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  • You're an astronaut, going into your fifth hour  on a spacewalk to perform some maintenance on the  

    你是一名太空人,即將進入你的第五個小時的太空行走,在太空中進行一些維護。

  • International Space Station, 125 miles  above Earth. And then - reality hits:  

    國際空間站,距離地球125英里。然後--現實來了。

  • you have to pee, and you have to pee  now. Where do you go? What do you do?

    你要小便,而且現在就要小便。你去哪裡?你做什麼?

  • How do astronauts pee in space?

    太空人如何在太空中撒尿?

  • An official NASA report from the 1970s  called bathroom habits, quote, “a bothersome  

    美國宇航局1970年代的一份官方報告稱衛生間的習慣,引用如下:"一個令人煩惱的

  • aspect...from the beginning.” Contemporary  astronauts claim bodily functions are the most  

    方面......從一開始"。當代太空人聲稱身體機能是最

  • frequently-asked queries about space travel - from  children and adults! As an astronaut on the ISS,  

    關於太空旅行的常見問題--來自兒童和成人的詢問!作為國際空間站上的一名太空人。

  • it's been a long journey to get where you are  today - not just for you, but for your bladder.

    獲得今天的成就是一個漫長的過程--不僅是對你,而且對你的膀胱。

  • The first NASA astronaut to have to  consider the question was Alan Shepard,  

    第一個不得不考慮這個問題的美國宇航局太空人是艾倫-謝潑德。

  • the first American in space, on May 5, 1961.  

    1961年5月5日,第一個進入太空的美國人。

  • While NASA submitted designs to Congress that  included a designated container forliquid waste”  

    雖然美國宇航局向國會提交的設計包括一個指定的 "液體廢物 "容器

  • in their one-man space capsule, the reality  was much different - after all, they figured,  

    在他們的單人太空艙中,現實卻大不相同--畢竟,他們想。

  • Shepard was only scheduled for a 15-minute  suborbital experience, nothing too crazy.  

    謝潑德只被安排進行15分鐘的亞軌道體驗,沒有什麼太瘋狂的。

  • Shepard entered his capsule hours before the  expected launch time, remaining on his back as a  

    謝潑德在預計的發射時間前幾個小時進入他的太空艙,作為一個人留在他的背上。

  • series of weather and technical issues continued  to push the launch time by another two hours!  

    一系列的天氣和技術問題繼續將發射時間又推後了兩個小時!

  • Eventually, Shepard told the ground crew he had to  use the bathroom. Realizing it would further delay  

    最後,謝潑德告訴地面人員他要上廁所。意識到這將進一步拖延

  • the launch if they let him out, the ground crew  declined his request. So he urinated right there,  

    如果他們讓他出來,地面工作人員拒絕了他的請求。所以他就在那裡撒尿。

  • the liquid splashing up his back in the processthey even had to turn off sensors in his suit to  

    在這個過程中,液體濺到了他的背上--他們甚至不得不關閉他衣服中的傳感器,以便

  • make sure they didn't short circuit. Shepard  later said the cotton undergarment he wore  

    確保它們不會發生短路。謝潑德後來說,他所穿的棉質內衣

  • soaked most of it up, so he was good and dry  by the time the Freedom 7 finally launched.

    吸收了大部分水分,所以當自由7號最終發射時,他已經乾得很好了。

  • By the way, the first human in spaceRussian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin,  

    順便說一下,第一個進入太空的人,俄羅斯太空人尤里-加加林。

  • encountered a similar problem earlier that  year, April 12. His trip lasted 108 minutes  

    在這一年的早些時候,即4月12日遇到了類似的問題。他的行程持續了108分鐘

  • from launch to landing, and he didn't have any  facilities aboard his capsule, either. How did  

    從發射到著陸,他的太空艙裡也沒有任何設施。他是如何

  • the Soviet space program solve his bathroom  needs? Simple - on the way to the launch site,  

    蘇聯太空計劃解決了他的浴室需求?很簡單--在前往發射場的路上。

  • Gagarin asked the bus driver to pull over. He then  got out and peed on the right back tire, starting  

    加加林要求巴士司機靠邊停車。然後他下車,在右後輪胎上撒尿,開始

  • a cosmonaut tradition that lasted almost 60 yearsHe made his flight without any reported incidents.

    這是一個持續了近60年的太空人傳統。 他的飛行沒有發生任何報告的事件。

  • Meanwhile, back at NASA, the issue with Shepard  demonstrated a problem for the American space  

    與此同時,在美國宇航局,謝潑德的問題顯示了美國太空的一個問題。

  • program: if they wanted to continue putting  people in space, they needed to come up with  

    計劃:如果他們想繼續把人送上太空,他們需要拿出

  • a waste disposal plan. And that meant  some creative solutions to the problem.

    一個廢物處理計劃。而這意味著要有一些創造性的解決方案來解決這個問題。

  • July 1961 - Gus Grissom is the  next American to fly into space.  

    1961年7月--格斯-格里森(Gus Grissom)是下一個飛入太空的美國人。

  • Popular legend had nurse Dee O'Hara solving the  bathroom issue by buying a condom and a girdle,  

    流行的傳說中,護士迪-奧哈拉通過購買保險套和腰帶解決了衛生間的問題。

  • and fixing them together to give  the astronaut needed relief.  

    並將它們固定在一起,給太空人提供所需的救濟。

  • In reality, Grissom was given two pairs of rubber  pants, trapping whatever urine he expelled,  

    在現實中,格里森得到了兩條橡膠褲,可以截住他排出的任何尿液。

  • and making for easy cleanup. A solution that  NASA knew was more temporary than permanent.

    並使清理工作變得容易。一個美國國家航空航天局知道的解決方案是暫時的,而不是永久的。

  • Even before Grissom took off, James  McBarron was hard at work on an official  

    甚至在格里索姆起飛之前,詹姆斯-麥克巴倫就在努力工作,編寫一份正式的

  • Urine Collection Device - or UCD - to make  nature's call more suitable for outer space.  

    尿液收集裝置--或稱UCD--使大自然的呼喚更適合於外太空。

  • McBarron went practical, basing his design  on the condom - his research consisted of  

    麥巴倫從實際出發,以安全套為基礎進行設計--他的研究包括

  • buying several brands and trying them on  himself...though given the final version,  

    買了幾個品牌,並親自試穿......雖然給了最終版本。

  • we don't know that that thoroughness was  completely necessary - fun for him, though! The  

    我們不知道這種徹底性是否完全必要--不過對他來說很有趣!"。節目

  • result became the official Urine Transfer Systemor UTS, for the remaining Mercury missions.  

    其結果成為其餘水星任務的正式尿液傳輸系統,或UTS。

  • Open-ended on both sides, theroll-on-cuffor  “sheathcame in three sizes - small, medium,  

    兩邊都是開口的,"捲袖 "或 "護套 "有三種尺寸--小號、中號。

  • and large - and was worn by astronauts on one endwith the other end wrapped around the opening of  

    大的--太空人穿在一端,另一端繞在太空艙口。

  • a bag. A nylon strap secured the cuff to the  bag, and the astronaut's undergarment held  

    一個袋子。一條尼龍帶將袖口固定在袋子上,而太空人的內衣則固定在袋子上。

  • the bag in place. A spring-loaded metal clamp kept  the urine from leaking, so it could be disposed  

    袋子的位置。一個帶有彈簧的金屬夾子使尿液不至於洩漏,是以它可以被處理掉。

  • of later. Apollo 16's Charlie Duke claimed  it was then attached to a sort-of jockstrap  

    的後來。阿波羅16號的查理-杜克聲稱它當時被連接到一種襪帶上。

  • astronauts wore about their waist, with one hole  in front to roll on the sheath, and an open back  

    太空人在腰部穿的衣服,前面有一個孔,可以捲上護套,後面是敞開的。

  • for the so-called Fecal Containment Device, which  Duke compared to, quote, “a ladies' girdle.”

    所謂的 "糞便控制裝置",杜克將其比作 "女士的腰帶"。

  • Of course, that brought a whole different aspect  to things - the FCD may have been a girdle, but  

    當然,這給事情帶來了一個完全不同的方面--FCD可能是一個腰帶,但

  • what it held in place was basically a plastic bagwith a little finger-pocket to make sure nothing  

    它所固定的基本上是一個塑膠袋,有一個小的手指袋,以確保沒有任何東西在裡面。

  • got stuck to the body. After doing their businessastronauts would then have to seal the bag,  

    被粘在身體上。做完事後,太空人們就得把袋子封起來。

  • detach it, and knead it in order to mix whatever  they evacuated with the liquid bactericide inside,  

    把它拆開,揉一揉,以便把他們排出來的東西和裡面的液體殺菌劑混合起來。

  • stabilizing the fecal matter so it  could be expunged - or, in some cases,  

    穩定糞便,使其能夠被清除 - 或者,在某些情況下。

  • brought back to Earth for observation and  research. The entire system was messy and  

    帶回地球進行觀察和研究。整個系統是混亂的,而且

  • imperfect, but it would have to do 'til NASA  could come up with something else - in the  

    不完美,但它將不得不做,直到NASA可以想出其他的東西 - 在

  • meantime, diets were adjusted - food  became limited, low residue meals,  

    同時,飲食也得到了調整--食物變成了有限的、低殘留的膳食。

  • and some drugs were even used to slow down  the whole digestion-to-evacuation process.

    而一些藥物甚至被用來減緩整個消化到排洩的過程。

  • John Glenn was the first US astronaut  to experience this new contraption,  

    約翰-格倫是第一個體驗這種新裝置的美國太空人。

  • and he used it during his nearly five-hour  orbit around the globe. During that trip,  

    他在繞地球近5小時的軌道上使用了它。在那次旅行中。

  • he reported no abnormalities in his  functions - like astronauts today,  

    他報告說他的功能沒有任何異常--就像今天的太空人一樣。

  • Glenn said he only went when he finally felt the  need, no different from the feeling on Earth.  

    格倫說他只是在最後感到需要時才去的,與地球上的感覺沒有什麼不同。

  • However, when he finally vacated his bladder  just before reentry, he expelled 27 ounces of  

    然而,當他在重新入境前終於騰出膀胱時,他排出了27盎司的酒精。

  • liquid - 7 ounces more than the average human  bladder holds at maximum capacity! Why didn't  

    液體--比普通人的膀胱在最大容量時的容量還要多7盎司!為什麼沒有

  • he feel the need before? The weightlessness of  even microgravity affects bodily fluids the same  

    他以前覺得有這個需要嗎?即使是微重力的失重對體液的影響也是如此

  • as it does everything else: everything travels upThis explains why astronauts tend to look puffier  

    就像它對其他事物一樣:一切都在往上走。 這就解釋了為什麼太空人往往看起來比較臃腫

  • in space compared to when they're grounded  - the blood flow has traveled up - and why,  

    在太空中與他們在地面上時相比--血流已經往上走了--以及為什麼。

  • like Glenn, by the time they feel the need to  answer nature's call, it's already too late.

    像格倫一樣,當他們覺得需要響應大自然的召喚時,已經太晚了。

  • Still, zero-g bladder functions weren't  reflective of the UTS's effectiveness,  

    儘管如此,零重力膀胱功能並不能反映出UTS的有效性。

  • and McBarron's design became the standard for  manned spaceflights, all the way through to the  

    麥巴倫的設計成為載人航天的標準,一直到現在。

  • Apollo missions. Even Apollo 11's Buzz Aldrin  has talked about using this system - proudly  

    阿波羅任務。甚至阿波羅11號的巴茲-奧爾德林(Buzz Aldrin)也談到了使用這個系統--自豪地說道

  • proclaiming himself not just the second man on  the moon, but the first man to pee on the moon.

    宣稱自己不僅是第二個登月的人,而且是第一個在月球上撒尿的人。

  • But now a new, unexpected, unscientific problem  arose: size. As we said, eachsheath,” as the  

    但是現在出現了一個新的、意想不到的、不科學的問題:尺寸。正如我們所說,每個 "鞘",如

  • condoms were now called, came in variouscolor-coordinated sizes - small, medium,  

    安全套現在被稱為,有各種顏色協調的尺寸--小號、中號。

  • and large - a designation which some astronauts  got very sensitive about. According to Apollo  

    和大型--一些太空人對這一稱呼非常敏感。據《阿波羅》雜誌報道

  • 9's Russell Schweickart, “if you get too small  a size it effectively pinches off the flow and  

    9的Russell Schweickart說,"如果你的尺寸太小,它就會有效地掐斷流量和

  • you just...can't go; and if on the other hand  you've got an ego problem and you decide on a  

    你只是......不能去;而如果在另一方面,你有一個自我問題,你決定在一個

  • large when you should have a medium...you end up  with half of the urine outside the bag on you.”  

    當你應該有一箇中型的時候,你卻選擇了大型的......你最終會有一半的尿液在你的袋子外面。"

  • Reportedly, that happened enough that the size  designations were then changed tolarge,”  

    據報道,這種情況已經發生得夠多了,以至於後來將尺寸指定改為 "大"。

  • gigantic,” andhumongous.” Because scientific  progress is equal parts ego and practicality.

    "巨大的",和 "巨大的"。因為科學的進步是自我和實用並重的。

  • With more men spending longer  hours in larger spacecraft,  

    隨著更多的人在更大的航天器中度過更長的時間。

  • new systems of waste disposal were developed  for the Apollo missions. A designated waste  

    為阿波羅任務開發了新的廢物處理系統。一個指定的廢物

  • management system included a hose connected  to a line within the walls of the spacecraft  

    管理系統包括一個連接到航天器壁內管道的軟管

  • that could collect urine and dump it into spaceThe hose had two lines inside - one for the UTS,  

    可以收集尿液並將其倒入太空。 軟管內部有兩條管子--一條用於UTS。

  • and one for the Urine Receptacle AssemblyURA, a valve that allowed astronauts to use  

    和一個用於尿液容器組件,即URA,一個允許太空人使用的閥門。

  • the bathroom on the shuttle, with a honeycombed  system that kept the urine stable through zero-g.  

    航天飛機上的衛生間,有一個蜂窩狀的系統,在零重力下保持尿液穩定。

  • The dumping process had its limitations, howeverit had to be timed just right so that urine didn't  

    然而,傾倒過程有其侷限性--它的時間必須把握得恰到好處,以便尿液不被發現。

  • escape into the ship itself, or timed so that the  urine cloud that formed outside wouldn't obstruct  

    逃入飛船本身,或在時間上使外面形成的尿液雲不會阻礙

  • the view at a time when scientific observations  of activity outside the craft were scheduled.

    在計劃對飛船外的活動進行科學觀察的時候,看到了這一景象。

  • One scenario where dumping the urine wasn't an  option came up in April 1970, during the famous  

    1970年4月,在著名的 "中國人 "事件中,出現了傾倒尿液不是一種選擇的情況。

  • Apollo 13 flight. You probably remember the moviean explosion in the service module resulted in the  

    阿波羅13號飛行。你可能記得這部電影:服務艙內的爆炸導致了

  • loss of two oxygen tanks and damaged life support  systems. The astronauts were forced to power down  

    損失了兩個氧氣罐,生命支持系統受損。太空人們被迫關閉電源

  • the command module, saving its resources for  reentry; cram together in the still-attached  

    指揮艙,為重返大氣層節省資源;在仍然連接在一起的

  • lunar module; loop around the moon; and return  to Earth - a trip that lasted four days. Even  

    月球艙;繞月球一圈;然後返回地球--這次旅行持續了四天。甚至

  • with them rationing water to 7 ounces per person  a day, urination would still be a necessity - but  

    由於他們將水配給到每人每天7盎司,排尿仍然是必要的 - 但

  • not only could a pee dump reduce what  little electrical resources they had left,  

    傾倒尿液不僅可以減少他們所剩無幾的電力資源。

  • it could also have affected their trajectory. NASA  asked them not to dump any more urine, so they had  

    這也可能影響他們的軌跡。美國宇航局要求他們不要再傾倒尿液,所以他們不得不

  • to start peeing in bags stored around the limited  space, adding another unpleasant element to an  

    他們開始在有限的空間裡的袋子裡撒尿,給一個不愉快的環境增加了另一個不愉快的因素。

  • already not-ideal situation. Fred Haise solved  the problem his own way: he kept his UTS on,  

    已經不是很理想的情況。弗雷德-海斯用自己的方式解決了這個問題:他保持了他的UTS。

  • so if he had to pee, he could do so in his suitotherwise, the three astronauts agreed to hold  

    是以,如果他要小便,他可以在他的衣服裡這樣做;否則,三名太空人同意持有

  • off urinating as much as possible. Between the  lack of water, holding his bladder for too long,  

    儘可能地減少排尿。介於缺水,憋尿時間過長。

  • and continuing to soak in what he did expel, Haise  wound up developing a kidney infection and a UTI.

    並繼續浸泡在他所排出的東西中,海斯最終患上了腎臟感染和尿毒症。

  • The next couple of decades saw the  advent of space shuttles, space stations,  

    接下來的幾十年裡,航天飛機、空間站的出現。

  • months-long missions - and the introduction of  female astronauts. Bathroom habits had to change.

    長達數月的任務--以及女性太空人的出現。洗手間的習慣必須改變。

  • The original design for the space shuttle toilet  included straps to keep the feet in place,  

    航天飛機馬桶的原始設計包括保持腳部位置的帶子。

  • handles to keep the astronauts from flying off,  a four-inch opening that required perfect aim for  

    為了防止太空人飛走,有一個四英寸的開口,需要完美的瞄準。

  • other business - and a hose attachment for going  number one. The toilet and hose were pressurized  

    其他業務--和一個軟管附件,用於去一號。馬桶和軟管被加壓了

  • and included vacuum suction, powered on  by switches at the base and by the arm,  

    幷包括真空吸力,由底座和手臂上的開關驅動。

  • the better to, uh, “grabwhatever was coming out.  

    以便更好地,呃,"抓住 "即將出來的東西。

  • To ensure as little urine as possible floated  away, a funnel was attached to the hose - for men,  

    為了確保儘可能少的尿液飄走,在軟管上安裝了一個漏斗--對男人來說。

  • a single, simple design, one that needed to be  held a little away from the body to avoid pooling.  

    一個單一的、簡單的設計,一個需要在離身體稍遠的地方舉行,以避免彙集。

  • For women, three separate designs, all of which  could be held flush against the skin. The whole  

    對於女性來說,有三種獨立的設計,所有這些設計都可以與皮膚平齊。整個

  • execution was precarious enough to require  special training on Earth - including a camera  

    執行起來很不穩定,需要在地球上進行特殊的訓練--包括一臺攝影機

  • to make sure you positioned yourself on the toilet  seat just right - and many female astronauts have  

    以確保你在馬桶蓋上的位置恰到好處 - 許多女太空人都有

  • discussed sharing tips with each other on the best  way to arrange things to allow for...dual ops.

    他們討論了彼此分享關於安排事情的最佳方式的提示,以便能夠......進行雙重操作。

  • With some adjustments, it's not too dissimilar  from the smaller, sleeker, modern toilet on  

    經過一些調整後,它與《中國日報》上的小型、光滑、現代的馬桶沒有太大區別。

  • today's International Space Station. The Universal  Waste Management System still has the straps  

    今天的國際空間站。通用廢物管理系統仍有帶子

  • and handles, still uses the hose with funnel  attachment, though that's in a more convenient  

    和手柄,仍然使用帶漏斗附件的軟管,雖然這是在一個更方便的

  • place than it was before. Per female astronautsrequest, the new design allows for both the hose  

    比以前的位置。根據女太空人的要求,新的設計允許軟管

  • and the seat to be used simultaneouslyif necessary, with the pee funnel's design  

    和座椅同時使用,如有必要,可採用小便漏斗的設計

  • adjusted with women's needs specifically in  mind. Air flow is now automatic when the seat  

    調整時特別考慮到了女性的需求。氣流現在是自動的,當座椅

  • is lifted or the hose detached, sucking the pee  away. That pee is then treated with acids in a  

    提起或拆開軟管,將尿液吸走。然後,這些尿液會在一個 "小 "的容器中用酸進行處理。

  • filtration system that recycles the urine through  the station's water system, where it can be reused  

    過濾系統,通過車站的水系統回收尿液,在那裡可以重新使用。

  • as drinking water. Or as astronaut Jessica Meir  put it, “Today's coffee is tomorrow's coffee.”

    如同喝水一樣。或者正如太空人傑西卡-梅爾所說,"今天的咖啡就是明天的咖啡"。

  • The evolution of space tourism has also led to  some original re-designs of the space toilet.  

    太空旅遊的發展也導致了一些太空廁所的原始重新設計。

  • The mechanics of the one for SpaceX's Crew Dragon  are still shrouded in secrecy as of August 2021,  

    截至2021年8月,SpaceX的 "乘龍 "號的機械裝置仍然籠罩在祕密之中。

  • but we do know that the bathroom will be  located in the nose of the space capsule.  

    但我們確實知道,衛生間將位於太空艙的頭部。

  • That section is usually reserved for docking, but  the Inspiration4 won't be connecting to the ISS.  

    該部分通常是為對接保留的,但Inspiration4不會與國際空間站連接。

  • Instead, the nose will be turned into  a 360-degree domed window, a cupola,  

    相反,車頭將變成一個360度的圓頂窗,即沖天爐。

  • offering magnificent views of the Earth...that  can be enjoyed while astronauts sit down and  

    提供地球的壯麗景色......可以在太空人坐下來的時候欣賞。

  • attend to their business. A privacy curtain  separates the area from the rest of the ship.

    辦理他們的業務。一個隱私簾子將該區域與船上的其他地方隔開。

  • All that toilet talk is fine for the space  vehicles - but back to you and your spacewalk.  

    所有這些關於廁所的話題對太空飛行器來說是很好的 - 但回到你和你的太空行走。

  • Because your spacesuit is pressurizedwith its own oxygen and water supplies,  

    因為你的宇航服是加壓的,有自己的氧氣和水供應。

  • you've had to don it several hours  in advance to get your body used to  

    你不得不提前幾個小時穿上它,以使你的身體習慣於

  • it - that way you don't get the bends. After  that, your work during the spacewalk can take  

    它 - 這樣你就不會得到彎曲。之後,你在太空行走期間的工作可以採取

  • anywhere between five and nine hours. A long  time to go without peeing. So what do you do?

    五到九個小時之間的任何地方。很長一段時間沒有小便。那麼你是怎麼做的?

  • This is where the introduction of women into  the space program led to some necessary - and  

    這就是將婦女引入太空計劃導致了一些必要的--和

  • convenient - innovations. The old condom-based  UTS was obviously unusable for female astronauts.  

    方便 - 創新。舊的基於安全套的UTS對於女性太空人來說顯然是無法使用的。

  • In its place came the Disposable Absorption  Containment Trunk, or DACT, and then later,  

    取而代之的是一次性吸收防護箱,或稱DACT,後來又出現了一次性吸收防護箱。

  • the Maximum Absorbent Garment, or MAG. Different  names, same overall design and principle:  

    最大吸收性服裝,或稱MAG。名稱不同,整體設計和原理相同。

  • designed to be pulled up onto the body like a pair  of shorts, they resemble adult diapers...and they  

    設計成像短褲一樣拉到身上,它們類似於成人尿布......而且它們

  • pretty much are. Except they are more absorbentthanks to the sodium polyacrylate powder woven  

    幾乎是這樣。除了它們的吸收力更強,這要歸功於聚丙烯酸鈉粉末的編織。

  • into the fabric, which can absorb up to two  quarts of liquid - urine, menstrual blood,  

    進入織物,它可以吸收多達兩夸脫的液體 - 尿液、經血。

  • excrement, etc. - pulling it away from the skin  to prevent irritation. The convenience of the  

    排洩物,等等。- 把它從皮膚上拉開,以防止刺激。的方便。

  • MAGs led to male astronauts also adopting  them. Every astronaut receives three:  

    MAGs導致男性太空人也採用它們。每個太空人都會收到三個。

  • one for the initial launch, one for reentryand one for extravehicular activities,  

    一個用於初始發射,一個用於再入,一個用於艙外活動。

  • which usually include...yupspacewalks. Go ahead - let loose.

    其中通常包括......是的,太空漫步。來吧--放輕鬆。

  • Now go watch what really happens  to your body if you die in space,  

    現在去看看如果你在太空中死亡,你的身體到底會發生什麼。

  • or click this other video instead!

    或點擊這個其他視頻來代替!

You're an astronaut, going into your fifth hour  on a spacewalk to perform some maintenance on the  

你是一名太空人,即將進入你的第五個小時的太空行走,在太空中進行一些維護。

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2,300萬美元的太空廁所如何實際運作 (How $23 Million Space Toilet Actually Works)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 05 日
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