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  • We usually think of rhythm as an element of music,

    我們總認為 節奏是音樂的一項要素

  • but it's actually found everywhere in the world around us.

    但 其實生活周遭到處都能找到節奏

  • From the ocean tides to our own heart beats,

    從海洋潮汐 到心臟躍動

  • rhythm is essentially an event repeating regularly over time.

    基本上 節奏就是一段規律重複的事件

  • Even the ticking of a clock itself is a sort of rhythm.

    甚至連鐘錶滴答本身都是一種節奏

  • But for musical rhythm, a steady stream of repeating single beats is not enough.

    但是 音樂性的節奏 可不只是規律重複的單音

  • For that we need at least one opposing beat with a different sound,

    至少需要兩個對比的節拍及音高

  • which can be the unstressed off beat or the accented back beat.

    可以是輕鬆的弱拍 也可以是重重的強拍

  • There are several ways to make these beats distinct,

    有好幾種方法可以讓拍子產生區別

  • whether by using high and low drums

    像是用高低音鼓

  • or long and short beats,

    或是用長短音來區分

  • which ends up being heard as the main beat is not a precise rule

    最後就變成了主旋律 這沒有確切規則

  • but like the famous Rubin's vase, can be reversed depending on cultural perception.

    但就像有名的魯賓之盃 可依不同文化觀點來翻轉

  • In standard notation, rhythm is indicated on a musical bar line.

    傳統樂譜上 節奏是在五線譜上呈現

  • But there are other ways.

    但還有別的呈現方法

  • Remember that ticking clock?

    還記得那個滴答的時鐘嗎?

  • Just as its round face can trace the linear passage of time,

    圓形的鐘面能表示線性的時間

  • the flow of rhythm can be traced in a circle.

    節奏的流動同樣也能用圓形表示

  • The continuity of a wheel can be a more intuitive way to visualize rhythm

    輪子的轉動能更直覺地將節奏視覺化

  • than a linear score that requires moving back and forth along the page.

    不像五線譜一樣需要在頁面上來回檢視

  • We can mark the beats at different positions around a circle

    我們可以把節拍標在圓內的各個位置

  • using blue dots for main beats, orange ones for off beats

    藍點表示強拍 橘點表示弱拍

  • and white dots for secondary beats.

    白點表示次強拍

  • Here is a basic two beat rhythm with a main beat and an opposing off beat.

    基本的二拍子 就是一個強拍和一個弱拍

  • Or a three beat rhythm with a main beat, an off beat and a secondary beat

    三拍子則是 一個強拍 一個弱拍 一個次強拍

  • And the spaces between each beat can be divided into further sub-beats

    每個節拍的空檔 可以再分成次節拍

  • using multiples of either two or three.

    節拍數不是二 就是三的倍數

  • Layering multiple patterns using concentric wheels

    用同心圓來表示各種節拍模式

  • lets us create more complex rhythms.

    可以創造出更複雜的節奏

  • For example, we can combine a basic two beat rhythm with off beats to get a four beat system.

    例如 可以把基本的二拍子 加上兩個弱拍 變成四拍子

  • This is the recognizable backbone of many genres popular around the world,

    這是很多種曲風都會使用的基本節奏

  • from rock,

    像是搖滾

  • country

    鄉村

  • and jazz

    爵士

  • to reggae

    雷鬼

  • and cumbia.

    還有昆比亞舞曲

  • Or we can combine a two beat rhythm with a three beat one.

    或者 也可以把兩拍子和三拍子合在一起

  • Eliminating the extra main beat and rotating the inner wheel

    把多餘的主拍去掉 調整一下內圈

  • leaves us with a rhythm whose underlying feel is three-four.

    就產生一個基本的三四拍

  • This is the basis of the music of Whirling Dervishes

    這是土耳其迴旋舞曲的基礎

  • as well as a broad range of Latin American rhythms,

    也是大多數拉丁舞曲的節奏

  • such as Joropo

    像是委內瑞拉的霍洛璞舞

  • and even Bach's famous Chaconne.

    甚至連巴哈著名的夏康舞曲也是

  • Now, if we remember Rubin's vase and hear the off beats as the main beats,this will give us a six-eighth feel

    還記得魯賓之盃吧? 如果把弱拍當成主拍 就成了六八拍

  • as found in genres such as Chacarera

    像是阿根廷的查卡瑞拉民謠

  • and Quechua,

    祕魯原住民音樂Quechua

  • Persian music and more.

    還有波斯音樂等等

  • In an eight beat system, we have three layered circles,

    在八拍子體系中 同心圓會有三圈

  • each rhythm played by a different instrument.

    每圈由不同樂器演奏

  • We can then add an outermost layer consisting of an additive rhythmic component,

    外面可以再加上一圈 增加一層節奏元素

  • reinforcing the main beat and increasing accuracy.

    加強主拍及準確度

  • Now, let's remove everything except for this combined rhythm and the basic two beat on top.

    現在 去掉所有節拍 留下最外層 還有兩個基礎節拍

  • This rhythmic configuration is found as the Cuban cinquillo,

    這樣的結構被發現是古巴的Cinquillo (一種節奏名)

  • in the Puerto Rican bomba

    還有波多黎各Bomba

  • and in Northern Romanian music.

    以及北羅馬尼亞的音樂裡

  • And rotating the outer circle 90 degrees counterclockwise gives us a pattern often found in Middle Eastern music

    將外圈逆時針轉九十度 出現另一種結構 常出現在中東音樂

  • as well as Brazilian choro

    還有巴西Choro

  • and Argentinian tango.

    以及阿根廷探戈

  • In all of these examples, the underlying rhythm reinforces the basic one-two

    以上這些例子 都是基於二拍子 然後再加強衍伸

  • but in different ways depending on arrangement and cultural context.

    依文化及安排架構 而有所不同

  • So it turns out that the wheel method is more than just a nifty way of visualizing complex rhythms

    用圓形表示節奏 不只能俏皮地將複雜節奏視覺化

  • By freeing us from the tyranny of the bar line,

    也能讓我們脫離五線譜的專制獨裁

  • we can visualize rhythm in terms of time

    節奏能像時間一樣呈現

  • and a simple turn of the wheel can take us on a musical journey around the world.

    輕輕轉一下 音樂輪就能帶我們環遊音樂世界

We usually think of rhythm as an element of music,

我們總認為 節奏是音樂的一項要素

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 節奏 拍子 節拍 舞曲 圓形

【TED-Ed】音樂輪帶你環遊音樂世界 A different way to visualize rhythm - John Varney

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 21 日
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