字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Vietnam- America's biggest failure after Afghanistan. But we're betting 越南--美國繼阿富汗之後最大的失敗。但我們賭的是 there's plenty you didn't know about this very controversial conflict. 關於這場非常有爭議的衝突，有很多你不知道的事情。 50. The roots of the conflict began long before America's involvement, with the 50.衝突的根源早在美國介入之前就已經開始了。 French colonization and exploitation of Vietnam. During World War II, Ho Chi Minh rose to power by 法國對越南的殖民化和剝削。 在第二次世界大戰期間，胡志明通過以下方式上臺 forming the Viet Minh, which fought to repel the Japanese invaders. After the Japanese withdrew at 組成了越南民兵，為擊退日本侵略者而戰。在日本人撤出後，在 the end of WWII, Ho Chi Minh fought to depose the puppet emperor set up by the French government. 二戰結束後，胡志明為推翻法國政府設立的傀儡皇帝而戰。 49. French backed southern forces were defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954, 49.法國支持的南方部隊在1954年5月的奠邊府戰役中被擊敗。 leading to a treaty that split Vietnam along the 17th Parallel and the end of French colonial rule. 導致了一項沿17度線分割越南的條約和法國殖民統治的結束。 48. In 1956 the two countries would hold a national vote determining if the nation would 48.1956年，這兩個國家將舉行全國投票，決定國家是否會 be reunited as one- however, the French-backed Ngo Dinh Diem pushed the emperor out of power 然而，法國支持的吳廷琰將皇帝趕下臺。 in South Vietnam and refused to accept a reunification under Communist terms. 在南越，他們拒絕接受在共產主義條件下的統一。 47. In 1955, the Europeans sold the United States a bunch of crap infamously known as 47.1955年，歐洲人賣給美國一堆垃圾，被稱為 the 'domino theory', stating that if one nation fell to communism, 多米諾骨牌理論"，指出如果一個國家倒向共產主義。 others quickly would too. The British exploited American fears to get them to interfere in Iran 其他國家很快也會如此。英國人利用美國人的恐懼，讓他們干預伊朗的事務 and re-establish British control of the oil industry there, and the French used 並重新建立英國對那裡的石油工業的控制，而法國人則用 Americans to back up their colonial ambitions to reunify Vietnam under their indirect control. 美國人支持他們的殖民野心，將越南統一到他們的間接控制之下。 46. With American money, training, and equipment, Diem cracked down on communist 46.在美國的資金、培訓和設備的支持下，蔡琰鎮壓了共產黨。 supporters in the south, arresting, torturing and executing as many as 100,000 people. 南方的支持者，逮捕、拷打和處決了多達10萬多人。 45. The American-backed brutal regime in the south directly created the Viet Cong insurgency, 45.美國在南方支持的殘暴政權直接造成了越共的叛亂。 and drove many of the population to directly support anti-government rebels. 並驅使許多人直接支持反政府叛軍。 44. The rising insurgency only led to more brutal crackdowns by the government, with 44.叛亂活動的增加只導致了政府更殘酷的鎮壓。 more mass incarcerations, summary executions of suspected communist sympathizers, 更多的大規模監禁，對涉嫌同情共產主義的人進行即決處決。 and the torture of prisoners. 43. Many members of the rising 和對囚犯的酷刑。43.許多崛起的成員 insurgency were not necessarily pro-Communist, but simply wished to overthrow Diem's brutal regime. 叛亂分子不一定是親共的，他們只是希望推翻吳廷琰的殘暴政權。 42. By 1959 the National Liberation Front, made up of both communists and non-communists, 42.到1959年，由共產主義者和非共產主義者組成的民族解放陣線。 was waging open war against the South Vietnamese military. 正在對南越軍隊發動公開戰爭。 41. At the start of the 1960s, President John F. Kennedy dramatically ramped up American 41.在20世紀60年代初，約翰-F-肯尼迪總統大幅提升了美國的經濟實力。 support for Diem's regime, sending even more military advisors, money, and equipment. The 對琰王政權的支持，甚至派出更多的軍事顧問、資金和設備。共和國的 US equipment and money was Diem's only lifeline, and without it his regime would have collapsed. 美國的設備和資金是蔡琰唯一的生命線，沒有它，他的政權就會崩潰。 40. The term Viet Cong was coined in 1960, 40.越共這個詞是在1960年提出的。 standing for Vietnam Cong-san, or Vietnamese Communists. 意思是越南共產黨，即越南共產黨人。 39. In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy sent 39.1961年5月，約翰-F-肯尼迪總統派遣 attack and transport helicopters to South Vietnam along with 400 US special forces, 攻擊直升機和運輸直升機以及400名美國特種部隊前往南越。 authorizing direct military action in Vietnam for the first time. 首次授權在越南採取直接軍事行動。 Now that we've reached the start of direct American involvement in the war, 現在，我們已經到了美國直接參與戰爭的開始。 you may be surprised about the facts behind key people and incidents throughout the conflict. 你可能會對整個衝突中關鍵人物和事件背後的事實感到驚訝。 38. Ngo Dinh Diem was a catholic, and heavily favored pro-catholic stances which made him an 38.吳廷琰是一名天主教徒，並且非常贊成支持天主教的立場，這使他成為了一名天主教徒。 outcast in the overwhelmingly Buddhist state. His increasing disapproval with the people and 在這個絕大多數是佛教徒的國家裡，他被拋棄了。 他在人民中越來越不受歡迎，而且 alienation from them eventually led the United States to back a coup by his own military to 對他們的疏遠最終導致美國支持他自己的軍隊發動政變。 remove him from power, resulting in his death and the establishment of yet another brutal dictator. 把他趕下臺，導致他的死亡和另一個殘暴的獨裁者的建立。 This would lead to a cycle of unpopular US-backed dictators that oppressed the people 這將導致美國支持的不受歡迎的獨裁者的循環，壓迫人民。 and fueled the Viet Cong insurgency. Perhaps nothing about Vietnam is 並助長了越共的叛亂活動。也許關於越南沒有什麼是 as controversial as Agent Orange though. 37. Agent Orange was actually being used by the US 雖然像橙劑那樣有爭議。37.橙劑實際上是由美國使用的 two years before its official involvement in the war. A defoliant, the chemical compound 在正式參與戰爭的兩年前。一種落葉劑，化學合成物 was supposed to destroy the vegetation that provided cover and food for Viet Cong rebels. 被認為是為了破壞為越共叛軍提供掩護和食物的植被。 36. Operation Ranch Hand was America's efforts to deny rebel forces food and shelter, 36.牧場之手行動是美國為拒絕叛軍的食物和住所而做出的努力。 and made use of millions of tons of herbicides to defoliate a whopping 3.1 million hectares 並使用了數百萬噸的除草劑，使高達310萬公頃的土地落葉。 of forest. Agent Orange would be the most popular of the herbicides used, and traces 的森林。橙劑是所使用的除草劑中最受歡迎的一種，並且有痕跡。 its history back to the British who used it in their guerilla war against Malaysia rebels. 它的歷史可以追溯到英國人，他們在對馬來西亞叛軍的游擊戰中使用了它。 35. Operation Ranch Hand is estimated to have affected as many as 3 million people, 35.據估計，"牧場之手 "行動影響了多達300萬人。 with an estimated 1 million people disabled or suffering severe health problems. The American 估計有100萬人殘疾或遭受嚴重的健康問題。美國 operation directly led to the UN passing United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72, 這一行動直接導致了聯合國通過聯合國大會第31/72號決議。 and the Environmental Modification Convention. The resolution prohibits the use of environmental 和《改變環境公約》。 該決議禁止使用環境 modification techniques by the military or hostile actors that can cause long-lasting harm 軍隊或敵對行為者的修改技術，可造成長期的傷害 or damage to individuals by the modification of the environment. 或因改變環境而對個人造成的損害。 34. Exposure to US herbicides led to a massive surge in deformities in children long after their 34.接觸美國的除草劑導致兒童的畸形率在很久之後才大規模上升。 use was ended in 1971. The most common symptoms included mental disabilities, cleft palate, 1971年停止使用。最常見的症狀包括智力障礙、顎裂。 gross deformities, and extra fingers and toes. The use of Agent Orange and other herbicides 嚴重畸形，以及多餘的手指和腳趾。 橙劑和其他除草劑的使用 nearly tripled the risk of deformities for babies in Vietnam as compared to the rest of the world. 與世界其他地區相比，越南嬰兒的畸形風險幾乎增加了兩倍。 33. US soldiers were told the herbicides were harmless, and “not to worry” about potential 33.美國士兵被告知這些除草劑是無害的，而且 "不必擔心 "潛在的 "危險"。 exposure. Despite this, soldiers began to suspect the herbicides were directly responsible for the 接觸。儘管如此，阿兵哥們開始懷疑這些除草劑是直接導致了 growing number of miscarriages and birth defects back home. In 1977, veterans began to sue the 越來越多的流產和出生缺陷回到家鄉。1977年，退伍軍人開始起訴政府。 US government, but by 1993 only 486 victims had been compensated, despite nearly 40,000 claims. 美國政府，但到1993年，儘管有近40,000項索賠，但只有486名受害者得到了賠償。 Agent Orange was tragic, but one leader felt personally betrayed by America's hypocrisy. 橙劑是悲劇性的，但一位領導人對美國的虛偽感到個人被背叛了。 32. Ho Chi Minh was personally devastated after hearing news that the US was entering 32.胡志明在聽到美國要進入中國的消息後，個人受到了很大的打擊。 the conflict in support of the French. He had studied American history and its Declaration of 在衝突中支持法國人。他曾研究過美國曆史和美國的《人權宣言》。 Independence, and was confident that if America entered the war at all, 獨立，並相信如果美國真的參戰。 it would do so on behalf of the people fighting to free themselves from a colonial oppressor. 它將代表為擺脫殖民壓迫者而鬥爭的人民這樣做。 31. After the end of World War II Vietnam was briefly independent, with Ho Chi Minh 31.第二次世界大戰結束後，越南曾短暫獨立，胡志明 as president. In a nod to the United States, he used part of the Declaration of Independence in 作為總統。為了向美國點頭，他在《獨立宣言》中使用了部分內容。 his own independence speech, quoting, “All men are created equal. The Creator has given us certain 他在自己的獨立演講中引用了 "人人生而平等。造物主賦予我們某些 inviolable rights, the right to life, the right to be free, and the right to achieve happiness.” 不可侵犯的權利，生命的權利，自由的權利，以及獲得幸福的權利"。 In Vietnam death was around every corner, but two world leaders 在越南，死亡就在每個角落，但兩位世界領導人 would meet the same fate within weeks. 30. President John F. Kennedy and South 將在數週內遭遇同樣的命運。30.約翰-F-肯尼迪總統和南 Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem were both killed within 3 weeks of each other, and both were assassinated. 越南的吳廷琰在3周內被殺，兩人都是被暗殺。 29. Kennedy allegedly wanted all US troops out of Vietnam by 1965, 29.據稱，肯尼迪希望所有美國軍隊在1965年之前撤出越南。 and instead sought to support a non-communist South Vietnam through financial means and the 而尋求通過財政手段和其他方式支持非共產主義的南越。 training of its military by US advisors. His strategy revolved around using strategic bombing 美國顧問對其軍隊進行培訓。他的戰略是圍繞著使用戰略轟炸 to force the North to end its hostilities against the south and support of the Viet Cong movement. 以迫使北方結束對南方的敵對行動和對越共運動的支持。 Aside from this however, Kennedy had no clear idea of how to actually leave Vietnam- 但除此之外，肯尼迪對如何真正離開越南並沒有明確的想法。 mirroring the US's involvement in Afghanistan nearly 50 years later. 這反映了美國在近50年後對阿富汗的介入。 28. The US fabricated the Gulf of Tonkin Incident to gain support for entering the war. 28.美國捏造了北部灣事件以獲得對參戰的支持。 While the original August 2nd attack against the US destroyer Maddox really happened, the follow-on 雖然最初的8月2日對美國驅逐艦馬多克斯號的攻擊真的發生了，但後續的 naval battle of August 4th which directly led to the US entering the war never really happened. 直接導致美國參戰的8月4日海戰從未真正發生。 27. Well, it sort of happened- though it was completely one-sided. Bad weather left 27.好吧，它有點發生了--儘管它是完全片面的。惡劣的天氣使 the Maddox and an accompanying destroyer with only radar and sonar to establish enemy targets, 馬多克斯號和一艘隨行的驅逐艦隻用雷達和聲納來確定敵人的目標。 and both claimed intermittent targets they were sure were North Vietnamese torpedo boats on the 兩人都聲稱，他們肯定的斷斷續續的目標是北越的魚雷艇。 attack. For four hours the destroyers fired on these targets- which were later revealed to almost 攻擊。驅逐艦對這些目標進行了長達四個小時的射擊，後來發現這些目標幾乎都是 "大炮"。 certainly be weather phenomenon and anxious sonar operators mistaking natural sounds as enemy ships. 當然是天氣現象和焦慮的聲納操作員將自然聲音誤認為是敵艦。 26. As news of the attack reached Washington, Congress began drafting the Gulf of Tonkin 26.襲擊事件的消息傳到華盛頓後，國會開始起草《北部灣協定》。 resolution which would allow the President to use all force necessary to end the spread of Communism 該決議將允許總統使用一切必要的武力來結束共產主義的蔓延。 in south-east Asia. Several senators however raised issues with the report, and asked for 在東南亞地區。然而，一些參議員對該報告提出了問題，並要求 more time to investigate the incident and confirm US naval vessels had actually been under attack. 更多的時間來調查這一事件並確認美國海軍艦艇確實受到了攻擊。 They were ignored and the rest is history. Vietnam's real tragedy however was the 他們被忽視了，剩下的就是歷史了。然而，越南的真正悲劇是 fundamental misunderstanding of Asian culture and politics by the west. 西方對亞洲文化和政治的根本誤解。 25. Fears of a Soviet-Chinese-Vietnamese alliance which would throw the west out of Southeast asia 25.擔心蘇中越聯盟會將西方國家趕出東南亞。 were largely unfounded and a result of ignorance. The Vietnamese and Chinese people were allies of 這在很大程度上是毫無根據的，是無知的結果。 越南人和中國人都是美國的盟友 necessity only, and had simmering tensions that have lasted for centuries. There is no 只有必要性，並有持續了幾個世紀的醞釀中的緊張關係。沒有 indication that had the North been allowed to unify the country under communist rule that a 有跡象表明，如果允許北方在共產黨的統治下統一國家，就會有一個 follow-on takeover of south-east asia and its fall to Soviet control would have ever happened. 東南亞的後續接管和落入蘇聯控制的情況將永遠不會發生。 24. The US was foolishly painting all communists with the same brush, 24.美國愚蠢地用同一把刷子刷所有的共產主義者。 assuming they would be bonded by a common ideology against the west. This is especially tragic in 假設他們會被反對西方的共同意識形態所束縛。這在以下情況下尤為可悲 light of Ho Chi Minh's initial affections for the United States, and the fact that 鑑於胡志明最初對美國的感情，以及以下事實 years later Communist China would turn from the Soviet Union and embrace relations with America. 幾年後，共產主義中國將從蘇聯轉向與美國的關係。 During the war, even communist allies were hardly friends. 在戰爭期間，即使是共產主義盟友也很難成為朋友。 23. The North Vietnamese were supplied with equipment from the Soviet Union, 23.北越人得到了蘇聯提供的設備。 which was shipped to them through China. The Chinese took advantage 這些東西是通過中國運給他們的。中國人利用了 of the situation by swiping Soviet made weapons and replacing them with cheap 掠奪蘇聯製造的武器，並以廉價的 "小刀 "取代，從而改變了局勢。 Chinese knock-offs. This directly led to the deaths of untold thousands of Northern 中國的山寨貨。這直接導致了數千名北方人的死亡。 soldiers as their weapons fell apart or malfunctioned in the middle of a battle. 阿兵哥們的武器在戰鬥中散架或發生故障。 22. To make sure the Chinese didn't swipe 22.為了確保中國人沒有掠奪 sensitive and high-value systems like radars and air defense missiles, 敏感和高價值的系統，如雷達和防空飛彈。 Soviet advisors were not only dispatched to assist the North in setting them up, but to babysit the 蘇聯顧問不僅被派去協助北方建立這些機構，而且還負責照看他們。 equipment on its trip through China and ensure it wasn't stolen and replaced with inferior copies. 在通過中國的旅程中，確保設備沒有被盜並被替換成劣質的副本。 21. Most Viet Cong fighters cared little for Communism, and simply wanted to overthrow a 21.大多數越共戰士對共產主義漠不關心，只是想推翻一個 southern government they saw as brutal, inept, and corrupt. The accusations were largely true, 他們認為南方政府殘暴、無能和腐敗。這些指責在很大程度上是真實的。 with the south funneling money to the large cities and all but ignoring the countryside. 南方的資金流向大城市，而完全忽略了農村。 Extra-judicial arrests, torture, and seizure of property were common amongst 法外逮捕、酷刑和扣押財產的情況，在中國人中很常見。 the laundry list of petty dictators that kept popping up in the south. 南方不斷出現的小規模獨裁者的名單。 20. Troubled by accusations of extreme torture by the South, several American senators paid 20.由於受到南方極端酷刑的指控的困擾，一些美國參議員支付了 a visit to a South Vietnamese prison and were shocked to discover the infamous 'tiger cages', 在訪問南越監獄時，他們震驚地發現了臭名昭著的 "老虎籠"。 holes in the ground with barred openings up top where prisoners were kept. They witnessed 地面上的洞，上面有柵欄式的開口，是關押囚犯的地方。他們目睹了 direct evidence of torture despite southern officials attempting to hide it, but upon 儘管南方官員試圖掩蓋酷刑的直接證據，但當 return to the US were fearful of growing anti-war sentiment and chose to remain silent about it. 返回美國的人對日益增長的反戰情緒感到恐懼，選擇對此保持沉默。 These next facts about the Viet Cong may just startle you. 接下來關於越共的這些事實可能會讓你感到吃驚。 19. Most Viet Cong fighters were as terrified of the jungle as the Americans. 19.大多數越共戰士和美國人一樣對叢林感到恐懼。 Few Viet Cong actually came from jungle regions, and were largely inexperienced 實際上很少有越共來自叢林地區，而且基本上沒有經驗。 surviving and living in thick jungle. Tiger attacks were also so frequent, that men would 在茂密的叢林中生存和生活。老虎的攻擊也非常頻繁，以至於人們會 routinely disappear without a trace in the middle of the night. Snakes and diseases carried by rats 通常會在半夜消失得無影無蹤。蛇和老鼠攜帶的疾病 and mosquitoes were also extremely common, making life miserable for a Viet Cong rebel. 和蚊子也極其普遍，使越共叛亂分子的生活變得很痛苦。 18. Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops were astonished when meeting Black American soldiers, 18.越共和北越軍隊在見到美國黑人阿兵哥時感到很驚訝。 whom they had heard rumors of but assumed were a myth. 他們聽說過關於他們的傳言，但認為是一個神話。 17. Many Viet Cong were more afraid of living in the haphazard tunnel networks they built 17.許多越共更害怕生活在他們建造的雜亂無章的隧道網絡中 than of American bombs. The tunnels were built by amateurs, and suffered from many extreme dangers. 而不是美國的炸彈。這些隧道是由業餘人員建造的，並遭受了許多極端的危險。 Poor ventilation could lead to asphyxiation, and shoddy construction would trigger collapses that 通風不良可能會導致窒息，而偷工減料的建築會引發坍塌，導致 could kill dozens of men. When it rained, if a tunnel wasn't properly constructed it could 可以殺死幾十個人。下雨的時候，如果隧道建造得不好，就會造成 lead to flash flooding, and venomous spiders, centipedes, and snakes were a constant concern. 導致山洪暴發，而毒蜘蛛、蜈蚣和蛇則是一個持續的問題。 16. Despite the constant threat of death, Viet Cong tunnel complexes 16.儘管一直面臨死亡的威脅，但越共的隧道群 could be stunningly large. Some had entire armories, barracks, kitchens, and hospitals, 它可能大得驚人。有些有整個軍械庫、兵營、廚房和醫院。 with multiple entrances and emergency escapes. While the US tried many tactics to destroy 有多個入口和緊急逃學生通道。 雖然美國嘗試了許多戰術來摧毀 these tunnels and their occupants, the only tried and true method was the use of 'tunnel rats'. 對這些隧道及其居住者來說，唯一嘗試過的真正方法是使用 "隧道老鼠"。 To take on the Viet Cong tunnels, the US had only one weapon. 為了對付越共的隧道，美國只有一種武器。 15. Tunnel rats were an all-volunteer force. They also had to be shorter than average to maneuver in 15.道地鼠是一支全員參與的部隊。他們還必須比一般人矮，以便在隧道中機動。 the cramped quarters, and were armed only with a knife, flashlight, a sidearm and a gas mask. 在狹窄的宿舍裡，他們只配備了一把刀、手電筒、一把隨身武器和一個防毒面具。 The tight quarters made it impossible to effectively use a rifle, and a grenade 狹小的環境使其無法有效地使用步槍，而手榴彈 would threaten to collapse the tunnel and bury both friendly and enemy soldiers. Many times the 會威脅到隧道的坍塌，埋葬友軍和敵軍阿兵哥。很多時候 fighting resorted to brutal hand-to-hand combat at extremely close and very tight quarters. 戰鬥在極近和極小的範圍內訴諸殘酷的徒手搏鬥。 14. To defend themselves, the Viet Cong booby trapped many of their tunnels. 14.為了自衛，越共在他們的許多隧道中設置了誘殺裝置。 Tunnel rats would often face pitfall traps with sharpened bamboo stakes at the bottom, 道地鼠經常會面對底部有削尖的竹樁的陷阱。 covered in excrement so as to ensure infection. Other times a tunnel rat would trigger a trap that 覆蓋在排洩物上，以確保感染。 其他時候，隧道里的老鼠會觸發一個陷阱，該陷阱 dropped venomous snakes or centipedes on them from above. Tunnels could also be engineered 從上面向他們投放毒蛇或蜈蚣。隧道也可以被設計成 to easily flood certain sections with either gas or water, drowning or asphyxiation tunnel rats. 很容易用氣體或水淹沒某些區域，淹死或窒息隧道內的老鼠。 13. The infamous tiger traps built by the Viet Cong and depicted in books and tv were often not 13.越共建造的、書本和電視中描述的臭名昭著的老虎陷阱往往不是 meant to kill or maim American soldiers, but to destroy marauding tigers that were a direct threat 是為了殺死或殘害美國士兵，而是為了消滅直接威脅到美國的掠奪性老虎。 to the safety of jungle-dwelling Viet Cong. When it comes to atrocities in Vietnam, 到居住在叢林中的越共的安全。說到越南的暴行。 the US unfairly gets all the blame. 12. Despite the United States and South Vietnam 美國不公平地得到了所有的指責。12.儘管美國和南越 holding blame for war crimes, the North was notorious for targeting civilians in its attacks- 在對戰爭罪行進行指責時，北方因在其攻擊中以平民為目標而臭名昭著。 specially hospitals and medical areas. Both NVA and Viet Cong forces also frequently engaged in 特別是醫院和醫療區。新軍和越共的部隊也經常發生衝突。 the slaughter of villagers, for the exact same reasons as the South and the US- not knowing if 屠殺村民，其原因與南方和美國完全相同--不知道是否 they were pro-American or communist sympathizers. Now you'll be surprised to learn 他們是親美或同情共產主義的人。現在你會驚訝地發現 about the weapons of Vietnam. 11. When the US first entered Vietnam in force, 關於越南的武器。11.美國第一次進入越南時的武力。 American infantry was immediately overwhelmed by superior NVA firepower. Still using the M-14 美軍步兵立即被NVA的優勢火力所淹沒。仍然使用M-14 rifle, US troops withered under the blistering fire of the AK-47. The M-16 was fast-tracked 在AK-47步槍的猛烈射擊下，美軍的戰鬥力下降了。M-16被快速推廣 into development, leading to serious problems with the first few iterations of the weapon. 進入開發階段，導致該武器的前幾次迭代出現嚴重問題。 To make matters worse, the weapon had been falsely billed as “self-cleaning”, 更糟糕的是，該武器被錯誤地標榜為 "自清潔"。 which is not only absolutely ludicrous, but led to massive malfunctions from fouled weapons. 這不僅是絕對可笑的，而且還導致了武器結垢的大規模故障。 10. US troops hated the M16 so much that they would steal AK-47s from dead enemy 10.美軍非常討厭M16，以至於他們會從死去的敵人那裡偷來AK-47。 soldiers and hoard their ammunition. US special forces especially loved the AK-47, 阿兵哥並囤積他們的彈藥。美國特種部隊尤其喜歡AK-47。 as it allowed them to confuse enemy soldiers under fire from the distinctive sounding weapon. 因為這使他們能夠在這種聲音獨特的武器的射擊下迷惑敵方阿兵哥。 This led many troops to not fire back for fear of a friendly fire incident, 這導致許多部隊因擔心發生友軍射擊事件而不進行還擊。 giving US special forces a massive advantage. As bad as troops had it on the ground, 讓美國特種部隊獲得了巨大的優勢。就像部隊在地面上的情況一樣糟糕。 Vietnam was not the Air Force's proudest moment. 9. The North Vietnamese Air Force was objectively 越南不是空軍最自豪的時刻。9.北越空軍在客觀上是 superior to the US. America's top ace only had six kills by the end of the war, 優於美國。美國的頂級王牌飛行員在戰爭結束時只擊落了6架。 with North Vietnam's top ace having nine kills. The US only had five aces in the entire war, while 北越的頭號王牌有9次擊落。 美國在整個戰爭中只有5名王牌，而 the NVAF had 17. Only US overmatch in equipment and numbers allowed it to win the air war. NVAF有17架。只有美國在裝備和數量上的超常發揮使其贏得了空戰。 8. US fighter pilots were wholly unprepared for the war in Vietnam's skies, 8.美國的戰鬥機飛行員對越南天空的戰爭完全沒有準備。 and were being shot down at an alarming rate as the war began. This was largely 並在戰爭開始時以驚人的速度被擊落。這主要是由於 because traditional dogfighting tactics were no longer being taught to US fighter pilots, 因為美國的戰鬥機飛行員不再被教授傳統的打狗戰術了。 in preference for the use of high tech long-range air to air missiles. The skyrocketing casualties 而傾向於使用高科技的遠程空對空飛彈。急劇上升的傷亡 amongst American aviators led to the establishment of the Top Gun program, 在美國飛行員中，這導致了 "絕世高手 "計劃的建立。 which focused on teaching dogfighting techniques and remains to this day. 其中重點是教授鬥狗技術，並保持到今天。 7. The US lost a whopping 3.744 planes, 7.美國損失了高達3.744架飛機。 5,607 helicopters, and 578 UAVs during the course of the war. 在戰爭過程中，有5,607架直升機和578架無人機。 6. One US plane was so terrible that it forced the US Air Force to immediately 6.一架美國飛機非常可怕，迫使美國空軍立即 retire it shortly after the start of the war. The F-105B Thunderchief lasted only six 在戰爭開始後不久就將其退役。F-105B "雷電 "只持續了6年。 years before being pulled off frontline service. The plane performed so poorly 幾年後才被撤出前線服役。這架飛機的表現如此之差 that it remains the only US aircraft ever retired for being so terrible at its job. 它仍然是唯一因工作能力太差而退役的美國飛機。 But the US proved a tactical genius in at least one area. 但美國至少在一個方面證明了其戰術的天才性。 5. The Vietnam War saw the first widespread use of the helicopter to directly support infantry. 5.越南戰爭中，直升機首次被廣泛用於直接支持步兵。 The US literally wrote the book on air assault operations in Vietnam, with the widespread use 美國在越南的空中突擊行動實際上是寫在書上的，它廣泛地使用了 of air-inserted infantry, often catching enemy formations completely off guard. 的空中插入的步兵，往往使敵人的編隊完全措手不及。 4. American forces were rarely ever defeated during the entire conflict, winning almost 4.在整個衝突期間，美軍很少被打敗，幾乎贏得了 every battle they engaged in. Despite this, the US lost the strategic war, proving that tactical 他們參與的每一場戰鬥。儘管如此，美國還是輸掉了戰略戰爭，證明了戰術上的 victories are meaningless without political ones. A lesson the US still hasn't learned. 沒有政治上的勝利是毫無意義的。美國仍然沒有學到這個教訓。 3. America sabotaged its own chances at winning the war even from the onset. 3.美國甚至從一開始就破壞了自己贏得戰爭的機會。 Massive bombing campaigns that crippled North Vietnam were often canceled out 削弱北越的大規模轟炸行動往往被取消了 of fear of prompting a Soviet or Chinese counter-invasion. While the US's goals was 擔心會引起蘇聯或中國的反入侵。雖然美國的目標是 to cripple North Vietnam without directly destroying it so it would negotiate peace, 削弱北越，但不直接摧毀它，這樣它就會進行和平談判。 North Vietnam simply used the lull between bombings to rebuild and consolidate its forces. 北越只是利用轟炸之間的空隙來重建和鞏固其部隊。 2. North Vietnam was the most dangerous place on earth for a pilot during the war. 2.在戰爭期間，北越是地球上對飛行員最危險的地方。 The nation had thousands of anti-aircraft batteries supplied by the Soviet Union. 國家有數千個由蘇聯提供的防空炮臺。 Despite this, electronic countermeasures employed by American B-52 bombers kept them largely 儘管如此，美國B-52轟炸機採用的電子對抗措施使其在很大程度上保持了 safe from enemy SAMs, and American 'Wild Weasels'- planes tasked with directly destroying AAA sites- helped suppress enemy defenses for other air assets. 摧毀AAA基地--有助於壓制敵人對其他航空資產的防禦。 1. Had the United States ever sent ground forces to secure the Ho Chi Minh trail, 1.如果美國曾經派出地面部隊來保護胡志明的足跡。 the Viet Cong movement would have completely collapsed. Out of fear of expanding the 越共運動就會完全崩潰。出於對擴大 conflict though, the US relied on raids and air assets to bomb the expansive Ho Chi Minh trail, 雖然衝突，美國依靠突襲和航空資產來轟炸廣闊的胡志明足跡。 which ran through Laos and Cambodia. These would prove to be largely ineffective 貫穿寮國和高棉。事實證明，這些措施在很大程度上是無效的 in stopping the flow of manpower and supplies into South Vietnam. 在阻止人力和物資流向南越方面。 Now go watch 50 insane cold war facts that will shock you, or click this other video instead! 現在去看50個瘋狂的冷戰事實，這些事實會讓你震驚，或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!