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Hi I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon. This is menopause, is what many of
you think I'm saying when I say, "This is mental_floss."
That's just one of many questions of grammar, spelling and usage that we will
be exploring and correcting today.
Let's just start out one that no matter how many times I hear, I always
struggle with, even though, I know I'm a novelist. 1. Lay vs. Lie.
Lay is transitive; it needs a direct subject and one or more
objects, and the past tense of "lay" is laid, which slang makes confusing
because it is also something that you can "get." (Get laid)
So you lay down your copy of the brilliant and heartwarming novel "The
Fault in Our Stars"
If it happened in the past, you laid down your copy of "The Fault in Our Stars."
"Lie" does not require an object, and the past tense of "lie" is, of course,
"lay." So if you need to get out of gym class, and if you're like me, you do, then
you need to go to the nurse's office and "lie" down,
whereas Clark Kent "lay" down when he find that he could not save Toad from
the gigantic bear...
skeleton. 2. Literally means something that 100%, for sure,
no doubt, is true. For example, you did not
"literally" die when you fell down the stairs, because you are telling me the
story of your literal dying. 3. This is a bad sentence: I wish One Direction would
come to Indianapolis; I think Niall Horan would like it here.
If your sentence contains two independent thoughts, you have a
run-on sentence. You put a comma in the middle, that just gives you a comma splice.
Try using a semi-colon, or even better, a period. 4. There's this band I like called
the Avett[ay-vit] Brothers (possibly the Avett[ah-vit] Brothers) and they have this song I like
in which they sing, "I want to have friends that I can trust, who love me for
the man I've become, not the man
'that' I was," but it should be "who," it should be 3 "who"s - I wanna have
friends who I can trust,
who love me for the man who I've become. "That" is for non-people;
"who" is for people, and when you call a "who" a "that," you are dehumanizing the "who"
And don't dehumanize The Who (band); they already have enough problems just with
old age. 5. Your delicious new chili red mini cooper is not "for sell"
it is "for sale". 6. Okay "who" and "whom". "Who" and "whom" are both pronouns. "Who" is a subject;
"whom" is in object. So "who" is your favorite spice girl? But
"whom" do you like among the Spice Girls? Easy trick, if your answer would
contain a "he" or a "she,"
use "who"; if your answer would contain a "him" or a "her,"
use "whom." 7. If you're using a singular noun, use a singular pronoun, and if you're
using a plural noun, use a plural pronoun. For example,
everyone in our office has "their" friends, but everyone in
our office has "his or her" favorite episode of Duck Dynasty. 8. It's Catcher
"in" the Rye, but Sex "and" the City. 9. You "nip it
in the bud". Never nip anything
in the butt! 10. You couldn't care less. Saying you could care less implies that
you care at least somewhat, because you could reduce your level of caring.
11. "A lot" is two words, as in "I have a-space-lot of unwatched episodes of The
Vampire Diaries on my DVR. 12. "Lose," as in "lose" the game, has one "o";
as in "hey Justin Bieber, I haven't seen pants that "loose" since MC Hammer,
has 2 "o"s. 13. If you're referring to something you can count, use
"fewer". If it's an uncountable quality, like love, use "less".
For instance, there is now one fewer matryoshka doll on the Wall of Magic, and
it is a little bit less magical. 14. "Could
of" is not a thing. Neither is "should of", neither is "would of", you get the
picture.
"Could've" is a contraction of "could have"; "Should've" is a contraction of
"should have." I'll leave it to you to figure out what "woul've" means. 15. Speaking
of commonly said things that are not in fact
things, "for all intensive purposes" is wrong.
It's "for all intents and purposes." 16. Subjects: I, you, he, she
it, we, they. Ojects: me, you, him, her it, us, them.
So: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
ate ice cream. But Henry the VIII married and then decapitated me, you, him, her
it, us, them.
17. Here's a quick tip for figuring out whether to use "me" or "I." Take away the other
noun in the sentence. For example, "Mark and me"went to Starbucks, or "Mark and
I" went to Starbucks? First, you have to remove Mark, I am sorry, Mark.
"I" went to Starbucks, makes sense, but "Me" went to Starbucks sounds like Captain
Caveman, so you use "I"!
18. "Anxious" means you are nervous. It comes from "anxiety." If you're excited for
something, you're
"eager," not anxious. 19. "Good" is an adjective or a noun. "Well"
always an adverb. So you're not "doing good" because you're describing how
you're "doing." You're "doing
well," which is good. 20. "If" implies a condition, "whether" implies there are two
options. So "we don't know whether to watch Full House
or Sabrina the Teenage Witch" but watch Full House
if it's the episode about Michelle getting amnesia. 21. If it's coming toward
the speaker, use "bring". If it's going away from the speaker use
"take". So mark is "bringing" me the laser cat. Thank you, Mark, this is so awesome. I
am so.. yes!
Do it… why did you "take" it away? 22. "Historic" is something significant that
happened in history, but "historical" is just
anything that happened in the past. Of course, deciding what's significant is
subjective; that's why we have Crash Course History. All right, let's quickly
go through some words that sound the same:
23. "You're" means "you are"; "your" is something you possess.
24. "It's" means "it is" or "it has"; "its" is something that
it possesses. This is "its" eye. "Its" name is Cellophane, by the way, we can't tell you
the story; "it's" too cute.
25. You're going "there", something they own is "theirs" and "they're" all weird. 26. If you're
trying to say
"who is", contract to "who's". "Whose" indicates ownership or of "whom or which"
27. "Emigrate" with an "e" if you're moving away from your home country; "immigrate"
with an
"i" if you're moving to a new country. I mean, usually you're doing both at the
same time… it's really a matter of which country's paperwork you're filling out.
Pro tip: keep all passports. 28. "Two" is the number that comes after "one";
"too" is "also," and "to" is the only one you can use as an infinitive or as a
preposition, as in "I want to go to Disney World."
29. "Allusion" is the noun form of the verb "to allude".
"Illusion" is what Gob does on Arrested Development. 30. A "bear" is what you don't
want to encounter on your camping trip; it's also "to carry" or "to tolerate" as in
"bear with me" or "to stay in one direction": "bear right." "Bare"
means "exposed" or "naked" as in how I feel when singing karaoke.
31. "Elicit" is a verb; "illicit" is an adjective.
you can think of it this way: "illicit" drugs will make you ill.
32. "Led" is the past tense of "lead"; "lead" is the kind of paint you shouldn't eat.
33. You write notes on "stationery". Think
"e" for envelope and you remain stationary. 34. The Weather Channel is
completely unnecessary, because
Siri, whereas "whether" I already explained. 35. "Affect" is a verb implying
change;
"effect" is a noun meaning "the result". Some people think that you can use
"effect" as a verb as well, but those people are wrong. 36. Use "than" for
comparisons; otherwise, use "then" to mean "next", or
"later". Like One Tree Hill is better then the O.C.! Well, we can watch One Tree Hill,
then, instead of The O.C.
37. Speaking of my love for early 2000 TV, Mr. Feeney was Cory Matthews' "principal".
"Principal" with an "a" can also mean "the highest in importance":
the "principal" problem in this office is, for instance, that no one appreciates a
good Boy Meets World reference.
A "principle" is only a noun, meaning "a law" or "a rule"
38. "Accept" as a verb as in "you have to accept that we are back at the salon, and
therefore this video is almost over";
"except" is a preposition or conjunction, like "this video is over,
except for the credits" Thanks for watching mental_floss, which is brought to you
with the help of these nice people; every week we endeavor to answer one
of your mind-blowing questions. This week's question comes from user "IHate4Kids"
I hope not your 4 kids. "Why is the sky blue?
I don't know. Hank? Thanks John. And great question, IHate4Kids...
I guess you probably hate kids because they keep asking
questions like this that are seemingly obvious but actually ridiculously
difficult to answer.
The problem here is that we don't have to understand why the sky is blue to
understand why the sky is blue; we also have to understand what
is blue? Surprisingly this is a difficult question to answer, but if someone asks
you what blue is,
this is what you should say: the light that we see is a very narrow band of the
electromagnetic spectrum,
a spectrum of radiation wavelengths that stretches all the way from waves the
size of buildings to waves the size of atomic nuciei.
Visible light has wavelength roughly the size of single-celled organisms like
protozoans,
so small but not anywhere near as small as atoms.
Our eyes are actually extremely sensitive wavelength detectors in the
visible range.
We can distinguish between the longer wavelengths of red light, and the shorter wavelengths
of blue light. And that is what blue is, an interaction between
our eyes, our brains and certain electromagnetic waves. Now, as to what's
actually happening in the atmosphere.
Radiation can interact with particles in a few different ways, it can bounce off,
it can reflect, it can be absorbed and remitted.
But if it's interacting with particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of
the radiation, like molecules of the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere,
the radiation is not absorbed or reflected, it's scattered.
Because nitrogen and oxygen are particularly good at scattering blue light,
with shorter wavelengths rather than other colors, blue light is scattered
out from the main beam of the sun's light, and all around the atmosphere.
Before scattering down to
our eyes. The effect? A yellow-tinged blue-less sun, and the beautiful shell
of blue light from Horizon
to Horizon. Again, thanks for watching mental_floss; remembers to submit your own
questions and DFTBA.
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必看!38個常見拼字文法錯誤(中英字幕) (38 Common Spelling and Grammar Errors- mental_floss)

40094 分類 收藏
Tong-Ann Sytwu 發佈於 2014 年 9 月 16 日    Paris Tsai 翻譯    Sunny Hsu 審核
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