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  • Hello. This is 6 Minute English

    你好。這裡是6分鐘英語

  • from BBC Learning English.

    來自BBC學習英語。

  • I'm Sam.

    我是山姆。

  • And I'm Neil.

    而我是尼爾。

  • In March 2020, the World Health

    2020年3月,世界衛生

  • Organisation, the WHO,

    世衛組織。

  • declared Covid-19 a pandemic.

    宣佈Covid-19為大流行病。

  • Now, after two and half years in the

    現在,經過兩年半的時間,在

  • shadow of Covid, for many people travel

    科維德的陰影,對許多人來說,旅行

  • restrictions are ending, and many people

    限制正在結束,許多人

  • around the world are

    世界各地都在

  • starting their lives again.

    重新開始他們的生活。

  • But not everyone.

    但不是每個人。

  • Whether it's because of

    無論是因為

  • lockdowns and not seeing friends, or

    鎖定和不見朋友,或

  • getting sick, even dying, everyone wants

    得病,甚至死亡,每個人都希望

  • to see an end to the pandemic.

    看到這種大流行病的結束。

  • But with cases of Covid infections still

    但由於科維德感染的案例仍然

  • in the millions, and doctors warning

    數以百萬計,而醫生警告說

  • about new variants of the disease, is

    關於疾病的新變體,是

  • the pandemic really coming to an end?

    這場大流行真的要結束了嗎?

  • In this programme, we'll be finding out

    在這個節目中,我們將發現

  • how pandemics end,

    大流行病如何結束。

  • and, as usual, we'll be learning some

    和往常一樣,我們將學習一些

  • related vocabulary as well.

    相關的詞彙也是如此。

  • Of course, pandemics are nothing new.

    當然,大流行病並不新鮮。

  • Ancient texts are full of stories

    古代文獻中充滿了故事

  • of plagues which spread

    瘟疫的蔓延

  • death and disease before

    死亡和疾病之前

  • eventually going away.

    最終會消失。

  • In the Middle Ages, The Black Death that

    在中世紀,"黑死病"(The Black Death)的出現使人們的生活發生了變化。

  • killed over half of Europe's population

    殺害了歐洲一半以上的人口

  • lasted for four years.

    持續了四年之久。

  • It's only with modern

    只有在現代

  • vaccines that diseases

    疾病的疫苗

  • have been eradicated - completely ended.

    已被根除--完全結束。

  • So, Neil, my question this week is:

    所以,尼爾,我這周的問題是。

  • which disease was eradicated in 1977?

    哪種疾病在1977年被根除?

  • Was it: a) cholera, b) polio,

    是不是:a)霍亂,b)小兒麻痺症。

  • or c) smallpox?

    或c)天花?

  • I'm going to say c) small pox.

    我想說的是,c)水痘。

  • OK, I'll reveal the answer

    好的,我將揭曉答案

  • at the end of the program.

    在該計劃結束時。

  • Of course, the idea that

    當然,這種想法是

  • the pandemic might not

    這場大流行可能不會

  • be ending isn't something

    歸宿不是什麼

  • people want to hear.

    人們想聽的。

  • Most people are sick of

    大多數人都厭倦了

  • worrying about Covid and

    擔心科維德和

  • can't wait for things

    迫不及待的事情

  • to get back to normal.

    以恢復正常。

  • But as Yale University physician,

    但作為耶魯大學的醫生。

  • Professor Nicholas Christakis,

    尼古拉斯-克里斯塔基斯教授。

  • explained to BBC World Service

    向BBC世界頻道解釋

  • programme, The Inquiry, it's not

    節目,《調查》,這不是

  • just the biological disease that needs to

    只是生物學上的疾病,需要

  • end - pandemics have a social ending too.

    結束 - 大流行病也有一個社會結局。

  • Pandemics are not just

    大流行病不僅是

  • a biological phenomenon,

    一種生物現象。

  • they're also a social

    他們也是一個社會

  • phenomenon, and they end socially.

    現象,他們在社會上結束。

  • And one of the ways that they

    而他們的方法之一是

  • end socially is when

    結束社會是當

  • everyone just sort of

    每個人都只是有點

  • agrees that they have

    同意他們有

  • ended - when everyone is

    結束--當所有人都在

  • simply willing to tolerate more risk.

    只是願意容忍更多的風險。

  • On other words, we sort of declare victory,

    換句話說,我們有點像在宣佈勝利。

  • maybe prematurely, or

    也許是過早的,或者是

  • another way of thinking about it is,

    另一種思考方式是。

  • we put our heads in the sand.

    我們把我們的頭放在沙子裡。

  • Biologically Covid still

    生物學上的科維德仍然

  • exists in the world and

    存在於世界和

  • most of us would rather not catch it.

    我們中的大多數人寧願不抓它。

  • But if you're vaccinated, the

    但如果你接種了疫苗,那麼

  • risk of getting seriously

    患嚴重疾病的風險

  • ill is much lower, so it's reasonable to

    患病率要低得多,所以有理由認為

  • make plans to resume normal life.

    制定計劃,恢復正常生活。

  • When enough people do this, we

    當足夠多的人這樣做時,我們

  • declare victory - a phrase meaning to

    宣佈勝利--這句話的意思是

  • announce something to be

    宣稱有事情要做

  • finished before it

    在它之前已經完成

  • actually is, but when

    實際上是,但當

  • it looks 'good enough'.

    它看起來 "足夠好"。

  • The danger is that we declare victory

    危險的是,我們宣佈勝利

  • prematurely - too soon, before it's the best

    過早--過早,在最佳時機之前

  • time to do so.

    時間來做。

  • Professor Christakis uses another idiom

    克里斯塔基斯教授使用了另一個成語

  • for this - to bury your head in the

    為這個--把你的頭埋在

  • sand, meaning to deliberately refuse

    沙子,意思是故意拒絕

  • to accept the truth about something you

    接受關於你的事情的真相

  • find unpleasant.

    感到不愉快。

  • It's also true that pandemics do not end in

    大流行病也確實不會在以下情況下結束

  • the same way for everyone, everywhere.

    對每個人、每個地方都是如此。

  • Rich western countries

    富裕的西方國家

  • with the resources to vaccinate their

    有資源為其接種疫苗

  • populations are in a

    人口處於一個

  • better position than most.

    比大多數人更好的位置。

  • Professor Dora Vargha is an expert on the

    多拉-瓦格哈教授是一位在美國的專家。

  • history of medicine.

    醫學史。

  • She compares the Covid

    她將Covid比作

  • pandemic to an ongoing

    大流行病到持續的

  • disease for which we

    的疾病,我們

  • have no cure, and which

    無藥可救,而這

  • has killed millions since

    導致數百萬人死亡,因為

  • its outbreak in the 1980s - HIV/Aids.

    它在20世紀80年代的爆發--艾滋病毒/艾滋病。

  • Here is Professor Vargha,

    這裡是瓦格哈教授。

  • speaking with BBC World Service's, The Inquiry.

    他在接受英國廣播公司(BBC)世界頻道的《調查》節目時說。

  • What happens in the case of HIV/Aids is that it

    在HIV/AIDS的情況下發生的情況是,它

  • became from being an

    成為從一個

  • immediate death sentence

    立即判處死刑

  • basically to a manageable

    基本上達到可管理的

  • chronic disease... but that happens in

    慢性疾病......但這發生在

  • societies that have the means and

    有條件的社會和

  • the infrastructure to make

    的基礎設施,以使

  • that possible with medication, and that is

    這是用藥物治療所能做到的,而這是

  • not necessarily true for all parts of the

    並非所有部分都是如此

  • world, but we don't

    世界,但我們並不

  • think about the HIV/Aids

    思考艾滋病毒/艾滋病的問題

  • pandemic as an ongoing pandemic.

    作為一種持續的大流行病。

  • Although HIV has no cure,

    雖然艾滋病毒沒有治癒。

  • modern medical drugs

    現代醫學藥物

  • allow people to continue

    讓人們繼續

  • living with the disease for years.

    多年來一直與該疾病生活在一起。

  • HIV is no longer a death sentence - a phrase

    艾滋病不再是死刑--一個短語

  • meaning the punishment of

    意思是說,懲罰

  • death for committing a

    因犯有以下罪行而被處以死刑

  • crime, or from an incurable disease.

    罪行,或來自不治之症。

  • Nowadays, HIV is no longer fatal.

    如今,艾滋病毒不再是致命的。

  • It has become a disease which can be

    它已經成為一種疾病,可以

  • controlled and is chronic, or long lasting.

    控制,並且是慢性的,或長期的。

  • We no longer think of Aids as a pandemic,

    我們不再認為艾滋病是一種大流行病。

  • but that's not true everywhere - only

    但並不是所有地方都是這樣的--只有

  • in countries which can provide the necessary

    在能夠提供必要的

  • medical drugs and support.

    醫療藥品和支持。

  • Finding the right balance

    尋找正確的平衡

  • of Covid restrictions

    對Covid的限制

  • for communities of people

    為人民的社區

  • exhausted by the pandemic isn't easy.

    被大流行病耗盡的人並不容易。

  • Many scientists are warning that we

    許多科學家警告說,我們

  • haven't yet reached the beginning of the end

    還沒到結束的時候

  • of Covid, but hopefully

    的Covid,但希望是

  • we're at least reaching

    我們至少要達到

  • the end of the beginning.

    開始的結束。

  • Let's finish the programme on a hopeful note

    讓我們以一個充滿希望的音符來結束這個節目吧

  • by remembering that diseases

    牢記疾病

  • can and do eventually end - like in your

    可以而且確實最終會結束--比如在你的

  • quiz question, Sam.

    測驗問題,Sam。

  • Yes, I asked which disease was eradicated in 1977.

    是的,我問的是哪種疾病在1977年被根除。

  • Neil said it was smallpox, which was

    尼爾說這是天花,這是

  • the correct answer! Well done, Neil!

    正確的答案!幹得好,尼爾!

  • Smallpox no longer occurs naturally, but

    天花已不再自然發生,但

  • did you know that samples of smallpox

    你知道嗎?

  • do still exist, frozen in American and Soviet

    確實仍然存在,凍結在美國和蘇聯。

  • laboratories during the Cold War!

    冷戰期間的實驗室!

  • As if the thought that

    彷彿一想到

  • the Covid pandemic might

    Covid大流行病可能

  • never end isn't scary enough!

    永遠沒有盡頭還不夠嚇人嗎?

  • Right, let's recap the vocabulary we've

    對了,讓我們回顧一下我們已經掌握的詞彙

  • learnt starting with eradicate - to completely

    以 "剷除 "開始的學習 - 徹底的

  • get rid of something, such as a disease.

    擺脫某種東西,如疾病。

  • If you declare victory,

    如果你宣佈勝利。

  • you announce something

    你宣佈一件事

  • to be finished before it actually is.

    要在實際完成之前完成。

  • The danger is doing this is that

    這樣做的危險在於

  • you announce it prematurely, or too soon.

    你過早地宣佈,或過早地宣佈。

  • The idiom ;bury your head

    成語;埋頭苦幹

  • in the sand' means to

    在沙地上'是指

  • refuse to accept or look

    不接受或不看

  • at a situation you don't like.

    在一個你不喜歡的情況下。

  • A death sentence means the

    死刑判決意味著

  • punishment of death for

    罰款

  • committing a crime, or

    實施犯罪,或

  • from an incurable disease.

    患有不治之症。

  • And finally, a chronic

    最後,一個慢性