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  • Running -- it's basically just right, left, right, left -- yeah?

    跑步:基本上就是右,左,右,左——對吧?

  • I mean, we've been doing it for two million years,

    就是說,我們已經這樣跑了兩百萬年,

  • so it's kind of arrogant to assume

    所以我這樣可能有點不知天高地厚

  • that I've got something to say

    如果我說我知道一些東西

  • that hasn't been said and performed better a long time ago.

    是很久以來都沒人能更好表述和演示過的。

  • But the cool thing about running, as I've discovered,

    但是我所發現的關於跑步的最有意思的

  • is that something bizarre happens

    就是有些奇怪的事情

  • in this activity all the time.

    發生在這個運動的全過程。

  • Case in point: A couple months ago, if you saw the New York City Marathon,

    舉個例子:幾個月前,如果你看了紐約城的馬拉松,

  • I guarantee you, you saw something

    我敢肯定你看到了

  • that no one has ever seen before.

    一些前所未見的東西。

  • An Ethiopian woman named Derartu Tulu

    有一位埃塞俄比亞女子叫 Derartu Tulu

  • turns up at the starting line.

    出現在起跑線上。

  • She's 37 years old,

    她37歲,

  • she hasn't won a marathon of any kind in eight years,

    在過去8年裡從未贏過任何一場馬拉松比賽,

  • and a few months previously

    而就在幾個月前,

  • she almost died in childbirth.

    她幾乎難產而死。

  • Derartu Tulu was ready to hang it up and retire from the sport,

    Derartu Tulu 已經準備挂靴而去,退出體育運動,

  • but she decided she'd go for broke

    但是她決定要全力以赴

  • and try for one last big payday

    做一次最後的衝刺,

  • in the marquee event,

    她選擇了一個盛會

  • the New York City Marathon.

    紐約市馬拉松比賽。

  • Except -- bad news for Derartu Tulu -- some other people had the same idea,

    但是——對Derartu Tulu來說有個壞消息——有人和她帶著同樣的想法,

  • including the Olympic gold medalist

    包括奧運會金牌得主,

  • and Paula Radcliffe, who is a monster,

    以及Paula Radcliffe,她簡直就是猛獸,

  • the fastest woman marathoner in history by far.

    她是有史以來速度最快的馬拉松女選手。

  • Only 10 minutes off the men's world record,

    與男子的世界紀錄就差10分鐘。

  • Paula Radcliffe is essentially unbeatable.

    基本上Paula Radcliffe 是不可戰勝的。

  • That's her competition.

    這就是她要面對的競賽。

  • The gun goes off, and she's not even an underdog.

    槍響了,而她甚至不算是跟跑者;

  • She's under the underdogs.

    她是跟跑者的跟跑者。

  • But the under-underdog hangs tough,

    但是這個跟跑者的跟跑者頑強地堅持著。

  • and 22 miles into a 26-mile race,

    在整個26英里賽程跑完22英里時,

  • there is Derartu Tulu

    Derartu Tulu的位置

  • up there with the lead pack.

    已在領跑隊伍中。

  • Now this is when something really bizarre happens.

    就是現在,一件非常奇怪的事情發生了。

  • Paula Radcliffe, the one person who is sure to snatch the big paycheck

    Paula Radcliffe,那個注定要從跟跑者的跟跑者

  • out of Derartu Tulu's under-underdog hands,

    Derartu Tulu手裡奪取獎金支票的那個人,

  • suddenly grabs her leg and starts to fall back.

    突然握住自己的腿開始落後。

  • So we all know what to do in this situation, right?

    我們都知道這種情況該怎麼辦,是不是?

  • You give her a quick crack in the teeth with your elbow

    你應該舉起你的胳膊肘衝著她的嘴來一下

  • and blaze for the finish line.

    然後閃電一樣的奔向終點。

  • Derartu Tulu ruins the script.

    Dearartu Tulu 卻出乎大家意料。

  • Instead of taking off,

    她非但沒有拋開對手,

  • she falls back, and she grabs Paula Radcliffe,

    反而落在後面,抓住Paula Radcliffe

  • says, "Come on. Come with us. You can do it."

    說,“加油,跟上我們,你能行。”

  • So Paula Radcliffe, unfortunately, does it.

    很不幸, Paula Radcliffe做到了。

  • She catches up with the lead pack

    她追上了領跑者隊伍,

  • and is pushing toward the finish line.

    一直衝向終點。

  • But then she falls back again.

    但是接著她又一次落後了。

  • And the second time Derartu Tulu grabs her and tries to pull her.

    而 Derartu Tulu 再次抓住她,試圖拉扯她前進。

  • And Paula Radcliffe at that point says,

    這一次Paula Radcliffe 說,

  • "I'm done. Go."

    “我不行了。你走吧。”

  • So that's a fantastic story, and we all know how it ends.

    這是一個美妙的故事,我們都知道故事的結尾。

  • She loses the check,

    她失去了獎金,

  • but she goes home with something bigger and more important.

    但是她收穫了更偉大更重要的東西。

  • Except Derartu Tulu ruins the script again --

    只不過Derartu Tulu 再次讓大家意外。

  • instead of losing, she blazes past the lead pack and wins,

    她非但沒輸,反而超過了領跑組,贏得第一。

  • wins the New York City Marathon,

    贏得紐約市馬拉松比賽,

  • goes home with a big fat check.

    獲得巨額獎金。

  • It's a heartwarming story,

    這是一個暖人肺腑的故事,

  • but if you drill a little bit deeper,

    但是如果你仔細想想,

  • you've got to sort of wonder about what exactly was going on there.

    你會想知道到底發生了什麼。

  • When you have two outliers in one organism,

    當你從一個有機體上錄得兩次異常值時,

  • it's not a coincidence.

    這不是一個巧合。

  • When you have someone who is more competitive and more compassionate

    當在比賽中有一個人比任何人都

  • than anybody else in the race, again, it's not a coincidence.

    更有競爭力也更有同情心,這也不是一個巧合。

  • You show me a creature with webbed feet and gills;

    當你讓我看到一個動物有著扁平的足和鱗片時,

  • somehow water's involved.

    它多少應該和水有關係。

  • Someone with that kind of heart, there's some kind of connection there.

    一個有著那樣的心(臟)的人,一定和什麼東西有關。

  • And the answer to it, I think,

    我認為答案

  • can be found down in the Copper Canyons of Mexico,

    就在墨西哥的銅峽谷(Copper Canyons ),

  • where there's a tribe, a reclusive tribe,

    在那裡有一個部落,一個隱居的部落,

  • called the Tarahumara Indians.

    叫做 Tarahumara 族印第安人。

  • Now the Tarahumara are remarkable for three things.

    現在Tarahumara族人因三件事而出名。

  • Number one is,

    第一,

  • they have been living essentially unchanged

    他們的生活基本沒發生變化

  • for the past 400 years.

    已經400年。

  • When the conquistadors arrived in North America you had two choices:

    當西班牙征服者到達北美時,你有兩個選擇:

  • you either fight back and engage or you could take off.

    要麼還擊被征服要麼離開。

  • The Mayans and Aztecs engaged,

    瑪雅人和阿茲特克人被征服了,

  • which is why there are very few Mayans and Aztecs.

    這就是為什麼現在瑪雅人和阿茲特克人都很稀少。

  • The Tarahumara had a different strategy.

    Tarahumara人有著不同的策略。

  • They took off and hid

    他們逃走藏進了

  • in this labyrinthine, networking,

    迷宮一般蜿蜒曲折

  • spiderwebbing system of canyons

    如蛛網一般複雜的峽谷群中,

  • called the Copper Canyons,

    這就是銅峽谷,

  • and there they remained since the 1600s --

    他們從17世紀開始就一直生活在那裡——

  • essentially the same way they've always been.

    一直以來基本沒有變化。

  • The second thing remarkable about the Tarahumara

    Tarahumara人出名的第二件事是

  • is, deep into old age -- 70 to 80 years old --

    直至高齡階段——70到80歲——

  • these guys aren't running marathons;

    這些人跑的不是馬拉松,

  • they're running mega-marathons.

    而是超級馬拉松。

  • They're not doing 26 miles;

    他們不跑26英里,

  • they're doing 100, 150 miles at a time,

    他們一次跑100,150英里。

  • and apparently without injury, without problems.

    而且顯然不受任何損傷,也沒有其他問題。

  • The last thing that's remarkable about the Tarahumara

    Tarahumara人出名的最後的一個事,

  • is that all the things that we're going to be talking about today,

    就是我們今天所探討的所有東西

  • all the things that we're trying to come up with

    所有那些我們想要弄明白的,

  • using all of our technology and brain power to solve --

    動用我們所有的技術和腦力去解決的問題——

  • things like heart disease and cholesterol and cancer

    像心髒病,膽固醇,癌症,

  • and crime and warfare and violence and clinical depression --

    犯罪,戰爭,暴力和臨床性的抑鬱症——

  • all this stuff, the Tarahumara don't know what you're talking about.

    所有這些東西,對Tarahumara 人來說都是聞所未聞的。

  • They are free

    他們不受

  • from all of these modern ailments.

    所有這些疾病的影響。

  • So what's the connection?

    那麼這裡的關聯是什麼?

  • Again, we're talking about outliers --

    我們在回去討論異常值。

  • there's got to be some kind of cause and effect there.

    這裡肯定有某種因果關係。

  • Well, there are teams of scientists

    有一些科學家

  • at Harvard and the University of Utah

    在哈佛和猶他大學,

  • that are bending their brains to try to figure out

    在絞盡腦汁想搞清楚的東西

  • what the Tarahumara have known forever.

    卻是Tarahumara一直以來都知道的。

  • They're trying to solve those same kinds of mysteries.

    他們試圖解決一些同類的奧秘。

  • And once again, a mystery wrapped inside of a mystery --

    而再一次,一個秘密裡藏著另一個秘密——

  • perhaps the key to Derartu Tulu and the Tarahumara

    也許解開 Derartu Tulu和Tarahumara人的秘密的鑰匙

  • is wrapped in three other mysteries, which go like this:

    就在這三個秘密中,它們是:

  • three things -- if you have the answer, come up and take the microphone,

    這三件事——如果你知道答案,請上台來對著話筒說,

  • because nobody else knows the answer.

    因為沒別人知道答案。

  • And if you know it, then you are smarter than anybody else on planet Earth.

    而如果你知道,你就比地球人的所有人都聰明。

  • Mystery number one is this:

    第一個謎團:

  • Two million years ago the human brain exploded in size.

    2百萬年前,人類的大腦突然增大。

  • Australopithecus had a tiny little pea brain.

    南方古猿只有豌豆般大的大腦。

  • Suddenly humans show up -- Homo erectus --

    突然,人類出現了——直立人——

  • big, old melon-head.

    西瓜一般大的大腦。

  • To have a brain of that size,

    要有這麼大的大腦,

  • you need to have a source of condensed caloric energy.

    你需要具備濃縮的熱量能量源。

  • In other words, early humans are eating dead animals --

    換言之,早期人類吃死去的動物——

  • no argument, that's a fact.

    毫無疑問,這是事實。

  • The only problem is,

    唯一的問題是,

  • the first edged weapons only appeared about 200,000 years ago.

    最早的帶刃的武器只出現在20萬年前。

  • So, somehow, for nearly two million years,

    因此不知怎樣在大約200萬年裡,

  • we are killing animals without any weapons.

    我們在赤手空拳地獵取動物。

  • Now we're not using our strength

    現在我們不怎麼使用自己的力量,

  • because we are the biggest sissies in the jungle.

    因為我們是叢林裡最最膽小的傢伙。

  • Every other animal is stronger than we are --

    所有別的動物都比我們更強壯。

  • they have fangs, they have claws, they have nimbleness, they have speed.

    它們有尖牙,利爪,機敏和速度。

  • We think Usain Bolt is fast. Usain Bolt can get his ass kicked by a squirrel.

    我們都知道Usain Bolt (世界百米冠軍)跑得很快,但他在松鼠面前簡直不值一提。

  • We're not fast.

    我們跑的並不快。

  • That would be an Olympic event: turn a squirrel loose --

    奧運會應該有這麼個比賽:放出一隻松鼠,

  • whoever catches the squirrel, you get a gold medal.

    誰抓到松鼠誰得金牌。

  • So no weapons, no speed, no strength, no fangs, no claws --

    那麼,沒有武器,沒有速度,沒有力量,沒有尖牙利爪。

  • how were we killing these animals? Mystery number one.

    我們是如何獵殺這些動物的?這是第一個謎團。

  • Mystery number two:

    第二個謎團:

  • Women have been in the Olympics for quite some time now,

    婦女參加奧運會至今已經有相當長一段歷史了,

  • but one thing that's remarkable about all women sprinters --

    但是有件事是在所有女短跑選手身上都很明顯的——

  • they all suck; they're terrible.

    她們都跑太慢,慢的可怕。

  • There's not a fast woman on the planet

    地球上就沒有跑的快的女人

  • and there never has been.

    永遠也不會有。

  • The fastest woman to ever run a mile did it in 4:15.

    一英里跑的最快的女選手用時4分15秒。

  • I could throw a rock and hit a high school boy

    我扔個石頭隨便砸到一個高中男生

  • who can run faster than 4:15.

    他也能跑的比4分15秒還快。

  • For some reason you guys are just really slow.

    出於某些原因,你們跑的確實太慢了。

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • But you get to the marathon we were just talking about --

    但是回到我們剛剛提到的馬拉松——

  • you guys have only been allowed to run the marathon for 20 years.

    你們女人被允許跑馬拉松只是近20年的事。

  • Because, prior to the 1980s,

    因為在80年代前,

  • medical science said that if a woman tried to run 26 miles --

    醫學界認為如果一個女人試圖跑26英里——

  • does anyone know what would happen if you tried to run 26 miles,

    有誰知道如果跑26英里會發生什麼嗎?

  • why you were banned from the marathon before the 1980s?

    為什麼在80年代以前禁止你們跑馬拉松?

  • (Audience Member: Her uterus would be torn.) Her uterus would be torn.

    (某觀眾:會撕裂子宮)她的子宮會撕裂。

  • Yes. You would have torn reproductive organs.

    是的。會撕裂生殖器官。

  • The uterus would fall out, literally fall out of the body.

    子宮會脫垂,真的脫到體外。

  • Now I've been to a lot of marathons,

    我去過很多馬拉松比賽,

  • and I've yet to see any ...

    我從來沒見過這種事發生。

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • So it's only been 20 years that women have been allowed to run the marathon.

    所以自女子可以參加馬拉松以來只有20年。

  • In that very short learning curve,

    在這麼短的學習曲線上,

  • you guys have gone from broken organs

    你們從器官損傷一下跳躍到

  • up to the fact that you're only 10 minutes off

    僅有10分鐘的差距就可以追上

  • the male world record.

    男子的世界紀錄。

  • Then you go beyond 26 miles,

    然後你們超越了26英里,

  • into the distance that medical science also told us would be fatal to humans --

    達到的長度是醫學認為對全人類來說都是致命的——

  • remember Pheidippides died when he ran 26 miles --

    還記得Pheidippides(公元前5世紀希臘長跑運動員)跑到26英里時死了——

  • you get to 50 and 100 miles,

    你們跑了50到100英里,

  • and suddenly it's a different game.

    然後突然之間變成了不同的比賽。

  • You can take a runner like Ann Trason, or Nikki Kimball, or Jenn Shelton,

    長跑運動員如Ann Trason, Nikki Kimball, Jenn Shelton,

  • you put them in a race of 50 or 100 miles against anybody in the world

    你讓他們和世界上隨便一些人比賽跑50到100英里,

  • and it's a coin toss who's going to win.

    誰會贏就只能靠扔硬幣預測了。

  • I'll give you an example.

    給你們一個例子。

  • A couple years ago, Emily Baer signed up for a race

    幾年前,Emily Baer 報名參加名為

  • called the Hardrock 100,

    硬石100(Hardrock 100)的比賽,

  • which tells you all you need to know about the race.

    從名字你就能知道比賽的內容。

  • They give you 48 hours to finish this race.

    你有48小時完成比賽。

  • Well Emily Baer -- 500 runners --

    而Emily Baer 在500個選手中

  • she finishes in eighth place, in the top 10,

    以第八的成績完成比賽,居於前十名。

  • even though she stopped at all the aid stations

    她甚至在每個補給站都停下來

  • to breastfeed her baby during the race --

    好在比賽中還能給自己的孩子餵母乳——

  • and yet, beat 492 other people.

    但還是打敗了其他492個人。

  • So why is it that women get stronger

    最後一個謎團:就是為什麼當距離越長

  • as distances get longer?

    女人就越有力?

  • The third mystery is this:

    最後一個謎團是這樣的:

  • At the University of Utah, they started tracking finishing times

    在猶他大學,他們開始追踪那些跑馬拉松的人

  • for people running the marathon.

    跑完全程的次數。

  • And what they found

    他們發現

  • is that, if you start running the marathon at age 19,

    如果你從19歲就開始跑馬拉松,

  • you will get progressively faster, year by year,

    隨著年歲的增長你會越跑越快,

  • until you reach your peak at age 27.

    直到27歲的時候到達頂峰。

  • And then after that, you succumb

    然後,你屈服於

  • to the rigors of time.

    時間的嚴酷。

  • And you'll get slower and slower,

    你會跑的越來越慢,

  • until eventually you're back to running the same speed you were at age 19.

    直到你逐漸回复到你19歲時的速度。

  • So about seven years, eight years to reach your peak,

    因此大概在7到8年的時間裡你攀上頂峰,

  • and then gradually you fall off your peak,

    然後逐漸從高峰滑落,

  • until you go back to the starting point.

    直到你回到起點。

  • You would think it might take eight years to go back to the same speed,

    你可能會以為要再花8年時間回到19歲的速度

  • maybe 10 years -- no, it's 45 years.

    也可能是10年——不,是45年。

  • 64-year-old men and women

    60歲的男子和女子

  • are running as fast as they were at age 19.

    和19歲時跑的一樣快。

  • Now I defy you to come up with any other physical activity --

    我挑戰你們能舉出其他任何一種體育運動——

  • and please don't say golf -- something that actually is hard --

    不過拜託別說高爾夫球——要真正有難度的運動——

  • where geriatrics are performing

    在這個運動裡老年人的表現

  • as well as they did as teenagers.

    與十幾歲時一樣。

  • So you have these three mysteries.

    就這樣你面對這三個謎團。

  • Is there one piece in the puzzle

    在這迷霧中是否有一小塊拼圖能

  • which might wrap all these things up?

    把所有這些謎都收攏起來?

  • You've got to be really careful any time

    任何時候你都要非常小心

  • someone looks back in prehistory and tries to give you some sort of global answer,

    某個人會回顧史前時代然後就試圖丟給你一個整體上的答案,

  • because, it being prehistory,

    因為那是史前時代,

  • you can say whatever the hell you want and get away with it.

    你可以想說什麼就說什麼然後一走了之。

  • But I'll submit this to you:

    但我要呈現給大家的是:

  • If you put one piece in the middle of this jigsaw puzzle,

    如果你把一小塊碎片放在這個大拼圖的中央,

  • suddenly it all starts to form a coherent picture.

    突然之間,它開始組成一幅條理清晰的圖畫。

  • If you wonder, why it is the Tarahumara don't fight

    如果你想知道為什麼Tarahumara人不反抗,

  • and don't die of heart disease,

    也沒有死於心髒病,

  • why a poor Ethiopian woman named Derartu Tulu

    為什麼一個貧窮的埃塞俄比亞女子Derartu Tulu

  • can be the most compassionate and yet the most competitive,

    會是最有同情心同時又是最有競爭力的選手,

  • and why we somehow were able

    以及為什麼我們不知怎樣卻可以

  • to find food without weapons,

    沒有武器而獲得食物,

  • perhaps it's because humans,

    也許這只是因為人類,

  • as much as we like to think of ourselves as masters of the universe,

    儘管我們喜歡把自己想像為宇宙的主人,

  • actually evolved as nothing more

    但事實上我們只是進化為

  • than a pack of hunting dogs.

    一群獵犬。

  • Maybe we evolved

    也許我們進化為

  • as a hunting pack animal.

    一種群體狩獵的動物。

  • Because the one advantage we have in the wilderness --

    因為我們在荒野中所具備的一個優勢——

  • again, it's not our fangs and our claws and our speed --

    再說一次,不是我們的牙齒爪子和速度——

  • the only thing we do really, really well is sweat.

    我們能幹非常非常好的唯一一件事就是出汗。

  • We're really good at being sweaty and smelly.

    我們很善於大汗淋漓渾身汗臭。

  • Better than any other mammal on Earth, we can sweat really well.

    與地球上的任何其他動物相比,我們真的很能出汗。

  • But the advantage

    但是這個

  • of that little bit of social discomfort

    會造成小小的社交不適的優點

  • is the fact that, when it comes to running

    其實質就是當在

  • under hot heat for long distances,

    高溫下長距離奔跑時,

  • we're superb, we're the best on the planet.

    我們是很出色的,我們是星球上最棒的。

  • You take a horse on a hot day,

    你在一個炎熱天氣裡騎馬