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  • Hi I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon. This is menopause, is what many of

    Hi 我是 John Green,歡迎來到我的沙龍。當我說「內心紛亂」(mental floss)時,

  • you think I'm saying when I say, "This is mental_floss."


  • That's just one of many questions of grammar, spelling and usage that we will


  • be exploring and correcting today.


  • Let's just start out one that no matter how many times I hear, I always


  • struggle with, even though, I know I'm a novelist. 1. Lay vs. Lie.


  • Lay is transitive; it needs a direct subject and one or more


  • objects, and the past tense of "lay" is laid, which slang makes confusing


  • because it is also something that you can "get." (Get laid)

    因為你以為它是你可以「得到」(get)的東西。(Get laid)

  • So you lay down your copy of the brilliant and heartwarming novel "The


  • Fault in Our Stars"

    「生命中的美好缺憾」(The Fault in Our Stars)

  • If it happened in the past, you laid down your copy of "The Fault in Our Stars."

    如果是過去過去發生的動作,動詞用laid (you laid down your copy of "The Fault in Our Stars")

  • "Lie" does not require an object, and the past tense of "lie" is, of course,


  • "lay." So if you need to get out of gym class, and if you're like me, you do, then


  • you need to go to the nurse's office and "lie" down,

    你要去保健室「躺下」(lie down)

  • whereas Clark Kent "lay" down when he find that he could not save Toad from

    而超人(Clark Kent)發現自己無法從巨熊手上救出Toad

  • the gigantic bear...

    他「躺下」(lay down)

  • skeleton. 2. Literally means something that 100%, for sure,


  • no doubt, is true. For example, you did not


  • "literally" die when you fell down the stairs, because you are telling me the


  • story of your literal dying. 3. This is a bad sentence: I wish One Direction would

    所以你沒有「真正」(literally)死掉。3.這句有點糟:我希望一世代(One Direction)

  • come to Indianapolis; I think Niall Horan would like it here.

    會來印第安納波利斯市。我覺得Niall Horan會喜歡這裡。

  • If your sentence contains two independent thoughts, you have a

    如果你的句子中包含兩個個別得想法,就是冗長句子(run-on sentence)

  • run-on sentence. You put a comma in the middle, that just gives you a comma splice.

    你在中間加上逗號,那只是逗號的錯誤用法(comma splice)

  • Try using a semi-colon, or even better, a period. 4. There's this band I like called


  • the Avett[ay-vit] Brothers (possibly the Avett[ah-vit] Brothers) and they have this song I like

    Avett Brothers的樂團。我喜歡他們唱的一首歌:

  • in which they sing, "I want to have friends that I can trust, who love me for


  • the man I've become, not the man


  • 'that' I was," but it should be "who," it should be 3 "who"s - I wanna have


  • friends who I can trust,


  • who love me for the man who I've become. "That" is for non-people;


  • "who" is for people, and when you call a "who" a "that," you are dehumanizing the "who"


  • And don't dehumanize The Who (band); they already have enough problems just with

    不要把The Who樂團去人化,他們團員年紀大,問題已經夠多了。

  • old age. 5. Your delicious new chili red mini cooper is not "for sell"

    5.你的那臺令人垂涎欲滴,辣椒紅的寶馬迷你(mini cooper)不是「為了賣」(for sell)

  • it is "for sale". 6. Okay "who" and "whom". "Who" and "whom" are both pronouns. "Who" is a subject;

    而是「待售」(for sale)。6."who"和"whom";這兩個都是代名詞。"Who"當主詞用

  • "whom" is in object. So "who" is your favorite spice girl? But


  • "whom" do you like among the Spice Girls? Easy trick, if your answer would


  • contain a "he" or a "she,"


  • use "who"; if your answer would contain a "him" or a "her,"


  • use "whom." 7. If you're using a singular noun, use a singular pronoun, and if you're


  • using a plural noun, use a plural pronoun. For example,


  • everyone in our office has "their" friends, but everyone in


  • our office has "his or her" favorite episode of Duck Dynasty. 8. It's Catcher


  • "in" the Rye, but Sex "and" the City. 9. You "nip it

    8.是「麥田捕手」(Catcher "in" the rye)和「慾望城市」(Sex "and" the City)。

  • in the bud". Never nip anything

    9.你「防患未然」(nip in the bud)。不要從

  • in the butt! 10. You couldn't care less. Saying you could care less implies that

    屁股(butt)裡捏(nip)起任何東西!10.你不能少擔心點(care less)。當你說care less代表

  • you care at least somewhat, because you could reduce your level of caring.


  • 11. "A lot" is two words, as in "I have a-space-lot of unwatched episodes of The

    11."A lot"是兩個字,例如"我有很,空格(space),多還沒看的吸血鬼日記(The Vampire Diaries)"

  • Vampire Diaries on my DVR. 12. "Lose," as in "lose" the game, has one "o";

    在我的硬碟裡。12.「輸」"lose",例如「輸掉比賽」(lose the game),有一個o

  • as in "hey Justin Bieber, I haven't seen pants that "loose" since MC Hammer,

    而「嘿,小賈斯汀,從MC Hammer後我就沒看過這麼鬆(loose)的褲子了」

  • has 2 "o"s. 13. If you're referring to something you can count, use


  • "fewer". If it's an uncountable quality, like love, use "less".


  • For instance, there is now one fewer matryoshka doll on the Wall of Magic, and

    比如說,魔術牆這裡少了一個俄羅斯娃娃(matryoshka doll)

  • it is a little bit less magical. 14. "Could


  • of" is not a thing. Neither is "should of", neither is "would of", you get the

    14.沒有"could of"的用法,也沒有"should of"和"would of",你有點概念了。

  • picture.

  • "Could've" is a contraction of "could have"; "Should've" is a contraction of

    "Could've" 是"could have"的縮寫(constraction),"Sould've" 是

  • "should have." I'll leave it to you to figure out what "woul've" means. 15. Speaking

    "Sould have"的縮寫我讓你自己釐清"woul've"的意思。

  • of commonly said things that are not in fact


  • things, "for all intensive purposes" is wrong.


  • It's "for all intents and purposes." 16. Subjects: I, you, he, she

    是「實際上」(for all intents and purposes)。16.主格:我,你,他,她

  • it, we, they. Ojects: me, you, him, her it, us, them.


  • So: I, you, he, she, it, we, they


  • ate ice cream. But Henry the VIII married and then decapitated me, you, him, her


  • it, us, them.


  • 17. Here's a quick tip for figuring out whether to use "me" or "I." Take away the other

    17.這裡有個了解 "me"或"I"使用時機的秘訣。去掉句子裡

  • noun in the sentence. For example, "Mark and me"went to Starbucks, or "Mark and

    其他的名詞。例如,「馬克跟我去星巴克」,Mark and me 或是

  • I" went to Starbucks? First, you have to remove Mark, I am sorry, Mark.

    Mark and I呢?首先,你要去掉馬克,抱歉了,馬克。

  • "I" went to Starbucks, makes sense, but "Me" went to Starbucks sounds like Captain

    「我去星巴克」聽起來合理,但如果用"me"聽起來像是Captain Caveman(美國卡通,山頂洞人)

  • Caveman, so you use "I"!

    說的話,所以要用"I" !

  • 18. "Anxious" means you are nervous. It comes from "anxiety." If you're excited for

    3."Anxious" 是緊張的意思,從來自「焦慮」(anxiety),

  • something, you're


  • "eager," not anxious. 19. "Good" is an adjective or a noun. "Well"


  • always an adverb. So you're not "doing good" because you're describing how


  • you're "doing." You're "doing

    不能用"doing good",而是"doing well"

  • well," which is good. 20. "If" implies a condition, "whether" implies there are two


  • options. So "we don't know whether to watch Full House

    所以「我們不知道要看"俏皮老爸天才妞(Full House)還是

  • or Sabrina the Teenage Witch" but watch Full House

    "女巫莎賓娜(Sabrina the Teenage Witch)",但如果這集是說

  • if it's the episode about Michelle getting amnesia. 21. If it's coming toward


  • the speaker, use "bring". If it's going away from the speaker use


  • "take". So mark is "bringing" me the laser cat. Thank you, Mark, this is so awesome. I


  • am so.. yes!

    我非常... 好啊。

  • Do itwhy did you "take" it away? 22. "Historic" is something significant that

    你做吧... 你幹嘛「拿走」(take)他?22.「有歷史性的」"historic"用在歷史上

  • happened in history, but "historical" is just


  • anything that happened in the past. Of course, deciding what's significant is


  • subjective; that's why we have Crash Course History. All right, let's quickly

    是很主觀的,所以我們才要有「世界歷史速成班」(Crash Course:World History)。好,讓我們

  • go through some words that sound the same:


  • 23. "You're" means "you are"; "your" is something you possess.

    23."You're" 是「你是」 "you are";「你的」"your"是你擁有的東西

  • 24. "It's" means "it is" or "it has"; "its" is something that

    24."It's" 是「它/這是」"it is" 或「它曾經」 "it has";"its"是它擁有的東西

  • it possesses. This is "its" eye. "Its" name is Cellophane, by the way, we can't tell you


  • the story; "it's" too cute.

    我們不能告訴你原因,它太可愛了。("It's" too cute.)

  • 25. You're going "there", something they own is "theirs" and "they're" all weird. 26. If you're


  • trying to say

    26.如果你要說""who is

  • "who is", contract to "who's". "Whose" indicates ownership or of "whom or which"

    縮短成"who's";所有格「誰的」"Whose"指出(東西)所有權,或是「誰的」"of whom",「哪個的」"of which"

  • 27. "Emigrate" with an "e" if you're moving away from your home country; "immigrate"


  • with an


  • "i" if you're moving to a new country. I mean, usually you're doing both at the


  • same timeit's really a matter of which country's paperwork you're filling out.


  • Pro tip: keep all passports. 28. "Two" is the number that comes after "one";


  • "too" is "also," and "to" is the only one you can use as an infinitive or as a


  • preposition, as in "I want to go to Disney World."


  • 29. "Allusion" is the noun form of the verb "to allude".


  • "Illusion" is what Gob does on Arrested Development. 30. A "bear" is what you don't

    「幻覺」"illusion"是上帝在影集「發展受阻」(Arrested Development)裡做的事。30.「熊」"bear"

  • want to encounter on your camping trip; it's also "to carry" or "to tolerate" as in

    是你露營時不想碰到的動物,動詞也是「容忍」"to carry/ to tolerate"的意思

  • "bear with me" or "to stay in one direction": "bear right." "Bare"

    例如「忍受我」(bear with me),或是「保持同一方向」:bear right。"Bare"

  • means "exposed" or "naked" as in how I feel when singing karaoke.


  • 31. "Elicit" is a verb; "illicit" is an adjective.


  • you can think of it this way: "illicit" drugs will make you ill.


  • 32. "Led" is the past tense of "lead"; "lead" is the kind of paint you shouldn't eat.


  • 33. You write notes on "stationery". Think


  • "e" for envelope and you remain stationary. 34. The Weather Channel is


  • completely unnecessary, because


  • Siri, whereas "whether" I already explained. 35. "Affect" is a verb implying

    而我已經解釋過「是否」"whether"了。35."Affect" 是動詞,意思是改變

  • change;

  • "effect" is a noun meaning "the result". Some people think that you can use

    "effect" 是名詞,意思是結果。有的人說effect也可以

  • "effect" as a verb as well, but those people are wrong. 36. Use "than" for


  • comparisons; otherwise, use "then" to mean "next", or


  • "later". Like One Tree Hill is better then the O.C.! Well, we can watch One Tree Hill,

    就像是籃球兄弟(One Tree Hill)比玩酷世代(the O.C.)好看!ㄟ,我們等等可以看籃球兄弟

  • then, instead of The O.C.


  • 37. Speaking of my love for early 2000 TV, Mr. Feeney was Cory Matthews' "principal".

    37.談到西元2千年初期我喜歡的電視劇(小淘氣看世界 Boy Meets World)裡,Mr.Fenney是Cory Matthews的校長

  • "Principal" with an "a" can also mean "the highest in importance":


  • the "principal" problem in this office is, for instance, that no one appreciates a


  • good Boy Meets World reference.

    「小淘氣看世界」(Boy Meets World)這個例子。

  • A "principle" is only a noun, meaning "a law" or "a rule"


  • 38. "Accept" as a verb as in "you have to accept that we are back at the salon, and


  • therefore this video is almost over";


  • "except" is a preposition or conjunction, like "this video is over,


  • except for the credits" Thanks for watching mental_floss, which is brought to you


  • with the help of these nice people; every week we endeavor to answer one


  • of your mind-blowing questions. This week's question comes from user "IHate4Kids"


  • I hope not your 4 kids. "Why is the sky blue?


  • I don't know. Hank? Thanks John. And great question, IHate4Kids...


  • I guess you probably hate kids because they keep asking


  • questions like this that are seemingly obvious but actually ridiculously


  • difficult to answer.

  • The problem here is that we don't have to understand why the sky is blue to


  • understand why the sky is blue; we also have to understand what


  • is blue? Surprisingly this is a difficult question to answer, but if someone asks


  • you what blue is,


  • this is what you should say: the light that we see is a very narrow band of the

    你應該回答:我們看到的光其實是電磁光譜(electromagnetic spectrum)中的窄波頻

  • electromagnetic spectrum,

  • a spectrum of radiation wavelengths that stretches all the way from waves the


  • size of buildings to waves the size of atomic nuciei.


  • Visible light has wavelength roughly the size of single-celled organisms like


  • protozoans,


  • so small but not anywhere near as small as atoms.


  • Our eyes are actually extremely sensitive wavelength detectors in the


  • visible range.


  • We can distinguish between the longer wavelengths of red light, and the shorter wavelengths


  • of blue light. And that is what blue is, an interaction between


  • our eyes, our brains and certain electromagnetic waves. Now, as to what's


  • actually happening in the atmosphere.


  • Radiation can interact with particles in a few different ways, it can bounce off,


  • it can reflect, it can be absorbed and remitted.


  • But if it's interacting with particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of


  • the radiation, like molecules of the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere,


  • the radiation is not absorbed or reflected, it's scattered.


  • Because nitrogen and oxygen are particularly good at scattering blue light,


  • with shorter wavelengths rather than other colors, blue light is scattered


  • out from the main beam of the sun's light, and all around the atmosphere.


  • Before scattering down to


  • our eyes. The effect? A yellow-tinged blue-less sun, and the beautiful shell


  • of blue light from Horizon


  • to Horizon. Again, thanks for watching mental_floss; remembers to submit your own


  • questions and DFTBA.

    別忘了保持在超棒狀態!(DFTBA; Don't forget to be amazing.)

Hi I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon. This is menopause, is what many of

Hi 我是 John Green,歡迎來到我的沙龍。當我說「內心紛亂」(mental floss)時,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 波長 代名詞 動詞 藍色 馬克 過去式

必看!38個常見拼字文法錯誤(中英字幕) (38 Common Spelling and Grammar Errors- mental_floss)

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    Tong-Ann Sytwu 發佈於 2014 年 09 月 15 日