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  • On September 13th, a woman named Mahsa Amini

    9月13日,一位名叫Mahsa Amini的女性

  • was detained by Iran's "Morality Police"

    被伊朗的 "道德警察 "扣留。

  • for improperly wearing her hijab.

    因為她不適當地戴著頭巾。

  • She was loaded into a van where she was reportedly beaten

    她被裝進一輛麵包車,據說她在那裡遭到毆打。

  • and then transferred to a detention center

    然後被轉移到一個拘留中心

  • where she collapsed and fell into a coma.

    她在那裡昏倒並陷入了昏迷。

  • Three days later, she died at the hospital

    三天後,她在醫院去世。

  • and protests broke out.

    並爆發了抗議活動。

  • As a result, Iran shut down the country's Internet.

    是以,伊朗關閉了該國的互聯網。

  • But hundreds of social media posts

    但數以百計的社交媒體帖子

  • of people protesting her death have surfaced

    抗議她死亡的人的照片已經浮出水面

  • over the last three months,

    在過去三個月裡。

  • including videos of women defiantly cutting their hair,

    包括婦女挑釁性地剪頭髮的視頻。

  • the symbol of beauty the regime wants hidden under the hijab.

    這是該政權希望隱藏在頭巾下的美麗象徵。

  • The so-called Morality Police patrol

    所謂道德警察的巡邏

  • the streets to enforce the regime's strict dress code.

    在街上執行政權的嚴格著裝規定。

  • They mostly target women and how they wear the hijab,

    他們主要針對婦女和她們佩戴頭巾的方式。

  • and will either fine them or

    並將對他們進行罰款或

  • arrest them and take them to detention centers.

    逮捕他們並把他們帶到拘留中心。

  • They are one part of the repressive state apparatus

    他們是鎮壓性國家機器的一個部分

  • that wields power over Iranians, but far from the only one.

    掌握著伊朗人的權力,但遠非唯一。

  • In videos of the protests, we can see different armed groups

    在抗議活動的視頻中,我們可以看到不同的武裝團體

  • violently suppressing the protests.

    暴力鎮壓抗議活動。

  • Understanding who they might be tells us a lot

    瞭解他們可能是誰告訴我們很多

  • about the power structure Iranians are fighting to change.

    關於伊朗人正在爭取改變的權力結構。

  • In the 1970s,

    在20世紀70年代。

  • Iran was a secular monarchy

    伊朗是一個世俗君主制國家

  • that operated as a dictatorship. Under the Shah,

    作為一個獨裁政權運作。在沙赫統治下。

  • Iranians lacked political freedoms but enjoyed social ones.

    伊朗人缺乏政治自由,但享有社會自由。

  • They also experienced

    他們還經歷了

  • economic growth that rapidly transformed Iran

    的經濟增長,迅速改變了伊朗

  • from a traditional conservative

    從一個傳統的保守派

  • society to an industrial, modernized one.

    社會向工業化、現代化的社會發展。

  • Soon, economic frustrations and political repression

    很快,經濟挫折和政治壓迫

  • sparked uprisings calling for new Islamic rule.

    觸發了要求新伊斯蘭統治的起義。

  • They went on for a year, but the regime remained in place

    他們持續了一年,但該政權仍在原地。

  • until a crucial turning point: The Army declared neutrality.

    直到一個關鍵的轉捩點。軍隊宣佈中立。

  • It was then that the monarchy collapsed and gave way

    就在這時,君主制崩潰了,讓位於

  • to the Islamic Republic that rules today.

    到今天統治的伊斯蘭共和國。

  • But that neutrality that allowed the regime to come to power

    但這種中立性使該政權得以上臺

  • was also one of its biggest weaknesses.

    也是其最大的弱點之一。

  • The revolutionaries did not trust the army,

    革命者並不信任軍隊。

  • which was supposed to be loyal to the Shah,

    它應該是忠於沙阿的。

  • but stabbed him in the back.

    但卻在背後捅了他一刀。

  • The best strategy was to hedge their bets

    最好的策略是對沖他們的賭注

  • by creating a branch of the armed forces

    通過創建武裝部隊的一個分支

  • that they could trust much more than the army.

    他們可以信任的是比軍隊更多的人。

  • Under the Supreme Leader's rule, the regime kept the old army

    在最高領袖的統治下,該政權保留了舊的軍隊

  • but created a separate military group called

    但創建了一個單獨的軍事集團,名為

  • the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

    伊斯蘭革命衛隊。

  • This group was crucial in the long war

    這群人在長期的戰爭中是至關重要的

  • Iran fought against Iraq.

    伊朗對伊拉克進行了戰鬥。

  • The Revolutionary Guard played an important role

    革命衛隊發揮了重要作用

  • in trying to push back the Iraqi army,

    在試圖擊退伊拉克軍隊的過程中。

  • and after that, they managed to turn that political capital

    在那之後,他們成功地將這些政治資本轉化為

  • into economic influence and political power.

    變成經濟影響和政治權力。

  • As their importance grew, so did their domestic security role,

    隨著他們的重要性增加,他們的國內安全作用也在增加。

  • which sometimes meant fighting against the people.

    這有時意味著與人民作戰。

  • Videos verified by Human Rights Watch

    經人權觀察核實的視頻

  • show armed forces beating protesters

    顯示武裝部隊毆打抗議者

  • using assault weapons and men dressed in black

    使用攻擊性武器和穿黑衣服的人

  • riding motorcycles and firing guns into crowds.

    騎著摩托車,向人群中開槍。

  • These men, dressed in black, fit the description of the Basij,

    這些人身著黑衣,符合巴斯基的描述。

  • a paramilitary volunteer militia under the IRGC

    伊斯蘭革命衛隊下屬的準軍事志願民兵組織

  • that's fiercely loyal to the supreme leader.

    這是對最高領導人的強烈忠誠。

  • Primarily, it was a force that was created

    主要是,它是一種被創造出來的力量

  • in order to do social control.

    以便進行社會控制。

  • In September, Amnesty International obtained documents

    9月,大赦國際獲得文件

  • showing the armed forces instructed their chain of command

    顯示武裝部隊訓示他們的指揮系統

  • to "severely confront" protesters,

    以 "嚴厲對抗 "抗議者。

  • and a local commander

    和一個地方指揮官

  • ordering security forces to "confront mercilessly"

    命令安全部隊 "無情地對抗"

  • while going as far as causing deaths.

    同時不惜造成死亡。

  • As a result, human rights groups say at least

    是以,人權團體表示,至少有

  • 18,000 protesters have been arrested

    18,000名抗議者被逮捕

  • and at least 250 have been killed,

    並有至少250人被殺。

  • including more than 60 children.

    包括60多名兒童。

  • And now Iran has started carrying out executions.

    而現在伊朗已經開始執行死刑。

  • The reason so many

    之所以有這麼多

  • protesters are out on the streets

    抗議者上街了

  • is that Iran's power structure

    是,伊朗的權力結構

  • doesn't give them any alternatives.

    並沒有給他們任何替代方案。

  • Just like the armed forces are a pillar

    就像武裝部隊是一個支柱

  • of the Islamic Republic,

    的伊斯蘭共和國。

  • there are several others

    還有幾個

  • supporting the country's power structure.

    支持國家的權力結構。

  • These are just a few of them.

    這只是其中的幾個例子。

  • And while some should be independent, they aren't.

    雖然有些人應該是獨立的,但他們並不是。

  • This includes Iran's legislative branch,

    這包括伊朗的立法部門。

  • because while these government bodies are technically elected,

    因為雖然這些政府機構在技術上是選舉產生的。

  • they are controlled by the regime's

    他們被政權的控制

  • appointed Guardian Council.

    任命的監護委員會。

  • That means the regime can disqualify

    這意味著該政權可以取消

  • candidates and reject laws that go through parliament,

    候選人和拒絕通過議會的法律。

  • overriding the will of the people.

    凌駕於人民的意願之上。

  • The unelected institutions

    非民選機構

  • have continuously stymied and sabotaged those reforms,

    不斷阻撓和破壞這些改革。

  • and that has created

    而這也造就了

  • a sense of despondency within the society.

    社會中的一種絕望感。

  • So in the last 20 years,

    所以在過去的20年裡。

  • Iranians have taken to the streets at an increasing rate:

    伊朗人走上街頭的速度越來越快。

  • against electoral fraud, government corruption,

    反對選舉舞弊、政府腐敗。

  • economic hardship, and again today.

    經濟困難,今天又是如此。

  • Soon after Amini's death, a video of her funeral went viral.

    阿米尼去世後不久,她的葬禮視頻就被傳開了。

  • Women took off their hijabs and the crowd started chanting.

    婦女們摘下頭巾,人群開始高呼。

  • And the chants have taken hold

    頌歌已經佔據主導地位

  • all over the country.

    在全國各地。

  • Usually the pattern of the protests in the past

    通常情況下,過去的抗議活動的模式是

  • 10, 15 years in Iran is that they often start

    在伊朗的10年、15年,他們經常開始

  • with much more narrower objectives or demands.

    目標或要求更為狹窄。

  • But this time around, almost from the get-go, the zero-to-100

    但這一次,幾乎從一開始,零到一百的

  • happened overnight

    一夜之間發生的

  • and immediately there were calls for regime change.

    並立即出現了更換政權的呼聲。

  • But the system they are trying to change was built

    但他們試圖改變的系統是建立在

  • to suppress dissent and protect power at the top.

    以壓制異議,保護高層的權力。

  • The idea of having multiple power centers and parallel

    擁有多個權力中心和平行的想法

  • institutions, it's for the regime to hedge its bets.

    機構,這是為政權保駕護航。

  • None of these individual elements can on their own pose

    這些單獨的元素都不能單獨構成

  • a threat to the pinnacle of power in Iran.

    對伊朗權力巔峰的威脅。

  • Making it nearly impossible

    使其幾乎不可能

  • to topple such a multilayered, decentralized power structure.

    來推翻這樣一個多層次的、分散的權力結構。

  • The fact that there is now no longer

    事實上,現在已經沒有

  • any hopes in the possibility

    任何希望的可能性

  • of reforming the system from within,

    從內部改革制度。

  • it has created a situation in which

    它創造了一種情況,在這種情況下

  • the younger generation of Iranians

    年輕一代的伊朗人

  • increasingly believe that they have nothing to lose.

    越來越多的人相信,他們沒有什麼可失去的。

  • Most of the protesters are young Iranians who were born

    大多數抗議者是出生在伊朗的年輕人。

  • after the revolution and inherited a system

    革命之後,繼承了一個系統

  • they didn't ask for.

    他們沒有要求的。

  • Despite the censorship,

    儘管有審查制度。

  • young Iranians have caught the world's attention.

    年輕的伊朗人已經引起了世界的注意。

  • Schoolgirls are filming themselves

    女學生們正在拍攝自己

  • replacing portraits of the supreme leader with the words

    替換掉最高領導人的肖像,並寫上以下字樣

  • "Woman, life, freedom," setting their hijabs on fire,

    "女人、生命、自由",將他們的頭巾點燃。

  • and chasing pro-regime educators out of their schools.

    並將親政府的教育工作者趕出他們的學校。

  • The current situation is the product of the Islamic Republic's

    目前的情況是伊斯蘭共和國的產物。

  • failures over the years.

    多年來的失敗。

  • The Islamic Republic failed to create a country

    伊斯蘭共和國沒能建立一個國家

  • in which the youth could see a future for themselves.

    青年人可以在其中看到自己的未來。

  • It's really as simple as that.

    這真的就這麼簡單。

On September 13th, a woman named Mahsa Amini

9月13日,一位名叫Mahsa Amini的女性

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伊朗的鎮壓機器如何運作 (How Iran's repression machine works)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2023 年 01 月 23 日
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