字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 You're an astronaut, going into your fifth hour on a spacewalk to perform some maintenance on the 你是一名太空人，即將進入你的第五個小時的太空行走，在太空中進行一些維護。 International Space Station, 125 miles above Earth. And then - reality hits: 國際空間站，距離地球125英里。然後--現實來了。 you have to pee, and you have to pee now. Where do you go? What do you do? 你要小便，而且現在就要小便。你去哪裡？你做什麼？ How do astronauts pee in space? 太空人如何在太空中撒尿？ An official NASA report from the 1970s called bathroom habits, quote, “a bothersome 美國宇航局1970年代的一份官方報告稱衛生間的習慣，引用如下："一個令人煩惱的 aspect...from the beginning.” Contemporary astronauts claim bodily functions are the most 方面......從一開始"。當代太空人聲稱身體機能是最 frequently-asked queries about space travel - from children and adults! As an astronaut on the ISS, 關於太空旅行的常見問題--來自兒童和成人的詢問!作為國際空間站上的一名太空人。 it's been a long journey to get where you are today - not just for you, but for your bladder. 獲得今天的成就是一個漫長的過程--不僅是對你，而且對你的膀胱。 The first NASA astronaut to have to consider the question was Alan Shepard, 第一個不得不考慮這個問題的美國宇航局太空人是艾倫-謝潑德。 the first American in space, on May 5, 1961. 1961年5月5日，第一個進入太空的美國人。 While NASA submitted designs to Congress that included a designated container for “liquid waste” 雖然美國宇航局向國會提交的設計包括一個指定的 "液體廢物 "容器 in their one-man space capsule, the reality was much different - after all, they figured, 在他們的單人太空艙中，現實卻大不相同--畢竟，他們想。 Shepard was only scheduled for a 15-minute suborbital experience, nothing too crazy. 謝潑德只被安排進行15分鐘的亞軌道體驗，沒有什麼太瘋狂的。 Shepard entered his capsule hours before the expected launch time, remaining on his back as a 謝潑德在預計的發射時間前幾個小時進入他的太空艙，作為一個人留在他的背上。 series of weather and technical issues continued to push the launch time by another two hours! 一系列的天氣和技術問題繼續將發射時間又推後了兩個小時! Eventually, Shepard told the ground crew he had to use the bathroom. Realizing it would further delay 最後，謝潑德告訴地面人員他要上廁所。意識到這將進一步拖延 the launch if they let him out, the ground crew declined his request. So he urinated right there, 如果他們讓他出來，地面工作人員拒絕了他的請求。所以他就在那裡撒尿。 the liquid splashing up his back in the process - they even had to turn off sensors in his suit to 在這個過程中，液體濺到了他的背上--他們甚至不得不關閉他衣服中的傳感器，以便 make sure they didn't short circuit. Shepard later said the cotton undergarment he wore 確保它們不會發生短路。謝潑德後來說，他所穿的棉質內衣 soaked most of it up, so he was good and dry by the time the Freedom 7 finally launched. 吸收了大部分水分，所以當自由7號最終發射時，他已經乾得很好了。 By the way, the first human in space, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, 順便說一下，第一個進入太空的人，俄羅斯太空人尤里-加加林。 encountered a similar problem earlier that year, April 12. His trip lasted 108 minutes 在這一年的早些時候，即4月12日遇到了類似的問題。他的行程持續了108分鐘 from launch to landing, and he didn't have any facilities aboard his capsule, either. How did 從發射到著陸，他的太空艙裡也沒有任何設施。他是如何 the Soviet space program solve his bathroom needs? Simple - on the way to the launch site, 蘇聯太空計劃解決了他的浴室需求？很簡單--在前往發射場的路上。 Gagarin asked the bus driver to pull over. He then got out and peed on the right back tire, starting 加加林要求巴士司機靠邊停車。然後他下車，在右後輪胎上撒尿，開始 a cosmonaut tradition that lasted almost 60 years. He made his flight without any reported incidents. 這是一個持續了近60年的太空人傳統。 他的飛行沒有發生任何報告的事件。 Meanwhile, back at NASA, the issue with Shepard demonstrated a problem for the American space 與此同時，在美國宇航局，謝潑德的問題顯示了美國太空的一個問題。 program: if they wanted to continue putting people in space, they needed to come up with 計劃：如果他們想繼續把人送上太空，他們需要拿出 a waste disposal plan. And that meant some creative solutions to the problem. 一個廢物處理計劃。而這意味著要有一些創造性的解決方案來解決這個問題。 July 1961 - Gus Grissom is the next American to fly into space. 1961年7月--格斯-格里森（Gus Grissom）是下一個飛入太空的美國人。 Popular legend had nurse Dee O'Hara solving the bathroom issue by buying a condom and a girdle, 流行的傳說中，護士迪-奧哈拉通過購買保險套和腰帶解決了衛生間的問題。 and fixing them together to give the astronaut needed relief. 並將它們固定在一起，給太空人提供所需的救濟。 In reality, Grissom was given two pairs of rubber pants, trapping whatever urine he expelled, 在現實中，格里森得到了兩條橡膠褲，可以截住他排出的任何尿液。 and making for easy cleanup. A solution that NASA knew was more temporary than permanent. 並使清理工作變得容易。一個美國國家航空航天局知道的解決方案是暫時的，而不是永久的。 Even before Grissom took off, James McBarron was hard at work on an official 甚至在格里索姆起飛之前，詹姆斯-麥克巴倫就在努力工作，編寫一份正式的 Urine Collection Device - or UCD - to make nature's call more suitable for outer space. 尿液收集裝置--或稱UCD--使大自然的呼喚更適合於外太空。 McBarron went practical, basing his design on the condom - his research consisted of 麥巴倫從實際出發，以安全套為基礎進行設計--他的研究包括 buying several brands and trying them on himself...though given the final version, 買了幾個品牌，並親自試穿......雖然給了最終版本。 we don't know that that thoroughness was completely necessary - fun for him, though! The 我們不知道這種徹底性是否完全必要--不過對他來說很有趣！"。節目 result became the official Urine Transfer System, or UTS, for the remaining Mercury missions. 其結果成為其餘水星任務的正式尿液傳輸系統，或UTS。 Open-ended on both sides, the “roll-on-cuff” or “sheath” came in three sizes - small, medium, 兩邊都是開口的，"捲袖 "或 "護套 "有三種尺寸--小號、中號。 and large - and was worn by astronauts on one end, with the other end wrapped around the opening of 大的--太空人穿在一端，另一端繞在太空艙口。 a bag. A nylon strap secured the cuff to the bag, and the astronaut's undergarment held 一個袋子。一條尼龍帶將袖口固定在袋子上，而太空人的內衣則固定在袋子上。 the bag in place. A spring-loaded metal clamp kept the urine from leaking, so it could be disposed 袋子的位置。一個帶有彈簧的金屬夾子使尿液不至於洩漏，是以它可以被處理掉。 of later. Apollo 16's Charlie Duke claimed it was then attached to a sort-of jockstrap 的後來。阿波羅16號的查理-杜克聲稱它當時被連接到一種襪帶上。 astronauts wore about their waist, with one hole in front to roll on the sheath, and an open back 太空人在腰部穿的衣服，前面有一個孔，可以捲上護套，後面是敞開的。 for the so-called Fecal Containment Device, which Duke compared to, quote, “a ladies' girdle.” 所謂的 "糞便控制裝置"，杜克將其比作 "女士的腰帶"。 Of course, that brought a whole different aspect to things - the FCD may have been a girdle, but 當然，這給事情帶來了一個完全不同的方面--FCD可能是一個腰帶，但 what it held in place was basically a plastic bag, with a little finger-pocket to make sure nothing 它所固定的基本上是一個塑膠袋，有一個小的手指袋，以確保沒有任何東西在裡面。 got stuck to the body. After doing their business, astronauts would then have to seal the bag, 被粘在身體上。做完事後，太空人們就得把袋子封起來。 detach it, and knead it in order to mix whatever they evacuated with the liquid bactericide inside, 把它拆開，揉一揉，以便把他們排出來的東西和裡面的液體殺菌劑混合起來。 stabilizing the fecal matter so it could be expunged - or, in some cases, 穩定糞便，使其能夠被清除 - 或者，在某些情況下。 brought back to Earth for observation and research. The entire system was messy and 帶回地球進行觀察和研究。整個系統是混亂的，而且 imperfect, but it would have to do 'til NASA could come up with something else - in the 不完美，但它將不得不做，直到NASA可以想出其他的東西 - 在 meantime, diets were adjusted - food became limited, low residue meals, 同時，飲食也得到了調整--食物變成了有限的、低殘留的膳食。 and some drugs were even used to slow down the whole digestion-to-evacuation process. 而一些藥物甚至被用來減緩整個消化到排洩的過程。 John Glenn was the first US astronaut to experience this new contraption, 約翰-格倫是第一個體驗這種新裝置的美國太空人。 and he used it during his nearly five-hour orbit around the globe. During that trip, 他在繞地球近5小時的軌道上使用了它。在那次旅行中。 he reported no abnormalities in his functions - like astronauts today, 他報告說他的功能沒有任何異常--就像今天的太空人一樣。 Glenn said he only went when he finally felt the need, no different from the feeling on Earth. 格倫說他只是在最後感到需要時才去的，與地球上的感覺沒有什麼不同。 However, when he finally vacated his bladder just before reentry, he expelled 27 ounces of 然而，當他在重新入境前終於騰出膀胱時，他排出了27盎司的酒精。 liquid - 7 ounces more than the average human bladder holds at maximum capacity! Why didn't 液體--比普通人的膀胱在最大容量時的容量還要多7盎司!為什麼沒有 he feel the need before? The weightlessness of even microgravity affects bodily fluids the same 他以前覺得有這個需要嗎？即使是微重力的失重對體液的影響也是如此 as it does everything else: everything travels up. This explains why astronauts tend to look puffier 就像它對其他事物一樣：一切都在往上走。 這就解釋了為什麼太空人往往看起來比較臃腫 in space compared to when they're grounded - the blood flow has traveled up - and why, 在太空中與他們在地面上時相比--血流已經往上走了--以及為什麼。 like Glenn, by the time they feel the need to answer nature's call, it's already too late. 像格倫一樣，當他們覺得需要響應大自然的召喚時，已經太晚了。 Still, zero-g bladder functions weren't reflective of the UTS's effectiveness, 儘管如此，零重力膀胱功能並不能反映出UTS的有效性。 and McBarron's design became the standard for manned spaceflights, all the way through to the 麥巴倫的設計成為載人航天的標準，一直到現在。 Apollo missions. Even Apollo 11's Buzz Aldrin has talked about using this system - proudly 阿波羅任務。甚至阿波羅11號的巴茲-奧爾德林（Buzz Aldrin）也談到了使用這個系統--自豪地說道 proclaiming himself not just the second man on the moon, but the first man to pee on the moon. 宣稱自己不僅是第二個登月的人，而且是第一個在月球上撒尿的人。 But now a new, unexpected, unscientific problem arose: size. As we said, each “sheath,” as the 但是現在出現了一個新的、意想不到的、不科學的問題：尺寸。正如我們所說，每個 "鞘"，如 condoms were now called, came in various, color-coordinated sizes - small, medium, 安全套現在被稱為，有各種顏色協調的尺寸--小號、中號。 and large - a designation which some astronauts got very sensitive about. According to Apollo 和大型--一些太空人對這一稱呼非常敏感。據《阿波羅》雜誌報道 9's Russell Schweickart, “if you get too small a size it effectively pinches off the flow and 9的Russell Schweickart說，"如果你的尺寸太小，它就會有效地掐斷流量和 you just...can't go; and if on the other hand you've got an ego problem and you decide on a 你只是......不能去；而如果在另一方面，你有一個自我問題，你決定在一個 large when you should have a medium...you end up with half of the urine outside the bag on you.” 當你應該有一箇中型的時候，你卻選擇了大型的......你最終會有一半的尿液在你的袋子外面。" Reportedly, that happened enough that the size designations were then changed to “large,” 據報道，這種情況已經發生得夠多了，以至於後來將尺寸指定改為 "大"。 “gigantic,” and “humongous.” Because scientific progress is equal parts ego and practicality. "巨大的"，和 "巨大的"。因為科學的進步是自我和實用並重的。 With more men spending longer hours in larger spacecraft, 隨著更多的人在更大的航天器中度過更長的時間。 new systems of waste disposal were developed for the Apollo missions. A designated waste 為阿波羅任務開發了新的廢物處理系統。一個指定的廢物 management system included a hose connected to a line within the walls of the spacecraft 管理系統包括一個連接到航天器壁內管道的軟管 that could collect urine and dump it into space. The hose had two lines inside - one for the UTS, 可以收集尿液並將其倒入太空。 軟管內部有兩條管子--一條用於UTS。 and one for the Urine Receptacle Assembly, URA, a valve that allowed astronauts to use 和一個用於尿液容器組件，即URA，一個允許太空人使用的閥門。 the bathroom on the shuttle, with a honeycombed system that kept the urine stable through zero-g. 航天飛機上的衛生間，有一個蜂窩狀的系統，在零重力下保持尿液穩定。 The dumping process had its limitations, however - it had to be timed just right so that urine didn't 然而，傾倒過程有其侷限性--它的時間必須把握得恰到好處，以便尿液不被發現。 escape into the ship itself, or timed so that the urine cloud that formed outside wouldn't obstruct 逃入飛船本身，或在時間上使外面形成的尿液雲不會阻礙 the view at a time when scientific observations of activity outside the craft were scheduled. 在計劃對飛船外的活動進行科學觀察的時候，看到了這一景象。 One scenario where dumping the urine wasn't an option came up in April 1970, during the famous 1970年4月，在著名的 "中國人 "事件中，出現了傾倒尿液不是一種選擇的情況。 Apollo 13 flight. You probably remember the movie: an explosion in the service module resulted in the 阿波羅13號飛行。你可能記得這部電影：服務艙內的爆炸導致了 loss of two oxygen tanks and damaged life support systems. The astronauts were forced to power down 損失了兩個氧氣罐，生命支持系統受損。太空人們被迫關閉電源 the command module, saving its resources for reentry; cram together in the still-attached 指揮艙，為重返大氣層節省資源；在仍然連接在一起的 lunar module; loop around the moon; and return to Earth - a trip that lasted four days. Even 月球艙；繞月球一圈；然後返回地球--這次旅行持續了四天。甚至 with them rationing water to 7 ounces per person a day, urination would still be a necessity - but 由於他們將水配給到每人每天7盎司，排尿仍然是必要的 - 但 not only could a pee dump reduce what little electrical resources they had left, 傾倒尿液不僅可以減少他們所剩無幾的電力資源。 it could also have affected their trajectory. NASA asked them not to dump any more urine, so they had 這也可能影響他們的軌跡。美國宇航局要求他們不要再傾倒尿液，所以他們不得不 to start peeing in bags stored around the limited space, adding another unpleasant element to an 他們開始在有限的空間裡的袋子裡撒尿，給一個不愉快的環境增加了另一個不愉快的因素。 already not-ideal situation. Fred Haise solved the problem his own way: he kept his UTS on, 已經不是很理想的情況。弗雷德-海斯用自己的方式解決了這個問題：他保持了他的UTS。 so if he had to pee, he could do so in his suit; otherwise, the three astronauts agreed to hold 是以，如果他要小便，他可以在他的衣服裡這樣做；否則，三名太空人同意持有 off urinating as much as possible. Between the lack of water, holding his bladder for too long, 儘可能地減少排尿。介於缺水，憋尿時間過長。 and continuing to soak in what he did expel, Haise wound up developing a kidney infection and a UTI. 並繼續浸泡在他所排出的東西中，海斯最終患上了腎臟感染和尿毒症。 The next couple of decades saw the advent of space shuttles, space stations, 接下來的幾十年裡，航天飛機、空間站的出現。 months-long missions - and the introduction of female astronauts. Bathroom habits had to change. 長達數月的任務--以及女性太空人的出現。洗手間的習慣必須改變。 The original design for the space shuttle toilet included straps to keep the feet in place, 航天飛機馬桶的原始設計包括保持腳部位置的帶子。 handles to keep the astronauts from flying off, a four-inch opening that required perfect aim for 為了防止太空人飛走，有一個四英寸的開口，需要完美的瞄準。 other business - and a hose attachment for going number one. The toilet and hose were pressurized 其他業務--和一個軟管附件，用於去一號。馬桶和軟管被加壓了 and included vacuum suction, powered on by switches at the base and by the arm, 幷包括真空吸力，由底座和手臂上的開關驅動。 the better to, uh, “grab” whatever was coming out. 以便更好地，呃，"抓住 "即將出來的東西。 To ensure as little urine as possible floated away, a funnel was attached to the hose - for men, 為了確保儘可能少的尿液飄走，在軟管上安裝了一個漏斗--對男人來說。 a single, simple design, one that needed to be held a little away from the body to avoid pooling. 一個單一的、簡單的設計，一個需要在離身體稍遠的地方舉行，以避免彙集。 For women, three separate designs, all of which could be held flush against the skin. The whole 對於女性來說，有三種獨立的設計，所有這些設計都可以與皮膚平齊。整個 execution was precarious enough to require special training on Earth - including a camera 執行起來很不穩定，需要在地球上進行特殊的訓練--包括一臺攝影機 to make sure you positioned yourself on the toilet seat just right - and many female astronauts have 以確保你在馬桶蓋上的位置恰到好處 - 許多女太空人都有 discussed sharing tips with each other on the best way to arrange things to allow for...dual ops. 他們討論了彼此分享關於安排事情的最佳方式的提示，以便能夠......進行雙重操作。 With some adjustments, it's not too dissimilar from the smaller, sleeker, modern toilet on 經過一些調整後，它與《中國日報》上的小型、光滑、現代的馬桶沒有太大區別。 today's International Space Station. The Universal Waste Management System still has the straps 今天的國際空間站。通用廢物管理系統仍有帶子 and handles, still uses the hose with funnel attachment, though that's in a more convenient 和手柄，仍然使用帶漏斗附件的軟管，雖然這是在一個更方便的 place than it was before. Per female astronauts' request, the new design allows for both the hose 比以前的位置。根據女太空人的要求，新的設計允許軟管 and the seat to be used simultaneously, if necessary, with the pee funnel's design 和座椅同時使用，如有必要，可採用小便漏斗的設計 adjusted with women's needs specifically in mind. Air flow is now automatic when the seat 調整時特別考慮到了女性的需求。氣流現在是自動的，當座椅 is lifted or the hose detached, sucking the pee away. That pee is then treated with acids in a 提起或拆開軟管，將尿液吸走。然後，這些尿液會在一個 "小 "的容器中用酸進行處理。 filtration system that recycles the urine through the station's water system, where it can be reused 過濾系統，通過車站的水系統回收尿液，在那裡可以重新使用。 as drinking water. Or as astronaut Jessica Meir put it, “Today's coffee is tomorrow's coffee.” 如同喝水一樣。或者正如太空人傑西卡-梅爾所說，"今天的咖啡就是明天的咖啡"。 The evolution of space tourism has also led to some original re-designs of the space toilet. 太空旅遊的發展也導致了一些太空廁所的原始重新設計。 The mechanics of the one for SpaceX's Crew Dragon are still shrouded in secrecy as of August 2021, 截至2021年8月，SpaceX的 "乘龍 "號的機械裝置仍然籠罩在祕密之中。 but we do know that the bathroom will be located in the nose of the space capsule. 但我們確實知道，衛生間將位於太空艙的頭部。 That section is usually reserved for docking, but the Inspiration4 won't be connecting to the ISS. 該部分通常是為對接保留的，但Inspiration4不會與國際空間站連接。 Instead, the nose will be turned into a 360-degree domed window, a cupola, 相反，車頭將變成一個360度的圓頂窗，即沖天爐。 offering magnificent views of the Earth...that can be enjoyed while astronauts sit down and 提供地球的壯麗景色......可以在太空人坐下來的時候欣賞。 attend to their business. A privacy curtain separates the area from the rest of the ship. 辦理他們的業務。一個隱私簾子將該區域與船上的其他地方隔開。 All that toilet talk is fine for the space vehicles - but back to you and your spacewalk. 所有這些關於廁所的話題對太空飛行器來說是很好的 - 但回到你和你的太空行走。 Because your spacesuit is pressurized, with its own oxygen and water supplies, 因為你的宇航服是加壓的，有自己的氧氣和水供應。 you've had to don it several hours in advance to get your body used to 你不得不提前幾個小時穿上它，以使你的身體習慣於 it - that way you don't get the bends. After that, your work during the spacewalk can take 它 - 這樣你就不會得到彎曲。之後，你在太空行走期間的工作可以採取 anywhere between five and nine hours. A long time to go without peeing. So what do you do? 五到九個小時之間的任何地方。很長一段時間沒有小便。那麼你是怎麼做的？ This is where the introduction of women into the space program led to some necessary - and 這就是將婦女引入太空計劃導致了一些必要的--和 convenient - innovations. The old condom-based UTS was obviously unusable for female astronauts. 方便 - 創新。舊的基於安全套的UTS對於女性太空人來說顯然是無法使用的。 In its place came the Disposable Absorption Containment Trunk, or DACT, and then later, 取而代之的是一次性吸收防護箱，或稱DACT，後來又出現了一次性吸收防護箱。 the Maximum Absorbent Garment, or MAG. Different names, same overall design and principle: 最大吸收性服裝，或稱MAG。名稱不同，整體設計和原理相同。 designed to be pulled up onto the body like a pair of shorts, they resemble adult diapers...and they 設計成像短褲一樣拉到身上，它們類似於成人尿布......而且它們 pretty much are. Except they are more absorbent, thanks to the sodium polyacrylate powder woven 幾乎是這樣。除了它們的吸收力更強，這要歸功於聚丙烯酸鈉粉末的編織。 into the fabric, which can absorb up to two quarts of liquid - urine, menstrual blood, 進入織物，它可以吸收多達兩夸脫的液體 - 尿液、經血。 excrement, etc. - pulling it away from the skin to prevent irritation. The convenience of the 排洩物，等等。- 把它從皮膚上拉開，以防止刺激。的方便。 MAGs led to male astronauts also adopting them. Every astronaut receives three: MAGs導致男性太空人也採用它們。每個太空人都會收到三個。 one for the initial launch, one for reentry, and one for extravehicular activities, 一個用於初始發射，一個用於再入，一個用於艙外活動。 which usually include...yup, spacewalks. Go ahead - let loose. 其中通常包括......是的，太空漫步。來吧--放輕鬆。 Now go watch what really happens to your body if you die in space, 現在去看看如果你在太空中死亡，你的身體到底會發生什麼。 or click this other video instead! 或點擊這個其他視頻來代替!