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  • Vietnam- America's biggest failure  after Afghanistan. But we're betting  

    越南--美國繼阿富汗之後最大的失敗。但我們賭的是

  • there's plenty you didn't know about  this very controversial conflict.

    關於這場非常有爭議的衝突,有很多你不知道的事情。

  • 50. The roots of the conflict began long  before America's involvement, with the  

    50.衝突的根源早在美國介入之前就已經開始了。

  • French colonization and exploitation of VietnamDuring World War II, Ho Chi Minh rose to power by  

    法國對越南的殖民化和剝削。 在第二次世界大戰期間,胡志明通過以下方式上臺

  • forming the Viet Minh, which fought to repel the  Japanese invaders. After the Japanese withdrew at  

    組成了越南民兵,為擊退日本侵略者而戰。在日本人撤出後,在

  • the end of WWII, Ho Chi Minh fought to depose the  puppet emperor set up by the French government.

    二戰結束後,胡志明為推翻法國政府設立的傀儡皇帝而戰。

  • 49. French backed southern forces were defeated  at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954,  

    49.法國支持的南方部隊在1954年5月的奠邊府戰役中被擊敗。

  • leading to a treaty that split Vietnam along the  17th Parallel and the end of French colonial rule.

    導致了一項沿17度線分割越南的條約和法國殖民統治的結束。

  • 48. In 1956 the two countries would holdnational vote determining if the nation would  

    48.1956年,這兩個國家將舉行全國投票,決定國家是否會

  • be reunited as one- however, the French-backed  Ngo Dinh Diem pushed the emperor out of power  

    然而,法國支持的吳廷琰將皇帝趕下臺。

  • in South Vietnam and refused to accept  a reunification under Communist terms.

    在南越,他們拒絕接受在共產主義條件下的統一。

  • 47. In 1955, the Europeans sold the United  States a bunch of crap infamously known as  

    47.1955年,歐洲人賣給美國一堆垃圾,被稱為

  • the 'domino theory', stating that  if one nation fell to communism,  

    多米諾骨牌理論",指出如果一個國家倒向共產主義。

  • others quickly would too. The British exploited  American fears to get them to interfere in Iran  

    其他國家很快也會如此。英國人利用美國人的恐懼,讓他們干預伊朗的事務

  • and re-establish British control of the  oil industry there, and the French used  

    並重新建立英國對那裡的石油工業的控制,而法國人則用

  • Americans to back up their colonial ambitions  to reunify Vietnam under their indirect control.

    美國人支持他們的殖民野心,將越南統一到他們的間接控制之下。

  • 46. With American money, training, and  equipment, Diem cracked down on communist  

    46.在美國的資金、培訓和設備的支持下,蔡琰鎮壓了共產黨。

  • supporters in the south, arresting, torturing  and executing as many as 100,000 people.

    南方的支持者,逮捕、拷打和處決了多達10萬多人。

  • 45. The American-backed brutal regime in the  south directly created the Viet Cong insurgency,  

    45.美國在南方支持的殘暴政權直接造成了越共的叛亂。

  • and drove many of the population to  directly support anti-government rebels.

    並驅使許多人直接支持反政府叛軍。

  • 44. The rising insurgency only led to more  brutal crackdowns by the government, with  

    44.叛亂活動的增加只導致了政府更殘酷的鎮壓。

  • more mass incarcerations, summary executions  of suspected communist sympathizers,  

    更多的大規模監禁,對涉嫌同情共產主義的人進行即決處決。

  • and the torture of prisoners. 43. Many members of the rising  

    和對囚犯的酷刑。43.許多崛起的成員

  • insurgency were not necessarily pro-Communist, but  simply wished to overthrow Diem's brutal regime.

    叛亂分子不一定是親共的,他們只是希望推翻吳廷琰的殘暴政權。

  • 42. By 1959 the National Liberation Frontmade up of both communists and non-communists,  

    42.到1959年,由共產主義者和非共產主義者組成的民族解放陣線。

  • was waging open war against  the South Vietnamese military.

    正在對南越軍隊發動公開戰爭。

  • 41. At the start of the 1960s, President John  F. Kennedy dramatically ramped up American  

    41.在20世紀60年代初,約翰-F-肯尼迪總統大幅提升了美國的經濟實力。

  • support for Diem's regime, sending even more  military advisors, money, and equipment. The  

    對琰王政權的支持,甚至派出更多的軍事顧問、資金和設備。共和國的

  • US equipment and money was Diem's only lifelineand without it his regime would have collapsed.

    美國的設備和資金是蔡琰唯一的生命線,沒有它,他的政權就會崩潰。

  • 40. The term Viet Cong was coined in 1960,  

    40.越共這個詞是在1960年提出的。

  • standing for Vietnam Cong-sanor Vietnamese Communists.

    意思是越南共產黨,即越南共產黨人。

  • 39. In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy sent  

    39.1961年5月,約翰-F-肯尼迪總統派遣

  • attack and transport helicopters to South  Vietnam along with 400 US special forces,  

    攻擊直升機和運輸直升機以及400名美國特種部隊前往南越。

  • authorizing direct military action  in Vietnam for the first time.

    首次授權在越南採取直接軍事行動。

  • Now that we've reached the start of  direct American involvement in the war,  

    現在,我們已經到了美國直接參與戰爭的開始。

  • you may be surprised about the facts behind key  people and incidents throughout the conflict.

    你可能會對整個衝突中關鍵人物和事件背後的事實感到驚訝。

  • 38. Ngo Dinh Diem was a catholic, and heavily  favored pro-catholic stances which made him an  

    38.吳廷琰是一名天主教徒,並且非常贊成支持天主教的立場,這使他成為了一名天主教徒。

  • outcast in the overwhelmingly Buddhist stateHis increasing disapproval with the people and  

    在這個絕大多數是佛教徒的國家裡,他被拋棄了。 他在人民中越來越不受歡迎,而且

  • alienation from them eventually led the United  States to back a coup by his own military to  

    對他們的疏遠最終導致美國支持他自己的軍隊發動政變。

  • remove him from power, resulting in his death and  the establishment of yet another brutal dictator.  

    把他趕下臺,導致他的死亡和另一個殘暴的獨裁者的建立。

  • This would lead to a cycle of unpopular  US-backed dictators that oppressed the people  

    這將導致美國支持的不受歡迎的獨裁者的循環,壓迫人民。

  • and fueled the Viet Cong insurgency. Perhaps nothing about Vietnam is  

    並助長了越共的叛亂活動。也許關於越南沒有什麼是

  • as controversial as Agent Orange though. 37. Agent Orange was actually being used by the US  

    雖然像橙劑那樣有爭議。37.橙劑實際上是由美國使用的

  • two years before its official involvement in  the war. A defoliant, the chemical compound  

    在正式參與戰爭的兩年前。一種落葉劑,化學合成物

  • was supposed to destroy the vegetation that  provided cover and food for Viet Cong rebels.

    被認為是為了破壞為越共叛軍提供掩護和食物的植被。

  • 36. Operation Ranch Hand was America's  efforts to deny rebel forces food and shelter,  

    36.牧場之手行動是美國為拒絕叛軍的食物和住所而做出的努力。

  • and made use of millions of tons of herbicides  to defoliate a whopping 3.1 million hectares  

    並使用了數百萬噸的除草劑,使高達310萬公頃的土地落葉。

  • of forest. Agent Orange would be the most  popular of the herbicides used, and traces  

    的森林。橙劑是所使用的除草劑中最受歡迎的一種,並且有痕跡。

  • its history back to the British who used it  in their guerilla war against Malaysia rebels.

    它的歷史可以追溯到英國人,他們在對馬來西亞叛軍的游擊戰中使用了它。

  • 35. Operation Ranch Hand is estimated to  have affected as many as 3 million people,  

    35.據估計,"牧場之手 "行動影響了多達300萬人。

  • with an estimated 1 million people disabled or  suffering severe health problems. The American  

    估計有100萬人殘疾或遭受嚴重的健康問題。美國

  • operation directly led to the UN passing United  Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72,  

    這一行動直接導致了聯合國通過聯合國大會第31/72號決議。

  • and the Environmental Modification ConventionThe resolution prohibits the use of environmental  

    和《改變環境公約》。 該決議禁止使用環境

  • modification techniques by the military or  hostile actors that can cause long-lasting harm  

    軍隊或敵對行為者的修改技術,可造成長期的傷害

  • or damage to individuals by the  modification of the environment.

    或因改變環境而對個人造成的損害。

  • 34. Exposure to US herbicides led to a massive  surge in deformities in children long after their  

    34.接觸美國的除草劑導致兒童的畸形率在很久之後才大規模上升。

  • use was ended in 1971. The most common symptoms  included mental disabilities, cleft palate,  

    1971年停止使用。最常見的症狀包括智力障礙、顎裂。

  • gross deformities, and extra fingers and toesThe use of Agent Orange and other herbicides  

    嚴重畸形,以及多餘的手指和腳趾。 橙劑和其他除草劑的使用

  • nearly tripled the risk of deformities for babies  in Vietnam as compared to the rest of the world.

    與世界其他地區相比,越南嬰兒的畸形風險幾乎增加了兩倍。

  • 33. US soldiers were told the herbicides were  harmless, andnot to worryabout potential  

    33.美國士兵被告知這些除草劑是無害的,而且 "不必擔心 "潛在的 "危險"。

  • exposure. Despite this, soldiers began to suspect  the herbicides were directly responsible for the  

    接觸。儘管如此,阿兵哥們開始懷疑這些除草劑是直接導致了

  • growing number of miscarriages and birth defects  back home. In 1977, veterans began to sue the  

    越來越多的流產和出生缺陷回到家鄉。1977年,退伍軍人開始起訴政府。

  • US government, but by 1993 only 486 victims had  been compensated, despite nearly 40,000 claims

    美國政府,但到1993年,儘管有近40,000項索賠,但只有486名受害者得到了賠償。

  • Agent Orange was tragic, but one leader felt  personally betrayed by America's hypocrisy

    橙劑是悲劇性的,但一位領導人對美國的虛偽感到個人被背叛了。

  • 32. Ho Chi Minh was personally devastated  after hearing news that the US was entering  

    32.胡志明在聽到美國要進入中國的消息後,個人受到了很大的打擊。

  • the conflict in support of the French. He had  studied American history and its Declaration of  

    在衝突中支持法國人。他曾研究過美國曆史和美國的《人權宣言》。

  • Independence, and was confident that  if America entered the war at all,  

    獨立,並相信如果美國真的參戰。

  • it would do so on behalf of the people fighting  to free themselves from a colonial oppressor.

    它將代表為擺脫殖民壓迫者而鬥爭的人民這樣做。

  • 31. After the end of World War II Vietnam  was briefly independent, with Ho Chi Minh  

    31.第二次世界大戰結束後,越南曾短暫獨立,胡志明

  • as president. In a nod to the United States, he  used part of the Declaration of Independence in  

    作為總統。為了向美國點頭,他在《獨立宣言》中使用了部分內容。

  • his own independence speech, quoting, “All men are  created equal. The Creator has given us certain  

    他在自己的獨立演講中引用了 "人人生而平等。造物主賦予我們某些

  • inviolable rights, the right to life, the right  to be free, and the right to achieve happiness.” 

    不可侵犯的權利,生命的權利,自由的權利,以及獲得幸福的權利"。

  • In Vietnam death was around every  corner, but two world leaders  

    在越南,死亡就在每個角落,但兩位世界領導人

  • would meet the same fate within weeks. 30. President John F. Kennedy and South  

    將在數週內遭遇同樣的命運。30.約翰-F-肯尼迪總統和南

  • Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem were both killed withinweeks of each other, and both were assassinated.

    越南的吳廷琰在3周內被殺,兩人都是被暗殺。

  • 29. Kennedy allegedly wanted all  US troops out of Vietnam by 1965,  

    29.據稱,肯尼迪希望所有美國軍隊在1965年之前撤出越南。

  • and instead sought to support a non-communist  South Vietnam through financial means and the  

    而尋求通過財政手段和其他方式支持非共產主義的南越。

  • training of its military by US advisors. His  strategy revolved around using strategic bombing  

    美國顧問對其軍隊進行培訓。他的戰略是圍繞著使用戰略轟炸

  • to force the North to end its hostilities against  the south and support of the Viet Cong movement.  

    以迫使北方結束對南方的敵對行動和對越共運動的支持。

  • Aside from this however, Kennedy had no  clear idea of how to actually leave Vietnam-  

    但除此之外,肯尼迪對如何真正離開越南並沒有明確的想法。

  • mirroring the US's involvement in  Afghanistan nearly 50 years later.

    這反映了美國在近50年後對阿富汗的介入。

  • 28. The US fabricated the Gulf of Tonkin  Incident to gain support for entering the war.  

    28.美國捏造了北部灣事件以獲得對參戰的支持。

  • While the original August 2nd attack against the  US destroyer Maddox really happened, the follow-on  

    雖然最初的8月2日對美國驅逐艦馬多克斯號的攻擊真的發生了,但後續的

  • naval battle of August 4th which directly led to  the US entering the war never really happened.

    直接導致美國參戰的8月4日海戰從未真正發生。

  • 27. Well, it sort of happened- though it  was completely one-sided. Bad weather left  

    27.好吧,它有點發生了--儘管它是完全片面的。惡劣的天氣使

  • the Maddox and an accompanying destroyer with  only radar and sonar to establish enemy targets,  

    馬多克斯號和一艘隨行的驅逐艦隻用雷達和聲納來確定敵人的目標。

  • and both claimed intermittent targets they were  sure were North Vietnamese torpedo boats on the  

    兩人都聲稱,他們肯定的斷斷續續的目標是北越的魚雷艇。

  • attack. For four hours the destroyers fired on  these targets- which were later revealed to almost  

    攻擊。驅逐艦對這些目標進行了長達四個小時的射擊,後來發現這些目標幾乎都是 "大炮"。

  • certainly be weather phenomenon and anxious sonar  operators mistaking natural sounds as enemy ships.

    當然是天氣現象和焦慮的聲納操作員將自然聲音誤認為是敵艦。

  • 26. As news of the attack reached WashingtonCongress began drafting the Gulf of Tonkin  

    26.襲擊事件的消息傳到華盛頓後,國會開始起草《北部灣協定》。

  • resolution which would allow the President to use  all force necessary to end the spread of Communism  

    該決議將允許總統使用一切必要的武力來結束共產主義的蔓延。

  • in south-east Asia. Several senators however  raised issues with the report, and asked for  

    在東南亞地區。然而,一些參議員對該報告提出了問題,並要求

  • more time to investigate the incident and confirm  US naval vessels had actually been under attack.  

    更多的時間來調查這一事件並確認美國海軍艦艇確實受到了攻擊。

  • They were ignored and the rest is history. Vietnam's real tragedy however was the  

    他們被忽視了,剩下的就是歷史了。然而,越南的真正悲劇是

  • fundamental misunderstanding of Asian  culture and politics by the west

    西方對亞洲文化和政治的根本誤解。

  • 25. Fears of a Soviet-Chinese-Vietnamese alliance  which would throw the west out of Southeast asia  

    25.擔心蘇中越聯盟會將西方國家趕出東南亞。

  • were largely unfounded and a result of ignoranceThe Vietnamese and Chinese people were allies of  

    這在很大程度上是毫無根據的,是無知的結果。 越南人和中國人都是美國的盟友

  • necessity only, and had simmering tensions  that have lasted for centuries. There is no  

    只有必要性,並有持續了幾個世紀的醞釀中的緊張關係。沒有

  • indication that had the North been allowed to  unify the country under communist rule that a  

    有跡象表明,如果允許北方在共產黨的統治下統一國家,就會有一個

  • follow-on takeover of south-east asia and its  fall to Soviet control would have ever happened.

    東南亞的後續接管和落入蘇聯控制的情況將永遠不會發生。

  • 24. The US was foolishly painting  all communists with the same brush,  

    24.美國愚蠢地用同一把刷子刷所有的共產主義者。

  • assuming they would be bonded by a common ideology  against the west. This is especially tragic in  

    假設他們會被反對西方的共同意識形態所束縛。這在以下情況下尤為可悲

  • light of Ho Chi Minh's initial affections  for the United States, and the fact that  

    鑑於胡志明最初對美國的感情,以及以下事實

  • years later Communist China would turn from the  Soviet Union and embrace relations with America

    幾年後,共產主義中國將從蘇聯轉向與美國的關係。

  • During the war, even communist  allies were hardly friends

    在戰爭期間,即使是共產主義盟友也很難成為朋友。

  • 23. The North Vietnamese were supplied  with equipment from the Soviet Union,  

    23.北越人得到了蘇聯提供的設備。

  • which was shipped to them through  China. The Chinese took advantage  

    這些東西是通過中國運給他們的。中國人利用了

  • of the situation by swiping Soviet made  weapons and replacing them with cheap  

    掠奪蘇聯製造的武器,並以廉價的 "小刀 "取代,從而改變了局勢。

  • Chinese knock-offs. This directly led to  the deaths of untold thousands of Northern  

    中國的山寨貨。這直接導致了數千名北方人的死亡。

  • soldiers as their weapons fell apart or  malfunctioned in the middle of a battle.

    阿兵哥們的武器在戰鬥中散架或發生故障。

  • 22. To make sure the Chinese didn't swipe  

    22.為了確保中國人沒有掠奪

  • sensitive and high-value systems  like radars and air defense missiles,  

    敏感和高價值的系統,如雷達和防空飛彈。

  • Soviet advisors were not only dispatched to assist  the North in setting them up, but to babysit the  

    蘇聯顧問不僅被派去協助北方建立這些機構,而且還負責照看他們。

  • equipment on its trip through China and ensure it  wasn't stolen and replaced with inferior copies.

    在通過中國的旅程中,確保設備沒有被盜並被替換成劣質的副本。

  • 21. Most Viet Cong fighters cared little for  Communism, and simply wanted to overthrow a  

    21.大多數越共戰士對共產主義漠不關心,只是想推翻一個

  • southern government they saw as brutal, ineptand corrupt. The accusations were largely true,  

    他們認為南方政府殘暴、無能和腐敗。這些指責在很大程度上是真實的。

  • with the south funneling money to the large  cities and all but ignoring the countryside.  

    南方的資金流向大城市,而完全忽略了農村。

  • Extra-judicial arrests, torture, and  seizure of property were common amongst  

    法外逮捕、酷刑和扣押財產的情況,在中國人中很常見。

  • the laundry list of petty dictators  that kept popping up in the south.

    南方不斷出現的小規模獨裁者的名單。

  • 20. Troubled by accusations of extreme torture  by the South, several American senators paid  

    20.由於受到南方極端酷刑的指控的困擾,一些美國參議員支付了

  • a visit to a South Vietnamese prison and were  shocked to discover the infamous 'tiger cages',  

    在訪問南越監獄時,他們震驚地發現了臭名昭著的 "老虎籠"。

  • holes in the ground with barred openings up  top where prisoners were kept. They witnessed  

    地面上的洞,上面有柵欄式的開口,是關押囚犯的地方。他們目睹了

  • direct evidence of torture despite southern  officials attempting to hide it, but upon  

    儘管南方官員試圖掩蓋酷刑的直接證據,但當

  • return to the US were fearful of growing anti-war  sentiment and chose to remain silent about it

    返回美國的人對日益增長的反戰情緒感到恐懼,選擇對此保持沉默。

  • These next facts about the  Viet Cong may just startle you

    接下來關於越共的這些事實可能會讓你感到吃驚。

  • 19. Most Viet Cong fighters were as  terrified of the jungle as the Americans.  

    19.大多數越共戰士和美國人一樣對叢林感到恐懼。

  • Few Viet Cong actually came from jungle  regions, and were largely inexperienced  

    實際上很少有越共來自叢林地區,而且基本上沒有經驗。

  • surviving and living in thick jungle. Tiger  attacks were also so frequent, that men would  

    在茂密的叢林中生存和生活。老虎的攻擊也非常頻繁,以至於人們會

  • routinely disappear without a trace in the middle  of the night. Snakes and diseases carried by rats  

    通常會在半夜消失得無影無蹤。蛇和老鼠攜帶的疾病

  • and mosquitoes were also extremely commonmaking life miserable for a Viet Cong rebel.

    和蚊子也極其普遍,使越共叛亂分子的生活變得很痛苦。

  • 18. Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops were  astonished when meeting Black American soldiers,  

    18.越共和北越軍隊在見到美國黑人阿兵哥時感到很驚訝。

  • whom they had heard rumors  of but assumed were a myth.

    他們聽說過關於他們的傳言,但認為是一個神話。

  • 17. Many Viet Cong were more afraid of living  in the haphazard tunnel networks they built  

    17.許多越共更害怕生活在他們建造的雜亂無章的隧道網絡中

  • than of American bombs. The tunnels were built by  amateurs, and suffered from many extreme dangers.  

    而不是美國的炸彈。這些隧道是由業餘人員建造的,並遭受了許多極端的危險。

  • Poor ventilation could lead to asphyxiation, and  shoddy construction would trigger collapses that  

    通風不良可能會導致窒息,而偷工減料的建築會引發坍塌,導致

  • could kill dozens of men. When it rained, if  a tunnel wasn't properly constructed it could  

    可以殺死幾十個人。下雨的時候,如果隧道建造得不好,就會造成

  • lead to flash flooding, and venomous spiderscentipedes, and snakes were a constant concern.

    導致山洪暴發,而毒蜘蛛、蜈蚣和蛇則是一個持續的問題。

  • 16. Despite the constant threat of  death, Viet Cong tunnel complexes  

    16.儘管一直面臨死亡的威脅,但越共的隧道群

  • could be stunningly large. Some had entire  armories, barracks, kitchens, and hospitals,  

    它可能大得驚人。有些有整個軍械庫、兵營、廚房和醫院。

  • with multiple entrances and emergency escapesWhile the US tried many tactics to destroy  

    有多個入口和緊急逃學生通道。 雖然美國嘗試了許多戰術來摧毀

  • these tunnels and their occupants, the only tried  and true method was the use of 'tunnel rats'. 

    對這些隧道及其居住者來說,唯一嘗試過的真正方法是使用 "隧道老鼠"。

  • To take on the Viet Cong tunnelsthe US had only one weapon

    為了對付越共的隧道,美國只有一種武器。

  • 15. Tunnel rats were an all-volunteer force. They  also had to be shorter than average to maneuver in  

    15.道地鼠是一支全員參與的部隊。他們還必須比一般人矮,以便在隧道中機動。

  • the cramped quarters, and were armed only with  a knife, flashlight, a sidearm and a gas mask.  

    在狹窄的宿舍裡,他們只配備了一把刀、手電筒、一把隨身武器和一個防毒面具。

  • The tight quarters made it impossible to  effectively use a rifle, and a grenade  

    狹小的環境使其無法有效地使用步槍,而手榴彈

  • would threaten to collapse the tunnel and bury  both friendly and enemy soldiers. Many times the  

    會威脅到隧道的坍塌,埋葬友軍和敵軍阿兵哥。很多時候

  • fighting resorted to brutal hand-to-hand combat  at extremely close and very tight quarters.

    戰鬥在極近和極小的範圍內訴諸殘酷的徒手搏鬥。

  • 14. To defend themselves, the Viet Cong  booby trapped many of their tunnels.  

    14.為了自衛,越共在他們的許多隧道中設置了誘殺裝置。

  • Tunnel rats would often face pitfall traps  with sharpened bamboo stakes at the bottom,  

    道地鼠經常會面對底部有削尖的竹樁的陷阱。

  • covered in excrement so as to ensure infectionOther times a tunnel rat would trigger a trap that  

    覆蓋在排洩物上,以確保感染。 其他時候,隧道里的老鼠會觸發一個陷阱,該陷阱

  • dropped venomous snakes or centipedes on them  from above. Tunnels could also be engineered  

    從上面向他們投放毒蛇或蜈蚣。隧道也可以被設計成

  • to easily flood certain sections with either gas  or water, drowning or asphyxiation tunnel rats.

    很容易用氣體或水淹沒某些區域,淹死或窒息隧道內的老鼠。

  • 13. The infamous tiger traps built by the Viet  Cong and depicted in books and tv were often not  

    13.越共建造的、書本和電視中描述的臭名昭著的老虎陷阱往往不是

  • meant to kill or maim American soldiers, but to  destroy marauding tigers that were a direct threat  

    是為了殺死或殘害美國士兵,而是為了消滅直接威脅到美國的掠奪性老虎。

  • to the safety of jungle-dwelling Viet Cong. When it comes to atrocities in Vietnam,  

    到居住在叢林中的越共的安全。說到越南的暴行。

  • the US unfairly gets all the blame. 12. Despite the United States and South Vietnam  

    美國不公平地得到了所有的指責。12.儘管美國和南越

  • holding blame for war crimes, the North was  notorious for targeting civilians in its attacks-  

    在對戰爭罪行進行指責時,北方因在其攻擊中以平民為目標而臭名昭著。

  • specially hospitals and medical areas. Both NVA  and Viet Cong forces also frequently engaged in  

    特別是醫院和醫療區。新軍和越共的部隊也經常發生衝突。

  • the slaughter of villagers, for the exact same  reasons as the South and the US- not knowing if  

    屠殺村民,其原因與南方和美國完全相同--不知道是否

  • they were pro-American or communist sympathizers. Now you'll be surprised to learn  

    他們是親美或同情共產主義的人。現在你會驚訝地發現

  • about the weapons of Vietnam. 11. When the US first entered Vietnam in force,  

    關於越南的武器。11.美國第一次進入越南時的武力。

  • American infantry was immediately overwhelmed  by superior NVA firepower. Still using the M-14  

    美軍步兵立即被NVA的優勢火力所淹沒。仍然使用M-14

  • rifle, US troops withered under the blistering  fire of the AK-47. The M-16 was fast-tracked  

    在AK-47步槍的猛烈射擊下,美軍的戰鬥力下降了。M-16被快速推廣

  • into development, leading to serious problems  with the first few iterations of the weapon.  

    進入開發階段,導致該武器的前幾次迭代出現嚴重問題。

  • To make matters worse, the weapon had  been falsely billed asself-cleaning”,  

    更糟糕的是,該武器被錯誤地標榜為 "自清潔"。

  • which is not only absolutely ludicrous, but led  to massive malfunctions from fouled weapons.

    這不僅是絕對可笑的,而且還導致了武器結垢的大規模故障。

  • 10. US troops hated the M16 so much that  they would steal AK-47s from dead enemy  

    10.美軍非常討厭M16,以至於他們會從死去的敵人那裡偷來AK-47。

  • soldiers and hoard their ammunition. US  special forces especially loved the AK-47,  

    阿兵哥並囤積他們的彈藥。美國特種部隊尤其喜歡AK-47。

  • as it allowed them to confuse enemy soldiers  under fire from the distinctive sounding weapon.  

    因為這使他們能夠在這種聲音獨特的武器的射擊下迷惑敵方阿兵哥。

  • This led many troops to not fire back  for fear of a friendly fire incident,  

    這導致許多部隊因擔心發生友軍射擊事件而不進行還擊。

  • giving US special forces a massive advantage. As bad as troops had it on the ground,  

    讓美國特種部隊獲得了巨大的優勢。就像部隊在地面上的情況一樣糟糕。

  • Vietnam was not the Air Force's proudest moment. 9. The North Vietnamese Air Force was objectively  

    越南不是空軍最自豪的時刻。9.北越空軍在客觀上是

  • superior to the US. America's top ace  only had six kills by the end of the war,  

    優於美國。美國的頂級王牌飛行員在戰爭結束時只擊落了6架。

  • with North Vietnam's top ace having nine killsThe US only had five aces in the entire war, while  

    北越的頭號王牌有9次擊落。 美國在整個戰爭中只有5名王牌,而

  • the NVAF had 17. Only US overmatch in equipment  and numbers allowed it to win the air war.

    NVAF有17架。只有美國在裝備和數量上的超常發揮使其贏得了空戰。

  • 8. US fighter pilots were wholly  unprepared for the war in Vietnam's skies,  

    8.美國的戰鬥機飛行員對越南天空的戰爭完全沒有準備。

  • and were being shot down at an alarming  rate as the war began. This was largely  

    並在戰爭開始時以驚人的速度被擊落。這主要是由於

  • because traditional dogfighting tactics were  no longer being taught to US fighter pilots,  

    因為美國的戰鬥機飛行員不再被教授傳統的打狗戰術了。

  • in preference for the use of high tech long-range  air to air missiles. The skyrocketing casualties  

    而傾向於使用高科技的遠程空對空飛彈。急劇上升的傷亡

  • amongst American aviators led to the  establishment of the Top Gun program,  

    在美國飛行員中,這導致了 "絕世高手 "計劃的建立。

  • which focused on teaching dogfighting  techniques and remains to this day.

    其中重點是教授鬥狗技術,並保持到今天。

  • 7. The US lost a whopping 3.744 planes,  

    7.美國損失了高達3.744架飛機。

  • 5,607 helicopters, and 578 UAVs  during the course of the war.

    在戰爭過程中,有5,607架直升機和578架無人機。

  • 6. One US plane was so terrible that it  forced the US Air Force to immediately  

    6.一架美國飛機非常可怕,迫使美國空軍立即

  • retire it shortly after the start of the  war. The F-105B Thunderchief lasted only six  

    在戰爭開始後不久就將其退役。F-105B "雷電 "只持續了6年。

  • years before being pulled off frontline  service. The plane performed so poorly  

    幾年後才被撤出前線服役。這架飛機的表現如此之差

  • that it remains the only US aircraft ever  retired for being so terrible at its job

    它仍然是唯一因工作能力太差而退役的美國飛機。

  • But the US proved a tactical  genius in at least one area

    但美國至少在一個方面證明了其戰術的天才性。

  • 5. The Vietnam War saw the first widespread use  of the helicopter to directly support infantry.  

    5.越南戰爭中,直升機首次被廣泛用於直接支持步兵。

  • The US literally wrote the book on air assault  operations in Vietnam, with the widespread use  

    美國在越南的空中突擊行動實際上是寫在書上的,它廣泛地使用了

  • of air-inserted infantry, often catching  enemy formations completely off guard.

    的空中插入的步兵,往往使敵人的編隊完全措手不及。

  • 4. American forces were rarely ever defeated  during the entire conflict, winning almost  

    4.在整個衝突期間,美軍很少被打敗,幾乎贏得了

  • every battle they engaged in. Despite this, the  US lost the strategic war, proving that tactical  

    他們參與的每一場戰鬥。儘管如此,美國還是輸掉了戰略戰爭,證明了戰術上的

  • victories are meaningless without political  ones. A lesson the US still hasn't learned.

    沒有政治上的勝利是毫無意義的。美國仍然沒有學到這個教訓。

  • 3. America sabotaged its own chances  at winning the war even from the onset.  

    3.美國甚至從一開始就破壞了自己贏得戰爭的機會。

  • Massive bombing campaigns that crippled  North Vietnam were often canceled out  

    削弱北越的大規模轟炸行動往往被取消了

  • of fear of prompting a Soviet or Chinese  counter-invasion. While the US's goals was  

    擔心會引起蘇聯或中國的反入侵。雖然美國的目標是

  • to cripple North Vietnam without directly  destroying it so it would negotiate peace,  

    削弱北越,但不直接摧毀它,這樣它就會進行和平談判。

  • North Vietnam simply used the lull between  bombings to rebuild and consolidate its forces.

    北越只是利用轟炸之間的空隙來重建和鞏固其部隊。

  • 2. North Vietnam was the most dangerous  place on earth for a pilot during the war.  

    2.在戰爭期間,北越是地球上對飛行員最危險的地方。

  • The nation had thousands of anti-aircraft  batteries supplied by the Soviet Union.  

    國家有數千個由蘇聯提供的防空炮臺。

  • Despite this, electronic countermeasures employed  by American B-52 bombers kept them largely  

    儘管如此,美國B-52轟炸機採用的電子對抗措施使其在很大程度上保持了

  • safe from enemy SAMs, and American 'Wild  Weasels'- planes tasked with directly  

  • destroying AAA sites- helped suppress  enemy defenses for other air assets.

    摧毀AAA基地--有助於壓制敵人對其他航空資產的防禦。

  • 1. Had the United States ever sent ground  forces to secure the Ho Chi Minh trail,  

    1.如果美國曾經派出地面部隊來保護胡志明的足跡。

  • the Viet Cong movement would have completely  collapsed. Out of fear of expanding the  

    越共運動就會完全崩潰。出於對擴大

  • conflict though, the US relied on raids and air  assets to bomb the expansive Ho Chi Minh trail,  

    雖然衝突,美國依靠突襲和航空資產來轟炸廣闊的胡志明足跡。

  • which ran through Laos and Cambodia. These  would prove to be largely ineffective  

    貫穿寮國和高棉。事實證明,這些措施在很大程度上是無效的

  • in stopping the flow of manpower  and supplies into South Vietnam.

    在阻止人力和物資流向南越方面。

  • Now go watch 50 insane cold war facts that will  shock you, or click this other video instead!

    現在去看50個瘋狂的冷戰事實,這些事實會讓你震驚,或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!

Vietnam- America's biggest failure  after Afghanistan. But we're betting  

越南--美國繼阿富汗之後最大的失敗。但我們賭的是