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  • Vietnam until Iraq and Afghanistan.

    越南直到伊拉克和阿富汗。

  • There was no bigger quagmire in U.

    在美國,沒有比這更大的泥潭了。

  • S.

    S.

  • History fraught with misconceptions, mistakes and outright plunders.

    歷史充滿了誤解、錯誤和赤裸裸的掠奪。

  • Vietnam remains unique as a war where America snatched defeat from the jaws of victory.

    越南仍然是美國從勝利中奪取失敗的獨特戰爭。

  • But these are the ways the U.

    但這些都是美國的方式。

  • S.

    S.

  • Could have won.

    本來可以贏的。

  • Vietnam number one fight for the right side.

    越南的第一場戰鬥是為右翼而戰。

  • Vietnam was a very profitable french colony until France's defeat in World War two, sparking an invasion by the Japanese seeking to end the shipment of four materials into china, whom Japan was also at war with and securing naval basing rights in the region.

    越南是一個非常有利可圖的法國殖民地,直到法國在第二次世界大戰中戰敗,引發了日本人的入侵,試圖終止向中國運送四種材料,日本也在與中國交戰,並確保在該地區的海軍基地權利。

  • Japan's strong armed the colonial french government and allowing an occupation force in the country until Japan's defeat at the end of the Second World war, France was severely weakened by the war and seeing french troops routed by invading Japanese forces gave new strength to the Vietnamese people Who had been waging a guerilla war of independence nearly since the beginning of being subjugated by the French in the 19th century.

    日本強行武裝法國殖民政府,並允許佔領軍駐紮在該國,直到日本在第二次世界大戰結束時被打敗,法國在戰爭中被嚴重削弱,看到法國軍隊被入侵的日本軍隊擊潰,給越南人民帶來了新的力量,他們幾乎從19世紀被法國征服開始就一直在發動獨立的游擊戰爭。

  • Upon the withdrawal of Japanese forces.

    在日本軍隊撤出後。

  • At the end of the war, Hokey men launched a bid for independence.

    戰爭結束後,霍基人發起了爭取獨立的行動。

  • This created a crisis for France as Vietnam was not just strategically important for South Asian trade, But also a source of easily exploitable wealth for a France struggling to recover from the ravages of the Second World War US involvement in Vietnam began in 1950 for financing almost the entire cost of the French effort in the nation.

    這給法國帶來了危機,因為越南不僅對南亞貿易具有重要的戰略意義,而且對正努力從第二次世界大戰的破壞中恢復過來的法國來說,也是一個容易開發的財富來源。 美國於1950年開始介入越南,幾乎資助了法國在該國的全部費用。

  • The us already feared the spread of communism and this fear was exploited by Britain to seek us intervention in Iran and by France to Canada's aid in Vietnam.

    美國已經擔心共產主義的蔓延,這種恐懼被英國利用來尋求我們對伊朗的干預,被法國利用來尋求加拿大對越南的援助。

  • The european powers helped sell the political fear of the domino effect to the U.

    歐洲大國幫助向美國推銷多米諾效應的政治恐懼。

  • S.

    S.

  • Painting a grim future where the US was an island surrounded by communism.

    描繪了一個嚴峻的未來,美國是一個被共產主義包圍的島嶼。

  • This alone was enough to encourage the US to enter the war upon news of U.

    僅此一點就足以鼓勵美國在得到美國的消息後加入戰爭。

  • S.

    S.

  • Involvement in the war horse Semen was personally devastated.

    參與戰爭的馬塞門個人受到了很大的打擊。

  • Not because he feared facing a global superpower in battle, but because he had been an avid student of the american independence movement, its constitution and its declaration of independence.

    不是因為他害怕在戰鬥中面對一個全球超級大國,而是因為他一直熱衷於研究美國獨立運動、其憲法和獨立宣言。

  • Minh was actually convinced that if the U.

    Minh實際上相信,如果美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • Did intervene, it would surely do so on the side of the fighters seeking to end their colonial oppression.

    如若進行干預,它肯定會站在尋求結束殖民壓迫的戰鬥者一邊。

  • Not on the side of the colonial power.

    而不是站在殖民國家一邊。

  • Vietnam was not a domino that threatened to top of the region and fuel soviet influence.

    越南並不是一個威脅到該地區頂端和助長蘇聯影響的多米諾骨牌。

  • It was a nation tired of being exploded by european powers and simply sought independence.

    它是一個厭倦了被歐洲列強炸燬的國家,只是尋求獨立。

  • If the United States had acted true to the ideals that claim to hold dear liberty, independence and freedom, then it would have never entered the conflict in the first place.

    如果美國的行為忠實於聲稱珍視自由、獨立和自由的理想,那麼它一開始就不會加入這場衝突。

  • Thus winning a war that it never fought in order to oppose the communist north America also hugely blundered in who it's supported in the south.

    是以,為了反對共產主義,美國贏得了一場從未打過的戰爭,也在南方支持的對象上出現了巨大的失誤。

  • South Vietnam might have been friendly to US interests, but it had little interest in becoming a western style democracy.

    南越可能對美國的利益很友好,但它對成為一個西式民主國家沒有什麼興趣。

  • Instead, a series of dictators took power for themselves and coups that came in rapid succession to the point that the lack of cohesion actually hurt the South zone armies from being able to fight the US failed to understand that the reason the Viet Cong movement became so large and so many Vietnamese people supported the Communist north was because they were tired of being oppressed by dictators, whether their own or those installed by colonial powers.

    相反,一系列的獨裁者為自己奪取了權力,政變接二連三地發生,以至於缺乏凝聚力實際上傷害了南區軍隊的戰鬥力,美國沒有理解越共運動之所以變得如此龐大,如此多的越南人民支持共產黨的北方,是因為他們厭倦了被獨裁者壓迫,無論是他們自己的獨裁者還是被殖民國家安裝的獨裁者。

  • With the South Vietnamese government brutally oppressing its people with mass arrests, torture, censorship and other human rights violations.

    隨著南越政府以大規模逮捕、酷刑、審查和其他侵犯人權的行為殘酷地壓迫其人民。

  • Tens of thousands of civilians were driven straight into the arms of the north with communist forces being supported or at least being tolerated by the people.

    成千上萬的平民被直接趕到北方的懷抱,共產黨的部隊得到了人民的支持或至少得到了人民的容忍。

  • They were able to routinely win strategic victories against the U.

    他們能夠經常贏得對美國的戰略勝利。

  • S.

    S.

  • Even as the U.

    即使是在美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • Won, the entirely meaningless body count war.

    贏得了,完全沒有意義的屍體數量戰爭。

  • Perhaps the US's greatest mistake was being on the wrong side of people seeking freedom from oppression.

    也許美國最大的錯誤是站在了尋求擺脫壓迫的人民的錯誤一邊。

  • But U.

    但U。

  • S.

    S.

  • Fears about Vietnam were sadly based on America's next biggest mistake.

    對越南的擔心可悲地基於美國的下一個最大錯誤。

  • Number to know your enemy, America has been and still largely is a nation with a myopic view of the world.

    要了解你的敵人的數量,美國一直是,而且在很大程度上仍然是一個對世界有近視眼的國家。

  • It's a country used to and still expecting to fight conflicts such as World War One and World War Two with clearly defined good guys and bad guys falling prey to european fueled communism fears the United States North Vietnam as communists, no different than the Soviets it saw as a threat to western democracy.

    這是一個習慣於並仍然期待著打一戰和二戰等衝突的國家,有明確定義的好人和壞人落入歐洲人助長的共產主義的恐懼中,美國的北越是共產主義者,與它視為西方民主威脅的蘇聯沒有區別。

  • Americans couldn't have been more wrong.

    美國人不可能再錯了。

  • In the late 19 fifties, America painted all Communists with the same brush, a fatal mistake which would lead to one of the US's most catastrophic wars.

    在1950年代末,美國用同一把刷子塗抹所有的共產黨人,這是一個致命的錯誤,將導致美國最災難性的戰爭之一。

  • If the fear was that the fall of Vietnam to communism would lead to an increased influence from the soviet union in china.

    如果擔心越南倒向共產主義會導致蘇聯對中國的影響增加。

  • Then the United States poorly understood the relationships between these three nations.

    然後,美國對這三個國家之間的關係理解不深。

  • Historically Vietnam has been involved in 1000 years of ongoing conflict with china.

    歷史上,越南與中國的衝突持續了1000年。

  • In fact today Vietnam is one of the US's strongest partners and containing a modern china that consistently acts in bad faith in the region.

    事實上,今天的越南是美國最強大的合作伙伴之一,幷包含了一個在該地區一貫採取惡意行為的現代中國。

  • Vietnamese and chinese animosity has simmered for longer than America has been a nation and yet this fundamental lack of understanding its enemy let the U.

    越南和中國的敵意比美國建國的時間還要長,但這種對敵人的根本不瞭解讓美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • To fear chinese involvement in post war Vietnam.

    擔心中國參與戰後的越南。

  • It also made american politicians terrified of chinese influence growing in the region.

    這也使美國的政治家們對中國在該地區的影響力增長感到恐懼。

  • Should the south fall or the country reunify as a communist power.

    如果南方淪陷或國家統一為一個共產主義國家。

  • Understanding the difference between Vietnam and china would have led the US to fear less the fall of the country to communism.

    瞭解越南和中國的區別會使美國對該國淪為共產主義國家的恐懼減少。

  • Communism is simply a form of governance and yet the US myopically viewed communism as some form of supernatural binding power that automatically made nation allies and enemies of the west.

    共產主義只是一種治理形式,而美國卻近視地將共產主義視為某種超自然的約束力量,自動使國家成為西方的盟友和敵人。

  • This is particularly sent in retrospect because hokey men had warm affections for the U.

    現在回想起來,這一點尤其發人深省,因為胡克人對美國有熱烈的感情。

  • S.

    S.

  • Until the start of the war had the north been allowed to unify the nation without U.

    直到戰爭開始前,北方一直被允許在沒有U的情況下統一國家。

  • S.

    S.

  • Interference.

    干擾。

  • Vietnam could very well have turned into a strong american partner in the region.

    越南很有可能變成美國在該地區的一個強大的合作伙伴。

  • Instead of the feared and maligned communist stronghold with completely imaginary hatred of Western democracy.

    而不是對西方民主有完全想象中的仇恨的令人恐懼和惡意的共產主義堡壘。

  • The US fears of Communist Vietnam and its inability to differentiate a nation and its own relationships from communism is especially tragic in the light of the china and soviet union relationship.

    美國對越南共產黨的恐懼,以及它無法將一個國家和自己的關係與共產主義區分開來,從中國和蘇聯的關係來看,這一點尤其可悲。

  • Despite both being nations modeled after authoritarian communism, which basically isn't real communism at all.

    儘管兩者都是以專制共產主義為模式的國家,而專制共產主義基本上根本就不是真正的共產主義。

  • A deep divide existed between the two powers.

    兩國之間存在著深刻的分歧。

  • Border skirmishes were not uncommon and chinese soviet relations would become so bad that china would actually buddy up to the US eventually leading to Nixon's famous quip to soviet leader, Leonid Brezhnev.

    邊境小規模衝突並不罕見,中蘇關係變得如此糟糕,以至於中國實際上與美國結成了夥伴,最終導致尼克松對蘇聯領導人勃列日涅夫的著名調侃。

  • Now I have more communists on my side than you.

    現在我這邊的共產黨員比你多。

  • A better understanding of Vietnam as a nation and not as a communist bogeyman would have led to better choices about U.

    如果對越南這個國家有更好的瞭解,而不是把它當作一個共產主義的惡棍,就能對美國做出更好的選擇。

  • S.

    S.

  • Involvement in the conflict.

    參與到衝突中。

  • And had the US exercised a bit of nuance, could have actually led to a strong regional partner.

    而如果美國稍有微詞,實際上可能會導致一個強大的區域夥伴。

  • Even if that partner was a Communist state.

    即使這個夥伴是一個共產主義國家。

  • Number three, there's no such thing as limited war, limited war.

    第三,沒有所謂的有限戰爭,有限戰爭。

  • A buzz word still used by some pentagon insiders today.

    今天一些五角大樓的內部人員仍在使用這個流行詞。

  • The concept is simple in order to minimize political fallout and reduce risk.

    這個概念很簡單,以儘量減少政治影響和降低風險。

  • The United States engages in the practice of war with a limited scope and Vietnam.

    美國在有限的範圍和越南從事戰爭實踐。

  • The US's greatest fear was once more embroiling china into an asian war.

    美國最擔心的是再一次將中國捲入一場亞洲戰爭。

  • China's interference in the korean war had led to near defeat of U.

    中國對朝鮮戰爭的干預導致了美國的幾乎失敗。

  • N.

    N.

  • Expeditionary forces and a hasty withdrawal back to the D.

    遠征軍,並匆忙撤到D區。

  • M.

    M.

  • Z.

    Z.

  • Fearful of kicking off World war three.

    害怕掀起第三次世界大戰。

  • The United States first engaged in limited war.

    美國首先參與了有限戰爭。

  • In the latter half of the korean war with President Truman expressively forbidding the striking of targets inside china not wanting to risk an escalation and pulling the soviet union into the conflict.

    在朝鮮戰爭的後半段,杜魯門總統明確禁止打擊中國境內的目標,不想冒升級的風險,把蘇聯拉入衝突。

  • Truman did not allow us bombers to strike at chinese staging areas, supply depots and most importantly airfields, there was just one problem with Truman's thinking China was already at war with the U.

    杜魯門不允許我們的轟炸機打擊中國的集結地、補給站和最重要的機場,杜魯門的想法只有一個問題,那就是中國已經與美國開戰了。

  • S.

    S.

  • And the Soviets were supplying everything from weapons to fighter pilots.

    而蘇聯人正在提供從武器到戰鬥機飛行員的一切。

  • The conflict had already escalated.

    衝突已經升級了。

  • The decision to not strike military targets and china was disastrous for the U.

    不打擊軍事目標和中國的決定對美國是災難性的。

  • N.

    N.

  • Effort to defeat the north korean forces.

    努力打敗北韓軍隊。

  • It allowed chinese and soviet aviators to operate with impunity and for china to resupply its forces in Korea without fear of interference.

    它允許中國和蘇聯的飛行員不受懲罰地行動,並允許中國在不擔心干擾的情況下對其在北韓的部隊進行補給。

  • It also allowed china to prosecute the war in Korea without suffering any economic harm about the only thing that would have deterred china from continuing to support the north korean effort in Vietnam.

    它還允許中國在北韓進行戰爭而不遭受任何經濟損失,這是唯一會阻止中國繼續支持北韓在越南的努力的事情。

  • The United States would once more commit a grave mistake of believing it can wage a limited war and still achieve victory with many soviet observers and technical advisors in the North US politicians forbade the military from striking at specific targets and others can only be attacked during certain times.

    美國將再次犯一個嚴重的錯誤,即認為它可以發動一場有限的戰爭並仍然取得勝利,在北方有許多蘇聯觀察員和技術顧問,美國的政治家禁止軍隊對特定目標進行打擊,其他目標只能在特定時間內被攻擊。

  • For instance, North Vietnamese air defenses were the most formidable in the world and lead to over half of US POWs being aviators and yet american pilots were forbidden from striking SAM sites until they were fully operational for fear of striking soviet advisers attacking a SAM site when fully operational is pretty much the worst time to attack a SAM site.

    例如,北越的防空系統是世界上最強大的,並導致超過一半的美國戰俘是飛行員,但美國飛行員被禁止打擊防空導彈基地,直到它們完全投入使用,因為擔心打擊蘇聯顧問,在完全投入使用時攻擊防空導彈基地幾乎是攻擊防空導彈基地的最壞時機。

  • Likewise, U.

    同樣,美國也是如此。

  • S.

    S.

  • Forces were forbidden from holding territory in North Vietnam for fear for a repeat of china's interference in Korea.

    由於擔心中國對北韓的干涉會重演,部隊被禁止在北越佔據領土。

  • American conventional forces could have easily steamrolled the north Vietnamese and only by taking and holding north Vietnamese territory.

    美國的常規部隊本來可以輕易地碾壓北越,而且只能通過佔領和保持北越的領土。

  • Could they have relieved the pressure in South Vietnam long enough for the government to establish legitimacy with the people holding of North Vietnamese territory would have also disrupted the supply routes and destroy the resources necessary to arm the Viet Cong insurgency in the south.

    他們能否在南越緩解足夠長的壓力,使政府能夠在人民中建立起合法性,佔領北越領土也會破壞供應路線,並摧毀武裝南方越共叛亂所需的資源。

  • Lastly only by taking strategic north Vietnamese objectives could there have been a political victory against the north despite being completely defeated, Germany never surrendered until the Soviets entered Berlin even after the U.

    最後,只有拿下北越的戰略目標,才有可能取得對北越的政治勝利,儘管被徹底擊敗,但在蘇聯進入柏林之前,德國從未投降過,即使在美國之後。

  • S.

    S.

  • Is aimed to defeat the north by bombing them though, America hamstrung itself, Operation linebacker and linebacker to were extremely successful bombing campaigns against the north which were both immediately suspended the moment that U.

    美國的目的是通過轟炸來打敗北方,但美國卻束手束腳,"後衛行動 "和 "後衛行動 "是針對北方的極其成功的轟炸行動,但在美國立即中止了這兩項行動。

  • S.

    S.

  • Politicians believed they could bring the north to the negotiation table.

    政治家們相信他們可以把北方帶到談判桌上。

  • The north understanding fully that the US would only wage a limited war took advantage of these laws in bombing campaigns to simply rebuild its infrastructure and resources preparing to wage total war.

    北方完全理解美國只會發動一場有限的戰爭,在轟炸行動中利用這些法律,簡單地重建其基礎設施和資源,準備發動全面戰爭。

  • The moment negotiations predictably failed US limited war philosophy was not only strategically doomed, but was a complete mismatch against North Vietnam's waging of total war.

    此刻的談判可預見地失敗了,美國的有限戰爭哲學不僅在戰略上註定失敗,而且與北越發動的全面戰爭完全不匹配。

  • Just like America feared a communist stronghold in southeast Asia.

    就像美國擔心共產黨在東南亞的據點一樣。

  • North Vietnam feared that South Vietnam would simply become a jumping off point for colonial powers to once more exert their influence on the nation.

    北越擔心南越只是成為殖民國家再次對國家施加影響的一個跳板。

  • In order to secure their future, the North Vietnamese needed to achieve nothing less than total victory and reunification.

    為了確保他們的未來,北越需要取得不亞於全面勝利和統一的成績。

  • To this end, they engaged in total war, fully dedicating themselves and their society to the defeat of the United States.

    為此,他們參與了全面戰爭,將自己和社會完全奉獻給了美國的失敗。

  • This strategic mismatch left us with little hope of winning the war as the communists were willing to sacrifice as many people as necessary to win in the face of such fanatical devotion to total war countries, waging limited war can never hope to succeed.

    這種戰略上的不匹配使我們幾乎沒有希望贏得戰爭,因為共產黨人願意為勝利犧牲儘可能多的人,面對如此狂熱地投身於全面戰爭的國家,發動有限的戰爭永遠不可能指望成功。

  • No matter how superior its firepower in technological advantages, sadly, this is a lesson the United States has still failed to learn, judging by the complete failure in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    無論其在技術優勢方面的火力有多強,可悲的是,從在伊拉克和阿富汗的完全失敗來看,這一點美國仍然沒有吸取教訓。

  • Perhaps the greatest blunder of waging limited war though, was that it left us forces with no clear military objectives to achieve other than attrition of the enemy.

    不過,發動有限戰爭的最大失誤是,除了消耗敵人之外,我們的部隊沒有明確的軍事目標可以實現。

  • Rudderless.

    無舵者。

  • Us morale plummeted in american units forfeited the initiative to the enemy at every turn.

    在美國部隊每次都把主動權交給敵人的情況下,我們的士氣急劇下降。

  • Viet Cong insurgents used the circumstances to great effect, operating almost with impunity throughout South Vietnam as America failed to eliminate its sources of manpower and resupply in the north.

    越共叛亂分子利用這種情況取得了巨大的效果,由於美國未能消除其在北部的人力和補給來源,他們在整個南越的行動幾乎不受懲罰。

  • Number four coach Eamon Trail was the key to victory.

    四號教練Eamon Trail是勝利的關鍵。

  • In a post war interview in North Vietnamese General was asked what he feared the most during the war.

    在戰後的一次採訪中,北越將軍被問及他在戰爭期間最害怕的是什麼。

  • His response was immediate.

    他的反應很直接。

  • American ground forces attacking the Ho chi Minh trail directly.

    美國地面部隊直接攻擊胡志明小道。

  • The HCM was a jungle superhighway through which North Vietnam replenished its forces in the south and brought in new supplies from china.

    河姆渡是一條叢林高速公路,北越通過它補充其在南方的部隊,並從中國運來新的物資。

  • It allowed supply convoys to completely bypass american and South Vietnamese military units with the only fear of attack coming from the air.

    它允許補給車隊完全繞過美國和南越的軍事組織、部門,唯一害怕的是來自空中的攻擊。

  • To be fair, the US dedicated an incredible amount of firepower in the aerial fight to disrupt the Ho chi Minh trail.

    公平地說,美國在空戰中奉獻了令人難以置信的火力,以破壞胡志明的足跡。

  • But as the U.

    但由於美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • Would fail to learn repeatedly, the air force cannot secure territory because the nation's, the HCM passed through a neutral.

    將失敗的學習反覆,空軍不能確保領土,因為國家的,HCM通過了一箇中立。

  • The U.

    幽會。

  • S.

    S.

  • Did not want to move forces into those nations for fear of widening the war yet again, North Vietnamese had already widened the war, leaving the United States to refuse to accept the reality.

    不想向這些國家調兵遣將,擔心再次擴大戰爭,北越已經擴大了戰爭,讓美國拒絕接受現實。

  • This isn't to say that american fears of widening the war couldn't have led to chinese or soviet involvement were simply saying that America had no chance of winning the conflict without waging total war widening the conflict may have led to the involvement of chinese or soviet forces but not widening the conflict guaranteed us defeat by shutting down the HCM supply lines with ground forces, The Viet Cong movement would have slowly starved to death from a lack of basic supplies needed to wage the war.

    這並不是說美國對擴大戰爭的恐懼不可能導致中國或蘇聯的參與,只是說如果不發動全面戰爭,美國就沒有機會贏得衝突,擴大沖突可能會導致中國或蘇聯軍隊的參與,但不擴大沖突就能保證我們的失敗,因為地面部隊關閉了HCM的供應線,越共運動會因為缺乏發動戰爭所需的基本供應而慢慢餓死。

  • Without the disruptive force of the Viet Cong in the south of US and South Vietnamese troops could have established a true war front to the north rather than being stuck in a quagmire of fire bases spread throughout the country infested with insurgents.

    如果沒有越共在南方的破壞性力量,美國和南越軍隊可以在北方建立一個真正的戰爭前線,而不是陷入遍佈全國的火力基地的泥潭,被叛亂分子侵擾。

  • So could the U.

    美國也可以。

  • S.

    S.

  • Have one Vietnam Absolutely, especially if it had never feared a communist Vietnam and even fought in the first place.

    有一個越南絕對是,特別是如果它從來沒有擔心過一個共產主義的越南,甚至一開始就打了。

  • Once dragged into the fight though, had the US accepted the reality that any war is a total war, it could have quickly and decisively defeated the north.

    不過,一旦被拖入戰鬥,如果美國接受了任何戰爭都是一場全面戰爭的現實,它就能迅速而果斷地擊敗北方。

  • Limited war does not work and we have Korea Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan to prove it.

    有限戰爭是行不通的,我們有韓國越南、伊拉克和阿富汗來證明。

  • If the United States is to go to war, it must do so with the intent to achieve complete victory.

    如果美國要參戰,它必須以取得完全勝利為目的。

  • Only then can a conflict be ended as quickly and humanely as possible fears of chinese and soviet involvement were likely unfounded.

    只有這樣,才能儘可能迅速和人道地結束衝突,對中國和蘇聯介入的擔心很可能是沒有根據的。

  • As the Soviets would have been incredibly unlikely to start a third world war against NATO Over a single territory in southeast Asia china may have become involved but had total or been applied in the korean war, as it should have.

    由於蘇聯人不太可能為了東南亞的一塊領土而對北約發動第三次世界大戰,中國可能已經卷入其中,但在朝鮮戰爭中完全或被應用,這是它應該做的。

  • This too, would have been incredibly unlikely.

    這也是非常不可能的事。

  • What was completely certain is that the US was doomed to lose from the start, believing it could fight this or any conflict.

    完全可以肯定的是,美國從一開始就註定要輸,認為它可以打這場或任何衝突。

  • As a limited war now go check out why Vietnam War Tunnel Rat Job was so deadly.

    作為一場有限的戰爭,現在去看看為什麼越南戰爭的隧道老鼠工作是如此致命。

  • Or click this other video instead.

    或者點擊這個其他視頻來代替。

Vietnam until Iraq and Afghanistan.

越南直到伊拉克和阿富汗。

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美國如何贏得越南戰爭 (How US Could Have Won Vietnam)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 20 日
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