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"Sorry, my phone died."
"It's nothing. I'm fine."
"These allegations are completely unfounded."
"The company was not aware of any wrongdoing."
"I love you."
We hear anywhere from 10 to 200 lies a day, and we spent much of our history coming up with the ways to detect them,
from medieval torture devices to polygraphs, blood pressure and breathing monitors, voice stress analyzers,
eye trackers, infrared brain scanners, and even the 400-pound electroencephalogram,
but although such tools have worked under certain circumstances, most can be fooled with enough preparation,
and none are considered reliable enough to even be admissible in court,
but what if the problem is not with the techniques, but the underlying assumption that lying spurs physiological changes?
What if we took a more direct approach, using communication science to analyze the lies themselves?
On a psychological level, we lie partly to paint a better picture of ourselves,
connecting our fantasies to the person we wish we were rather than the person we are,
but while our brain is busy dreaming, it's letting plenty of signals slip by.
Our conscious mind only controls about 5% of our cognitive function, including communication,
while the other 95% occurs beyond our awareness, and according to the literature on reality monitoring,
stories based on imagined experiences are qualitatively different from those based on real experiences.
This suggests that creating a false story about a personal topic takes work and results in a different pattern of language use.
A technology known as linguistic text analysis has helped to identify four such common patterns in the subconscious language of deception.
First, liars reference themselves less when making deceptive statements.
They write or talk more about others, often using the third person to distance and disassociate themselves from their lie. Which sounds more false?
"Absolutely no party took place at this house," or, "I didn't host a party here."
Second, liars tend to be more negative, because on a subconscious level, they feel guilty about lying.
For example, a liar might say something like, "Sorry, my stupid phone battery died. I hate that thing."
Third, liars typically explain events in simple terms, since our brains struggle to build a complex lie.
Judgement and evaluation are complex things for our brains to compute.
As a U.S. President once famously insisted, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman."
And finally, even though liars keep descriptions simple, they tend to use longer and more convoluted sentence structure,
inserting unnecessary words and irrelevant but factual sounding details in order to pad the lie.
Another President confronted with a scandal proclaimed,
"I can say, categorically, that this investigation indicates that no one on the White House staff,
no one in this administration presently employed, was involved in this very bizarre incident."
Let's apply linguistic analysis to some famous examples.
Take seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong.
When comparing a 2005 interview, in which he had denied taking performance-enhancing drugs,
to a 2013 interview, in which he admitted it, his use of personal pronouns increased by nearly 3/4.
Note the contrast between the following two quotes.
First: "Okay, you know, a guy in a French, in a Parisian laboratory opens up your sample, you know, Jean-Francis so-and-so, and he tests it,
and then you get a phone call from a newspaper that says: 'We found you to be positive six times for EPO.'"
Second: "I lost myself in all of that. I'm sure there would be other people that couldn't handle it,
but I certainly couldn't handle it, and I was used to controlling everything in my life. I controlled every outcome in my life."
In his denial, Armstrong described a hypothetical situation focused on someone else, removing himself from the situation entirely.
In his admission, he owns his statements, delving into his personal emotions and motivations,
but the use of personal pronouns is just one indicator of deception.
Let's look at another example from former Senator and U.S. Presidential candidate John Edwards.
"I only know that the apparent father has said publicly that he is the father of the baby.
I also have not been engaged in any activity of any description that requested, agreed to,
or supported payments of any kind to the woman or to the apparent father of the baby."
Not only is that a pretty long-winded way to say, "The baby isn't mine,"
but Edwards never calls the other parties by name, instead saying "that baby," "the woman," and "the apparent father."
Now let's see what he had to say when later admitting paternity.
"I am Quinn's father. I will do everything in my power to provide her with the love and support she deserves."
The statement is short and direct, calling the child by name and addressing his role in her life.
So how can you apply these lie-spotting techniques to your life?
First, remember that many of the lies we encounter on a daily basis are far less serious that these examples, and may even be harmless,
but it's still worthwhile to be aware of telltale clues, like minimal self-references, negative language, simple explanations and convoluted phrasing.
It just might help you avoid an overvalued stock, an ineffective product, or even a terrible relationship.
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TED-Ed:謊話的其中奧妙(The language of lying - Noah Zandan)

53724 分類 收藏
Jenny Lip 發佈於 2015 年 5 月 31 日

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比測謊機更有效?謊話一點即破識人法!

1
unfounded0:15
這個單字可不是找不到的意思,是指「沒有事實根據的」, found 這個單字本身有創建的意思,founded 就有了「有基礎的」這個意思,加上否定字首 un 就是 unfounded 的由來。
E.g., Their reports about big data are totally unfounded.
他們關於大數據的報告完全是沒有事實根據的。


2
paint a better picture1:07
paint a picture 是一個常見的口語,意思是指描繪特定的形象或是情況,中間可以代換不同的形容詞表示不同的狀況。
E.g., Before voting, candidates alway like painting a rosy picture to fool people.
選舉前,候選人總是喜歡用美好的願景愚弄人民。


3
deceptive1:56
這個單字的意思是「欺騙、虛偽的」,由字首 de- 「壞的」加上字根 cept 「抓住」,拿壞的東西表示欺騙。
更多你應該認識的「騙」!
delude 哄騙
E.g., The fortune teller tried to delude Amy by asking her to pay more money to change her destiny.
算命師哄騙艾咪拿出更多錢來改運。
scam 詐騙
E.g., My mom got a scam call that was supposedly from my sister, crying for help.
我媽接到一通詐騙電話,有個女生假裝是我妹妹哭著請求幫助。
feed sb a line 用藉口誆騙
E.g., Ken promised to promote me last month, but I knew he was just feeding me a line.
肯上個月保證會幫我升職,但我覺得他只是在唬弄我。


4
I did not have sexual relations with that woman.2:38
對這句話感到耳熟嗎?1998年美國極富聲望的總統柯林頓被爆出與白宮實習生陸文斯基秘戀,事後柯林頓遭到彈劾,陸文斯基則備受輿論撻伐,十幾年後她走出陰霾,用自己的故事跟大眾分享當時被網路霸凌的心路歷程,來聽聽她的故事:

*同場加映

TED】網路上霸凌所付出的代價



5
long-winded4:33
winded 是形容詞指令人喘不過去的,又臭又長到令人喘不過氣,long-winded 就是指「冗長、囉唆的」。好無聊不再只有 boring ,好用單字讓你的句子不無聊:
dull 無聊的
tedious 冗長乏味的
monotonus (形容聲音)單調無趣的
還在講 rain cats and dogs? 讓老外覺得你超潮!一定要會用這些俚語!

*同場加映

你所必須知道的9個新潮俚語



6
on a daily basis5:04
basis 是基礎的意思,在日常的基礎之上?這句口語就是表示「每天」的意思!
E.g., I see Sam on a daily basis, we are classmates.
我每天都會遇到山姆,我們是同學。
Stay in bed on a daily basis? 每天都不由自主地賴床?

*同場加映

為什麼早上永遠起不來!


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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔