尚法蘭西什麼的,他取出你的樣本測試。然後你就接到報社電話說:你的紅血生成素 6 次都呈陽性反應。」

  • Second: "I lost myself in all of that. I'm sure there would be other people that couldn't handle it, but I certainly couldn't handle it, and I was used to controlling everything in my life. I controlled every outcome in my life."

    第二句:「我迷失了,我相信也有人無法抵擋這種誘惑,我是真的迷失了,以前我是自己的主人,能掌握自己人生中每件事情的結果。」

  • In his denial, Armstrong described a hypothetical situation focused on someone else, removing himself from the situation entirely.

    阿姆斯壯在否認時,假設了一段情境,把焦點放在別人身上,自己則完全抽離。

  • In his admission, he owns his statements, delving into his personal emotions and motivations.

    但當他坦承用藥,他的說詞真情流露,傾訴個人的感受及動機。

  • But the use of personal pronouns is just one indicator of deception.

    不過,人稱代名詞只是其中一項線索。

  • Let's look at another example from former Senator and U.S. Presidential candidate John Edwards.

    我們再看另一個例子,出自前參議員及美國總統候選人——約翰史都華。

  • "I only know that the apparent father has said publicly that he is the father of the baby. I also have not been engaged in any activity of any description that requested, agreed to, or supported payments of any kind to the woman or to the apparent father of the baby."

    「我只知道小孩的生父曾公開承認他是這名孩子的父親。而我個人從未表示:我曾被要求或同意提供金援給這位女士,以及小孩的生父。」

  • Not only is that a pretty long-winded way to say, "The baby isn't mine," but Edwards never calls the other parties by name, instead saying "that baby," "the woman," and "the apparent father."

    艾德華不僅拐彎抹角地說「小孩不是我的。」他也從未提及當事人的名字,而是用「這名小孩」「那位女士」和「生父」帶過。

  • Now let's see what he had to say when later admitting paternity.

    我們再來聽他承認父子關係時的說法。

  • "I am Quinn's father. I will do everything in my power to provide her with the love and support she deserves."

    「我是奎恩的父親。我會盡我所能提供她應得的愛與支持。」

  • The statement is short and direct, calling the child by name and addressing his role in her life.

    這次的聲明簡潔有力,直呼孩子的名字,並強調與孩子的關係。

  • So how can you apply these lie-spotting techniques to your life?

    這些謊言偵測技巧如何運用到生活中呢?

  • First, remember that many of the lies we encounter on a daily basisare far less serious than these examples, and may even be harmless.

    首先,我們日常生活中聽到的謊都比以上的例子來的稀鬆平常,甚至無傷大雅。

  • But it's still worthwhile to be aware of telltale clues, like minimal self-references, negative language, simple explanations and convoluted phrasing.

    但這些線索仍值得留意,像是迴避提及自己、負面的言語、簡化的說法和冗詞贅字。

  • It just might help you avoid an overvalued stock, an ineffective product, or even a terrible relationship.

    或許你就不會踩到地雷股買到沒用的商品,或陷入一段糟糕的感情關係中。

"Sorry, my phone died."

「抱歉,我手機沒電了。」

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 謊言 線索 代名詞 小孩 關係

【TED-Ed】謊話的箇中奧妙 (The language of lying - Noah Zandan)

  • 31962 2882
    Jenny Lip 發佈於 2015 年 05 月 31 日
影片單字