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  • A new baby means a lot of big  decisions. Breastfed or bottle-fed?  

    一個新的嬰兒意味著很多重大的決定。母乳餵養還是奶瓶餵養?

  • Cloth or disposable diapersWhat brand of stroller? But  

    布質或一次性尿布? 什麼牌子的嬰兒車?但是

  • when that baby is wrapped in a little blue  blanket, there’s one more key decision.

    當嬰兒被包裹在一條藍色的小毯子裡時,還有一個關鍵的決定。

  • To circumcise or not to circumcise?

    割禮還是不割禮?

  • Circumcision is a surgical procedure usually  performed on baby boys to remove most of the  

    包皮環切術是一種外科手術,通常在男嬰身上進行,以切除大部分的包皮。

  • foreskin that covers the tip of the penisWhile it’s typically performed for religious  

    覆蓋陰莖頭的包皮。 雖然這通常是為了宗教目的而進行的

  • reasons in many cultures, it has become  increasingly common to remove the foreskin  

    在許多文化中,切除包皮已變得越來越普遍。

  • for medical and comfort reasons recommended by  doctors. When done on a newborn, it’s usually  

    出於醫療和舒適的原因,由醫生推薦。當在新生兒身上進行時,它通常是

  • performed by a trained surgeon who numbs the  area and then smoothly cuts the loose skin,  

    由訓練有素的外科醫生進行,他對該區域進行麻醉,然後平穩地切割鬆弛的皮膚。

  • making for a smooth healing period. Howeverit’s not always performed by a doctor - in  

    使得癒合期更加順利。然而,它並不總是由醫生進行 - 在

  • Judaism it’s performed by a religious  figure called a Mohel - essentially a  

    猶太教是由一個叫Mohel的宗教人士執行的--本質上是一個

  • professional circumcision expert who may have  performed the procedure hundreds of times.

    專業的包皮手術專家,他可能已經進行了數百次手術。

  • But like with every issue, nothing is simple. And  there are a lot of pros and cons to this issue.  

    但就像每個問題一樣,沒有什麼是簡單的。而且這個問題有很多優點和缺點。

  • And if you ask someone who feels strongly  about them - theyre sure to yell them at you!

    如果你問一個對它們有強烈感覺的人--他們肯定會對你大喊大叫!這就是我們的工作。

  • So what are the pros of circumcision?

    那麼,包皮環切術的優點是什麼?

  • For one thing, doctors say that it makes it easier  for young boys to keep their private area clean.  

    首先,醫生說,這使小男孩更容易保持私處的清潔。

  • Anyone who knows the average young boy  knows theyll usually be filthy after a  

    任何瞭解普通年輕男孩的人都知道,他們通常會在一個星期後變得骯髒不堪。

  • day of playing - and it might be easier to  bell a cat than to get them into the bath.  

    玩耍的日子--而且給貓敲鐘可能比讓它們洗澡更容易。

  • The foreskin can trap dirt and sweatcausing irritation and other skin issues,  

    包皮會藏住汙垢和汗水,導致刺激和其他皮膚問題。

  • and pro-circumcision advocates say a circumcised  boy will find it much easier to clean that area  

    支持包皮環切術的人說,接受過包皮環切術的男孩會發現清潔該區域要容易得多。

  • thoroughly. Of course, mom still has to  get him in the shower in the first place.

    徹底。當然,媽媽首先還是要讓他去洗澡。

  • But there might be some  other positive factors too.

    但也可能有一些其他積極因素。

  • One of the hard things with taking care of babies  is that they can’t tell you what they want!  

    照顧嬰兒的困難之一是,他們不能告訴你他們想要什麼!"。

  • They cry, and you have to guess - are  they hungry? Are they tired? Are they  

    他們哭泣,你必須猜測--他們餓了嗎?他們累了嗎?他們是否

  • just confused because literally, everything  is new to them? Or maybe something’s actually  

    只是感到困惑,因為從字面上看,所有東西對他們來說都是新的?或者,也許有些東西是真的

  • wrong - like a urinary tract infection. Babies  are susceptible to them if they aren’t cleaned  

    錯--比如尿路感染。如果沒有清洗,嬰兒很容易感染。

  • properly or spend too much time in an old diaperand studies have shown that baby boys who are  

    適當的或花太多時間在舊的尿布上,研究表明,男嬰的

  • circumsized may be more protected because there  is less of an area for bacteria to get trapped.

    周圍尺寸可能得到更多的保護,因為有更少的區域可供細菌滯留。

  • And as they grow older, they might be  protected from other serious conditions.

    而且隨著他們年齡的增長,他們可能會受到保護,免受其他嚴重疾病的影響。

  • Sexually transmitted diseases are a major problem  for both men and women, and you never know when  

    性傳播疾病對男性和女性來說都是一個主要問題,你永遠不知道什麼時候

  • a partner might be carrying a virus that could  range from an uncomfortable personal situation  

    伴侶可能攜帶病毒,其範圍可能是令人不舒服的個人情況

  • to a deadly pathogen. The foreskin  makes it more likely that bacteria,  

    到致命的病原體。包皮使細菌更有可能。

  • viruses, or fungi will get trapped and  travel from one partner to another,  

    病毒或真菌會被困住,並從一個夥伴那裡傳播到另一個夥伴。

  • including HIV. While female-to-male transmission  of the infamous HIV virus is rarer than the  

    包括艾滋病毒。雖然臭名昭著的HIV病毒在女性之間的傳播比在男性之間的傳播更罕見。

  • opposite, studies have proven that circumcised  men may have an added layer of protection.

    相反,研究證明,接受過包皮環切術的男性可能有一個額外的保護層。

  • And it may even prevent cancer.

    而且它甚至可能預防癌症。

  • Because sexually transmitted diseases and  infections of the genital area can lead  

    因為性傳播疾病和生殖器部位的感染會導致

  • to cervical cancer for women, it’s considered  healthier for them to have sex with circumcised  

    對婦女來說,與包皮過長者發生性關係被認為是更健康的。

  • partners who are less likely to transmit diseases  from the area around their penis. But the men  

    伴侶,他們不太可能從他們的陰莖周圍區域傳播疾病。但是,這些男性

  • aren’t left out of this benefit either. Cancer of  the penis is rare and seems to be becoming rarer  

    也沒有被排除在這項福利之外。陰莖癌是罕見的,而且似乎越來越少。

  • due to the drop in smoking, which is a significant  risk factor. But a 2005 study showed that  

    由於吸菸的減少,這是一個重要的風險因素。但是2005年的一項研究表明

  • circumcised men were at a lower risk of developing  penile cancer - which is no doubt a big relief.

    割過包皮的男人患陰莖癌的風險較低--這無疑是一個很大的安慰。

  • But another positive may be that  it’s just easier to get it done now!

    但另一個積極因素可能是,現在做起來更容易了!

  • Why would anyone get circumcised as an  adult? Wouldn’t you rather not remember  

    為什麼有人會在成年後接受割禮?難道你不願意不記得

  • that? Besides the possibility of getting  it done when converting to a religion,  

    那個?除了皈依宗教時有可能得到它。

  • some people do it because of problems with  the foreskin. Conditions including swelling,  

    有些人是因為包皮有問題才這樣做的。包括腫脹的情況。

  • inflammation, and difficulty retracting the  foreskin or restoring it to its original  

    發炎,以及難以縮回包皮或將其恢復到原來的狀態。

  • position in older kids and adults- and  the best way to eliminate this problem  

    大齡兒童和成年人的位置--以及消除這一問題的最佳方法

  • is by eliminating the foreskin. But getting  it done as an adult is more painful and has  

    是通過消除包皮。但成年後做這種手術會更痛苦,而且有

  • a higher risk of complications, which is why  many parents decide to just get it over with.

    併發症的風險較高,這就是為什麼許多父母決定直接了結此事。

  • And then there’s one element that  may be the most powerful - tradition!

    然後還有一個可能是最強大的元素--傳統!這是最重要的。

  • If you come from a Jewish or Muslim familyor certain Christian groups like the Coptic or  

    如果你來自一個猶太或穆斯林家庭--或某些基督教團體,如科普特人或基督徒。

  • Ethiopian Orthodox Churches - circumcision iscritical rite that either marks the start of life  

    衣索匹亞東正教會--割禮是一個關鍵的儀式,它或者標誌著生命的開始

  • or the beginning of manhood. While it’s done  only a few days after birth for Jewish boys,  

    或成年的開始。雖然對猶太男孩來說,它只在出生後幾天進行。

  • there is no set age in Islam. A child  being circumcised in these groups is an  

    在伊斯蘭教中沒有固定的年齡。在這些團體中,接受割禮的兒童是一種

  • article of faith, and even if someone isn’t  from a religious group that mandates it,  

    信仰的條款,即使有人不是來自一個強制要求的宗教團體。

  • social pressure is still a factor. If grandpadad, and you are all circumcised...well,  

    社會壓力仍然是一個因素。如果爺爺、爸爸和你都接受了割禮......那麼。

  • it just stands to reason that  your son will be as well, right?

    按理說,你的兒子也會這樣的,對嗎?

  • And social pressure doesn’t stop at the family.

    而社會壓力並不侷限於家庭。

  • In many countries, circumcision is standard  medical practice. In the United States,  

    在許多國家,包皮環切術是標準的醫療做法。在美國。

  • over 71% of boys are circumcised, and  in Israel and the many Muslim nations,  

    超過71%的男孩接受了割禮,在以色列和許多穆斯林國家也是如此。

  • it can reach over 90%. And for boys who are  reaching adolescence and going to school,  

    它可以達到90%以上。而對於進入青春期並要上學的男孩。

  • there might be an awkward situation in  the locker room shower if theyre the  

    在更衣室淋浴時可能會出現尷尬的情況,如果他們是

  • only ones whose equipment doesn’t matchOf course, in other countries this dynamic  

    只有那些設備不匹配的人。 當然,在其他國家,這種動態

  • might be reversed - most European countries  have a circumcision rate of less than 10%,  

    可能會被逆轉--大多數歐洲國家的包皮環切率都低於10%。

  • which means that an American transplant  might be in for a shocking sight at the gym.

    這意味著,美國移植者可能會在健身房看到令人震驚的一幕。

  • But some people want those numbers  to go down to zero. What are the  

    但有些人希望這些數字下降到零。什麼是

  • cons of circumcision - and why are  some people so worked up about it?

    割禮的弊端--為什麼有些人對它如此緊張?

  • People in Pennsylvania were shocked and disturbed  in October 2021 when they saw an unusual group of  

    2021年10月,賓夕法尼亞州的人們感到震驚和不安,因為他們看到一群不尋常的

  • protesters. A group of men marched across  the state wearing pants stained with fake  

    抗議者。一群男子穿著沾有假貨的褲子在全州遊行。

  • blood over the crotch. They called themselves the  Bloodstained Men, and they had one goal - an end  

    褲襠上的血跡。他們稱自己為血染的人,他們有一個目標--結束

  • to circumcision, or as they called it, “foreskin  theft”. Why did these men who had likely been  

    割禮,或如他們所稱的 "盜取包皮"。為什麼這些人可能已經

  • circumcised decades ago care so much? Were they  alleging medical complications from their surgery?

    幾十年前做過包皮手術的人這麼在乎?他們是否指稱自己的手術出現了醫療併發症?

  • Actually, their complaint was  more simple - no one asked them.

    實際上,他們的抱怨更簡單--沒有人問他們。

  • A group of men calling themselves intactivists  started pushing their cause on the internet,  

    一群自稱完整主義者的人開始在互聯網上推動他們的事業。

  • and soon it spread out to the real worldThey believe that male circumcision is a  

    並很快擴散到了現實世界。 他們認為,男性包皮環切術是一種

  • violation of their bodily autonomy, leaves  them with scars and reduced sexual function,  

    侵犯他們的身體自主權,給他們留下疤痕和降低性功能。

  • and is equivalent to female genital mutilationThey say the foreskin is a natural part of the  

    並等同於女性生殖器切割。 他們說,包皮是人體的自然組成部分。

  • penis and should be allowed to keep its  original function, and claim that the  

    陰莖,應允許其保持原有的功能,並聲稱

  • medical benefits of circumcision are exaggerated  if not entirely made up by the medical industry.

    包皮環切術的醫療效益被誇大了,如果不是完全由醫療行業捏造的話。

  • But is there any truth to their claims?

    但他們的說法是否有任何真實性?

  • There is no concrete agreement on the  drawbacks of circumcision, but many  

    對於包皮環切術的弊端沒有具體的一致意見,但許多人

  • parents are rethinking it - and not just those  who have met these activists. One reason many  

    家長們正在重新思考--而且不僅僅是那些見過這些活動家的人。許多人的理由之一是

  • parents are choosing not to have their children  circumcised is worry about pain. Traditionally,  

    父母選擇不給他們的孩子做包皮手術的原因是擔心疼痛。在傳統上。

  • babies who are circumcised in a medical setting  are given a local anesthetic that numbs the area,  

    在醫療環境中進行包皮環切的嬰兒會被注射局部麻醉劑,以麻痺該區域。

  • but the recovery can still be painful and parents  hate to see a newborn in pain. In religious  

    但恢復仍然可能是痛苦的,父母不願意看到新生兒處於痛苦之中。在宗教方面

  • circumcisions, often done without a medical  professional, this can be an even bigger concern.

    割禮,往往在沒有專業醫生的情況下進行,這可能是一個更大的問題。

  • And that’s if everything goes right.

    而這是在一切順利的情況下。

  • Botched circumcisions are rarebut like any surgical procedure,  

    包皮手術失敗的情況很少,但就像任何外科手術一樣。

  • possible. And when you have someone’s manhood  in your hands - literally - the pressure is  

    可能的。而當你把某人的男子氣概掌握在你手中時--從字面上看--壓力是

  • high to get everything right. Of course, no one  hears about the countless cases that go right,  

    高,以獲得所有的權利。當然,沒有人聽說過無數個正確的案例。

  • but the high-profile mistakes are more than  enough to terrify parents. Most famously, David  

    但高調的錯誤足以讓父母感到恐懼。最著名的是,大衛

  • Reimer was severely injured in a botched laser  circumcision as a baby, and his parents decided  

    雷默在嬰兒時期的一次脈衝光包皮手術中受了重傷,他的父母決定

  • to have him sexually reassigned and raise him as  a girl in a controversial case. He discovered the  

    在一個有爭議的案件中,將他的性別重新分配並作為一個女孩來撫養。他發現

  • truth as a teenager and transitioned back to  male. More recently, humorist Gary Shteyngart  

    在十幾歲的時候,他就知道了真相,並轉回了男性身份。最近,幽默大師加里-斯泰恩加特

  • opened up about the lifelong complications he  experienced from a flawed circumcision as a boy.

    他敞開心扉,講述了他在童年時因有缺陷的割禮而經歷的終生併發症。

  • But even if things go right, are  there drawbacks to being circumcised?

    但是,即使事情進展順利,受割禮也有弊端嗎?

  • The human body is a tricky thing, and healing can  be unpredictable. For parents taking care of an  

    人體是一個棘手的東西,癒合可能是不可預知的。對於照顧孩子的父母來說

  • infant - which means a lot of sleepless nights in  the best of circumstances - they might be hesitant  

    在最好的情況下,這意味著很多不眠之夜,他們可能會猶豫不決。

  • to have their baby undergo any sort of surgical  procedure. That would mean wound care and making  

    讓他們的孩子接受任何形式的手術。這將意味著傷口護理和使

  • sure the baby’s hands don’t wander and cause  delays in healing. Even a slight irregularity  

    確保嬰兒的手不會遊移不定,造成癒合的延誤。即使是輕微的不規則現象

  • in the surgery, like cutting the foreskin a little  too long or short, might make the healing slower  

    在手術中,如將包皮切得太長或太短,可能會使傷口癒合得更慢。

  • and open the patient up to infection. Studies  show that there might be complications in  

    並使病人受到感染。研究表明,可能會出現以下併發症

  • roughly one in every five hundred circumcisionsalthough most can be corrected with treatment.

    大約每五百個包皮手術中就有一個,儘管大多數可以通過治療得到糾正。

  • And the question is - is it worth it?

    而問題是--這值得嗎?

  • Another drawback of circumcision is that while  it has benefits for puberty and adulthood,  

    割禮的另一個缺點是,雖然它對青春期和成年期有好處。

  • it’s not going to make much of a difference  immediately after the process. The baby goes  

    在這個過程之後,不會有太大的區別。寶寶去

  • through pain and healing, but there’s no real  difference besides making it slightly easier  

    通過痛苦和癒合,但除了讓它稍微容易一點之外,並沒有真正的區別。

  • for the parent to keep them clean. That’s led  some people to ask - should it be the child’s  

    對於父母來說,要保持他們的清潔。這導致一些人問--應該是孩子的

  • choice when they get older, rather than a standard  medical process done on babies? Of course, given  

    當他們長大後的選擇,而不是對嬰兒進行的標準醫療過程?當然,鑑於

  • how hard it is to make teenage boys get their  haircut sometimes, this might be a harder sell.

    有時讓十幾歲的男孩理髮是多麼困難,這可能是一個更難的銷售。

  • And in the United States where it’s most  common, “Worthhas another meaning.

    而在它最常見的美國,"Worth "有另一種含義。

  • Medical care costs money, and many parents are  already feeling the pinch from all those diapers.  

    醫療保健要花錢,而許多父母已經感受到所有這些尿布的壓力了。

  • Not all insurance companies pay for circumcisions  because theyre not considered an essential  

    並非所有的保險公司都支付包皮環切術的費用,因為它不被認為是一種必需品。

  • surgery. The average hospital circumcision  costs over a hundred dollars, and that can  

    手術。一般醫院的包皮手術費用超過一百美元,而這可以

  • be much higher if a family is hiring a religious  professional specially trained in circumcisions.  

    如果一個家庭聘請了受過專門培訓的宗教專業人員進行割禮,那麼這個數字會高得多。

  • So if the fear of putting a baby  through the procedure isn’t enough,  

    是以,如果讓嬰兒接受手術的恐懼還不夠。

  • sometimes seeing the bill in advance  might make parents decide - maybe not now.

    有時提前看到賬單可能會讓父母做出決定--也許不是現在。

  • But don’t delay - there are  consequences to waiting.

    但不要拖延,等待是有後果的。

  • Why does circumcision have to be done so early  in life? It’s part of the tradition in Jewish  

    為什麼割禮必須在生命中這麼早進行?這是猶太教傳統的一部分。

  • heritage, but doctors will also recommend that any  circumcision be done within the first two months  

    遺產,但醫生也會建議任何包皮環切術在頭兩個月內完成。

  • of life - often before the baby even goes home  from the hospital. This is because, during the  

    往往在嬰兒從醫院回家之前。這是因為,在

  • first two months, the procedure can be done withlocal anesthetic. Once the baby develops a little  

    在頭兩個月,可以用局部麻醉進行手術。一旦嬰兒發育得有點

  • more and is more active, it won’t be safe to have  them moving around and theyll have to be put  

    越來越多,越來越活躍,讓他們到處走動是不安全的,他們將不得不被關起來。

  • under general anesthetic for the precise procedure  - and that carries some risks of its own.

    在全身麻醉的情況下進行精確的手術--而這本身就有一些風險。

  • But another claim ofdrawback is more controversial.

    但另一個缺點的說法更有爭議性。

  • Does circumcision really reduce sexual  pleasure in men? This has been a common  

    割禮真的會降低男性的性快感嗎?這一直是一個常見的

  • claim of the intactivists - that, like women  who have experienced female genital mutilation,  

    完整主義者的主張--即像經歷過女性生殖器切割的婦女一樣。

  • their ability to feel sexual pleasure has been  taken away against their will. Because most  

    他們感受性快感的能力被剝奪了,這是違揹他們的意願的。因為大多數

  • male circumcisions are done as babies, there are  few people who can compare the before and after.  

    男性包皮環切術是在嬰兒時期進行的,很少有人能夠比較前後的情況。

  • Extensive research and multiple studies were  performed, some with over forty thousand  

    進行了廣泛的研究,並進行了多項研究,其中一些研究有超過四萬個

  • participants, to cross-reference experiences  between the circumcised and the uncircumcised,  

    參與者,交叉參考受割禮者和未受割禮者之間的經驗。

  • and no major difference was foundThis is because the underside and  

    並沒有發現重大差異。 這是因為底面和

  • glans of the penis shaft are the main  parts that produce sexual pleasure,  

    陰莖軸的龜頭是產生性快感的主要部分。

  • and the foreskin doesn’t have the  same number of neurological pathways.  

    而包皮沒有相同數量的神經通路。

  • But this does not fully answer the question  of whether there is a change in sensation.

    但這並沒有完全回答感覺上是否有變化的問題。

  • But the intactivist argument is that men  should get to find out for themselves.  

    但完整主義的論點是,男人應該自己去發現。

  • Doctors think the benefits outweigh the risksParents worry if it’s a good idea to put a baby  

    醫生們認為好處多於風險。 家長們擔心,把嬰兒放進醫院是否是個好主意?

  • through that. And religious leaders insist  it’s a critical part of their tradition.  

    通過這一點。而宗教領袖堅持認為這是他們傳統的一個重要部分。

  • As for the baby boys - well, theyre not talking.

    至於男嬰--嗯,他們沒有說話。

  • For more on the foreskin, check out  “Weird Facts About Male Foreskin”,  

    關於包皮的更多資訊,請查看《關於男性包皮的怪異事實》。

  • or watchWhat Happens When You Are Born”  for more on those critical early days.

    或觀看《你出生時發生了什麼》,瞭解更多關於那些關鍵的早期日子。

A new baby means a lot of big  decisions. Breastfed or bottle-fed?  

一個新的嬰兒意味著很多重大的決定。母乳餵養還是奶瓶餵養?

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包皮環切術--利與弊 (Circumcision - Pros and Cons)

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    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 01 月 12 日
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