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  • The world was about to go to war for the  second time. Millions of lives would be  

    世界即將第二次進入戰爭狀態。數以百萬計的生命將被

  • lost. In a secret room, hidden deep in the  bowels of a Polish government building,  

    失去了。在一個祕密的房間裡,隱藏在波蘭政府大樓的深處。

  • three men work frantically to decipher  a German code. If they succeed,  

    三個人瘋狂地工作,以破譯一個德國密碼。如果他們成功了。

  • millions of lives will be saved; if they  fail, the Nazis could rule the world forever.

    數百萬人的生命將得到拯救;如果他們失敗了,納粹可能永遠統治世界。

  • Poland had finally gained its  independence after World War I.  

    波蘭在第一次世界大戰後終於獲得了獨立。

  • But the country knew that enemies were lying  in wait all around their borders. It seemed as  

    但這個國家知道,敵人就在他們的邊界周圍埋伏著。這似乎是

  • if their neighbors wanted to retake the lands that  the Poles fought so hard to defend. Polish leaders  

    如果他們的鄰居想要奪回波蘭人辛苦保衛的土地。波蘭領導人

  • knew they needed to stay one step ahead of their  enemies. In order to do this they would need to  

    他們知道,他們需要比他們的敵人領先一步。為了做到這一點,他們需要

  • decipher encrypted enemy communications. This  would allow them to be prepared for anything.

    破解敵人的加密通信。這將使他們能夠為任何事情做好準備。

  • Unfortunately, war came sooner than  expected when Russian forces invaded  

    不幸的是,戰爭的到來比預期的要快,因為俄羅斯軍隊入侵了

  • the country during the Polish-Soviet War  in 1919. But thanks to their foresight,  

    在1919年的波蘭-蘇聯戰爭期間,這個國家。但由於他們的遠見卓識。

  • Poland had set up the Cipher Bureau. The personnel  working for this organization were geniuses,  

    波蘭成立了密碼局。為這個組織工作的人員都是天才。

  • and they were easily able to decipher  the Russian's clunky cryptic messages.

    而且他們很容易就能破譯俄羅斯人笨重的隱晦資訊。

  • The Russians had not changed their encryption  strategy since the first World War,  

    自第一次世界大戰以來,俄國人一直沒有改變他們的加密戰略。

  • so the Polish cryptologists were easily able  to intercept and decipher Russia's military  

    是以,波蘭的密碼學家很容易截獲和破譯俄羅斯的軍事資訊。

  • communications. This allowed them to always be one  step ahead, and in 1921 at the Battle of Warsaw,  

    通信。這使他們能夠始終領先一步,並在1921年的華沙戰役中。

  • Poland declared victory over the  invading forces. The vital role  

    波蘭宣佈對入侵部隊取得勝利。重要作用

  • that the Polish Cipher Bureau played  in winning the war was not overlooked.  

    波蘭密碼局在贏得戰爭中發揮的作用沒有被忽視。

  • It became clear that in any future conflict  deciphering codes would be key to winning.

    很明顯,在未來的任何衝突中,破譯密碼將是獲勝的關鍵。

  • It was lucky for the rest of the world that  Poland had this foresight, because in just under  

    對世界其他國家來說,波蘭有這樣的遠見是很幸運的,因為在短短不到一年的時間裡

  • two decades, the Axis powers would sweep across  Europe. The world would be plunged into chaos,  

    20年後,軸心國將橫掃歐洲。世界將陷入混亂。

  • and millions of lives would be lost. Howeverwithout what Poland did next, the Allied Forces  

    和數以百萬計的生命將被剝奪。然而,如果沒有波蘭接下來所做的事情,盟軍

  • may have lost the war, and we would all be  living in a Nazi dictatorship right now.

    可能會輸掉戰爭,而我們現在都會生活在一個納粹獨裁政權中。

  • In 1924 the Poles intercepted a new type  of encrypted message that the German Navy  

    1924年,波蘭人截獲了一種新型的加密資訊,德國海軍

  • was using in its communications. This  obviously was concerning for Poland  

    在其通信中使用的是 "無"。這對波蘭來說顯然是個問題。

  • since Germany had not been very friendly  to them during World War I. Even worse,  

    因為在第一次世界大戰期間,德國對他們不是很友好,甚至更糟。

  • Germany's military was growing at an  exponential rate. It was assumed that  

    德國的軍事力量正在以指數級的速度增長。人們認為,

  • new encryptions could only be bad news  for whatever the Germans were planning.  

    新的加密技術對德國人的任何計劃來說只能是個壞消息。

  • The Polish Cipher Bureau immediately went  to work deciphering this new Enigma code.

    波蘭密碼局立即著手破譯這個新的英格瑪密碼。

  • The cryptographers knew that there was trouble  when the German code seemed impossible to crack.  

    當德國人的密碼似乎無法破解時,密碼學家們就知道有麻煩了。

  • For several years they had been able  to intercept and decipher pretty much  

    幾年來,他們已經能夠截獲和破譯幾乎所有的

  • any German communication they could get  their hands on. The Polish team never had  

    他們可以得到的任何德國通信。波蘭隊從未有

  • a problem with breaking the German codes  until now. They would later discover it  

    直到現在,破解德國密碼仍是個問題。他們後來發現

  • all had to do with a device the Germans  had developed called the Enigma machine.

    所有這些都與德國人開發的一種叫做英格瑪機器的設備有關。

  • The Enigma machine was not new per seIt had been invented at the end of World  

    英格瑪機器本身並不新鮮。 它是在第二次世界大戰結束時發明的。

  • War I by a German engineer named Arthur  Scherbius. It was actually a commercial  

    第一次世界大戰期間,一位名叫阿瑟-舍爾比烏斯的德國工程師製造了這架飛機。它實際上是一個商業

  • cipher machine that the military had taken and  modified to make their codes harder to break.

    軍方為了使他們的密碼更難破譯而採取和修改的密碼機。

  • The machine took messages and scrambled them  into strings of random letters. The encrypted  

    該機器接收資訊並將其擾亂成隨機字母串。加密後的

  • messages became impossible to decipher without  an enigma machine to unscramble the message.  

    如果沒有謎語機來解讀資訊,就不可能破譯。

  • There were multiple stages in the  encryption process that changed the  

    加密過程中有多個階段,改變了

  • letters and randomized the code. The  Poles, along with the rest of Europe,  

    信件,並將密碼隨機化。波蘭人和歐洲其他國家一起。

  • knew they were in trouble unless they could figure  out how to break the code the Germans were using.

    他們知道自己有麻煩了,除非他們能弄清楚如何破解德國人使用的密碼。

  • Teams of linguists from Britain, France,  

    來自英國、法國的語言學家團隊。

  • and Poland worked day and night to figure  out how to decipher the Enigma Code.  

    和波蘭日以繼夜地研究如何破譯英格瑪密碼。

  • But they just couldn't crack it. This was when  the Polish Cipher Bureau came to a realization.  

    但他們就是無法破解它。這時,波蘭密碼局悟出了一個道理。

  • Maybe they had been approaching the decryption  method all wrong. Maybe the code couldn't be  

    也許他們對解密方法的處理是錯誤的。也許這段代碼不可能是

  • broken using the linguistics method theyand every other country, had been using.

    使用他們和其他每個國家一直在使用的語言學方法,打破了。

  • After running through their options and  brainstorming what could possibly be causing  

    在仔細研究了他們的選擇和集思廣益後,什麼可能會導致

  • this code to be unbreakable, the Polish military  decided to add the Radio-Intelligence Office to  

    為了使這一密碼牢不可破,波蘭軍方決定將無線電情報局加入到這一密碼中。

  • the Cipher Bureau. Their new task was simplebreak the Enigma Code by any means necessary.

    的密碼局。他們的新任務很簡單:通過任何必要手段破解英格瑪密碼。

  • The Cipher Bureau was now headed by Major Gwido  Langer and Captain Maksymilian Ciężki. It was  

    密碼局現在由格維多-蘭格少校和馬克西米利安-西恩扎基上尉上司。它是

  • Ciężki who first had the idea that would end up  saving the world. He was convinced that in order  

    Ciężki首先提出了最終將拯救世界的想法。他堅信,為了

  • to break the Enigma Code the Poles needed to shift  away from the linguistics approach, and bring in  

    為了破譯英格瑪密碼,波蘭人需要從語言學的方法中轉移出來,並引入了

  • mathematicians. The key to cracking the encrypted  messages wasn't hidden in letters, but in numbers.

    數學家們。破解加密資訊的關鍵並不是隱藏在字母中,而是隱藏在數字中。

  • Ciężki had taught a course at Poznań University  about cryptology, and it was in his class that  

    Ciężki曾在波茲南大學教授一門關於密碼學的課程,正是在他的課上

  • he encountered three students who excelled in  the field. Their names were Marian Rejewski,  

    他遇到了三個在該領域表現出色的學生。他們的名字是瑪麗安-雷傑夫斯基。

  • Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski. All three  of these men had already begun doing the work  

    Jerzy Różycki和Henryk Zygalski。這三個人都已經開始做這個工作了

  • that Ciężki knew was needed. They were using  mathematics to break codes. He immediately  

    茜茜知道這是很有必要的。他們正在使用數學來破解密碼。他立即

  • brought them on board at the Cipher Bureau  and put them to work breaking the Enigma Code.

    把他們帶到了密碼局,讓他們去破解英格瑪密碼。

  • After months and months of frustrationand very little progress, the team finally  

    經過幾個月的挫折,以及非常小的進展,團隊終於

  • caught a break. French allies had gottenhold of highly classified German documents.  

    有了突破。法國盟友拿到了高度機密的德國文件。

  • One of these documents was a manual for  the Enigma machine. The Poles had already  

    其中一份文件是英格瑪機器的手冊。當時波蘭人已經

  • hypothesized that the Germans were using  some kind of device to encode their messages,  

    假設德國人在使用某種裝置對其資訊進行編碼。

  • but had no idea what it was, or how it  worked. But that was all about to change.

    但不知道它是什麼,也不知道它如何工作。但這一切都將改變。

  • The French shared the manual with the British and  the Poles who immediately began using it to figure  

    法國人與英國人和波蘭人分享了這本手冊,他們立即開始用它來計算

  • out the exact methods the Germans were using to  encode their messages. Now that the young Polish  

    準確地找出德國人用來編碼其資訊的方法。現在,年輕的波蘭人

  • cipher team had the manual they were able to  make headway on how the code was being generated.  

    密碼小組有了手冊,他們能夠在代碼的生成方式上取得進展。

  • It was Marian Rejewski who finally figured  out how the rotors and connections within  

    是Marian Rejewski最終弄清了轉子和連接處的情況。

  • the Enigma machine worked to scramble the  messages. This allowed the Cipher Bureau to  

    英格瑪機器的工作是擾亂資訊。這使密碼局能夠

  • build replicas of the German Enigma machine. They  were finally getting closer to breaking the code.

    建造德國英格瑪機器的複製品。他們終於離破解密碼越來越近了。

  • However, the team found that just having the  machine was not enough because breaking the  

    然而,該團隊發現,僅僅擁有機器是不夠的,因為打破了

  • encrypted messages took far too much timeRejewski developed a solution to this as  

    加密的資訊花費了太多的時間。 Rejewski為此開發了一個解決方案,即

  • well. He and the team built electromechanical  machines called 'bombes' that could speed up  

    好。他和團隊建造了被稱為 "炸彈 "的機電機器,可以加快

  • the decryption process. The mathematicians had  finally done it. They broke the Enigma Code,  

    解密的過程。數學家們終於做到了。他們破解了英格瑪密碼。

  • and could decipher German messages quickly. But  then something incredibly frustrating happened.

    並能迅速破譯德語資訊。但後來發生了令人難以置信的沮喪的事情。

  • The Germans either found out that  their messages were no longer secure,  

    德國人要麼發現他們的資訊不再安全了。

  • or someone leaked information to them, because  they added another set of encryption devices  

    或者有人向他們洩露了資訊,因為他們又增加了一套加密裝置

  • to their machines. Once again the  Polish cipher team was in the dark.

    到他們的機器上。波蘭的密碼小組再次被矇在鼓裡。

  • In 1936, with World War II looming on  the horizon, the Germans began changing  

    1936年,隨著第二次世界大戰迫在眉睫,德國人開始改變

  • the settings of the rotors in their  Enigma machines much more frequently.  

    在他們的英格瑪機器中,轉子的設置更加頻繁。

  • Previously the rotors remained the same  for months. Then when they did change,  

    以前,轉子幾個月都沒有變化。然後當他們真的改變了。

  • it was just a matter of time before the Polish  mathematicians figured out the new settings,  

    波蘭的數學家們想出新的設置只是時間問題。

  • and could begin deciphering the  messages once again. Now however,  

    並可以再次開始破譯這些資訊。然而現在。

  • the Germans were changing the rotors in their  machines daily, and the Poles couldn't keep up.

    德國人每天都在更換他們機器上的轉子,而波蘭人卻跟不上。

  • It seemed as if the Cipher Bureau was back  to page one. Not only were the rotors being  

    似乎密碼局又回到了第一頁。不僅是轉子被

  • constantly changed, but the Germans  had added another layer of encryption  

    不斷改變,但德國人又增加了一層加密。

  • to the keyboard of the machine that increased the  number of ways that the message could be encoded.  

    在機器的鍵盤上,增加了資訊可以被編碼的方式。

  • Rejewski and his team worked around the clock  to make adjustments to their own machines,  

    Rejewski和他的團隊晝夜工作,對自己的機器進行調整。

  • which would allow them to once again  decipher the German Enigma Code.

    這將使他們能夠再次破譯德國的英格瑪密碼。

  • Their painstaking work paid off, and by 1938 the  Polish Cipher Bureau could decode around 75% of  

    他們艱苦的工作得到了回報,到1938年,波蘭密碼局可以破譯大約75%的密碼。

  • German messages. However, the Germans kept adding  layers of encryption to their codes. Rejewski  

    德國的資訊。然而,德國人不斷地給他們的密碼增加層層加密。雷耶夫斯基

  • and his team kept up with the changes, and  developed ways around the new layers of coding.  

    他和他的團隊跟上了這些變化,並圍繞新的編碼層開發了一些方法。

  • In 1939 they could break the codes on around 95%  of German messages. Then the unthinkable happened.

    1939年,他們可以破解大約95%的德國資訊的密碼。然後,不可想象的事情發生了。

  • As 1939 progressed the Polish Cipher  Bureau deciphered more and more military  

    隨著1939年的進展,波蘭密碼局破譯了越來越多的軍事密碼。

  • communications from the Germans that indicated  war was imminent. They knew that their country  

    來自德國人的通信表明戰爭迫在眉睫。他們知道,他們的國家

  • was going to be invaded, and since the  rest of Europe was dragging there feet in  

    由於歐洲的其他國家都在拖延時間,所以他們將被入侵。

  • taking the new Nazi threat seriously, the  Poles needed to make a difficult choice.

    認真對待新的納粹威脅,波蘭人需要做出艱難的選擇。

  • Should they hold tight and try to defend all  the hard work they'd accomplished on their own?  

    他們是否應該緊緊抓住並試圖捍衛他們自己所完成的所有努力工作?

  • Or should they send their cipher  team, replica enigma machines,  

    或者他們應該派出他們的密碼小組,複製英格瑪機器。

  • and bombes decipherers out of the country  and give them to the French and the British?

    並將破譯者轟出國門,交給法國和英國人?

  • As September 1st approached, and the invasion  was about to get underway, the Poles made the  

    隨著9月1日的臨近,入侵即將開始,波蘭人提出了

  • decision. The Cipher Bureau handed over all  of their work and their machines to the French  

    決定。密碼局將他們所有的工作和機器都交給了法國。

  • cipher chief Gustave Bertrand and the head of  the British cipher team, Alastair Denniston.

    密碼主管古斯塔夫-貝特朗和英國密碼小組負責人阿拉斯泰爾-丹尼斯頓。

  • Once the French and British were  given the Cyber Bureau's resources,  

    一旦法國和英國人得到了網絡局的資源。

  • they realized that the Poles were light-years  ahead of where they were on deciphering the  

    他們意識到,波蘭人在破譯方面比他們領先很多年。

  • Nazi's messages. The main reason for this  was because of the mathematical code breaking  

    納粹的資訊。其主要原因是數學密碼的破解

  • that Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki, and  Henryk Zygalski had employed in their methods.  

    Marian Rejewski、Jerzy Różycki和Henryk Zygalski在他們的方法中採用的方法。

  • Over the past several years the French and  British had continued using a linguistic  

    在過去的幾年裡,法國和英國繼續使用一種語言上的

  • foundation to try and break the Enigma  Code, and had made very little progress.

    試圖破解英格瑪密碼的基金會,取得的進展甚微。

  • It was the Poles' information and machinery that  allowed for future breakthroughs on codes used  

    正是波蘭人的資訊和機器,使得未來在密碼方面的突破得以實現。

  • by the Axis Powers. The Nazi's continued to modify  their machines and encryptions, but the foundation  

    軸心國。納粹繼續修改他們的機器和加密技術,但基礎

  • that the Polish team had provided for the Frenchand more importantly the British, allowed them  

    波蘭團隊為法國人,更重要的是為英國人提供的,使他們能夠

  • to build the machine that would save millions  upon millions of lives by helping end the war.

    製造一臺機器,通過幫助結束戰爭來拯救數以百萬計的生命。

  • This machine was the Colossus Computer at  Bletchley Park that allowed Alan Turing and  

    這臺機器就是布萊切利公園的巨像計算機,它讓阿蘭-圖靈和

  • his team to decipher the Enigma messages that  the Axis Powers were using during World War  

    他的團隊破譯了軸心國在世界大戰期間使用的英尼碼資訊。

  • II. The Cipher Bureau's work also  made it possible for the British  

    II.密碼局的工作也使英國的

  • team to eventually break the German Lorenz  cipher that was even more sophisticated,  

    團隊最終破解了更為複雜的德國洛倫茲密碼。

  • and was used by the Nazis towards the end of  the war. If Turing and his team did not have the  

    並在戰爭即將結束時被納粹利用。如果圖靈和他的團隊沒有掌握

  • foundation set by the Polish mathematiciansthe war may have ended very differently.  

    如果沒有波蘭數學家奠定的基礎,戰爭的結局可能會很不一樣。

  • Even if the Allies had won World War II it would  have taken much longer, and there would have been  

    即使盟國贏得了第二次世界大戰,也會花費更長的時間,而且會有

  • many more casualties. Luckily, this did not  happen thanks to the codebreakers in Poland.

    更多的人員傷亡。幸運的是,由於波蘭的破譯員,這種情況沒有發生。

  • Unfortunately at the end of World War II  Poland was forced into the Communist rule  

    不幸的是,二戰結束後,波蘭被迫進入共產黨的統治。

  • of the Soviet Union. During this time  Polish achievements were suppressed,  

    蘇聯的。在這期間,波蘭的成就受到壓制。

  • and the Communists controlled information  coming into, and going out of the country.  

    共產黨控制了進出該國的資訊。

  • The heroes of the Cipher  Bureau were all but forgotten.

    密碼局的英雄們幾乎都被遺忘了。

  • Recently, the Polish government has fought hard  to make the accomplishments of Marian Rejewski,  

    最近,波蘭政府為馬裡安-雷耶夫斯基的成就進行了艱苦的鬥爭。

  • Jerzy Różycki, and Henryk Zygalski  known to the rest of the world.  

    Jerzy Różycki和Henryk Zygalski為世界其他地區所知。

  • They are finally being recognized for their  contributions, and even have a plaque dedicated  

    他們的貢獻終於得到了認可,甚至有一塊專門的牌子。

  • to them outside of Bletchley Park. We here at  The Infogrpahics Show are happy to help spread  

    在布萊切利公園以外的地方向他們介紹。我們在Infogrpahics展會上很樂意幫助傳播

  • the news of how Poland helped save the worldeven if it couldn't save itself. It is crazy  

    波蘭如何幫助拯救世界的新聞,即使它不能拯救自己。這很瘋狂

  • to think that without the early contributions  of these cryptographers millions more people  

    想到如果沒有這些密碼學家的早期貢獻,就會有數以百萬計的人

  • may have died during World War II. Or that we  might all be living in a Nazi empire today.

    可能已經在二戰期間死亡。或者說,我們今天可能都生活在一個納粹帝國中。

  • Now watchMost Terrifying Weapons of World  War 2.” Or check outCIA Spy Techniques:  

    現在觀看 "第二次世界大戰中最可怕的武器"。或查看 "中情局間諜技術。

  • The Shoelace Code and Other  Secret Spy Techniques.”

    鞋帶密碼和其他祕密間諜技術"。

The world was about to go to war for the  second time. Millions of lives would be  

世界即將第二次進入戰爭狀態。數以百萬計的生命將被

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B2 中高級 中文 密碼 波蘭 波蘭人 機器 破解 德國人

拯救了數百萬人生命的黑客們 (Hackers Who Saved Millions of Lives)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 12 月 16 日
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