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  • Hi I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon. This is menopause, is what many of

    Hi 我是 John Green,歡迎來到我的沙龍。當我說「內心紛亂」(mental floss)時,

  • you think I'm saying when I say, "This is mental_floss."

    很多人都以為我在說「更年期」(menopause)。

  • That's just one of many questions of grammar, spelling and usage that we will

    那只是我們今天要經歷和糾正的

  • be exploring and correcting today.

    文法、拼寫和用法等錯誤的其中之一。

  • Let's just start out one that no matter how many times I hear, I always

    讓我們從這個不論我聽幾次,我都很困擾的字開始

  • struggle with, even though, I know I'm a novelist. 1. Lay vs. Lie.

    雖然我文學造詣很高。1.「放」(lay)跟「說謊/躺」(lie)

  • Lay is transitive; it needs a direct subject and one or more

    「放」(lay)是及物動詞,它需要主詞和以個以上的受詞

  • objects, and the past tense of "lay" is laid, which slang makes confusing

    lay的過去式是laid,而俚語會讓人搞混

  • because it is also something that you can "get." (Get laid)

    因為你以為它是你可以「得到」(get)的東西。(Get laid)

  • So you lay down your copy of the brilliant and heartwarming novel "The

    你放下一本超棒又溫馨感人的小說

  • Fault in Our Stars"

    「生命中的美好缺憾」(The Fault in Our Stars)

  • If it happened in the past, you laid down your copy of "The Fault in Our Stars."

    如果是過去過去發生的動作,動詞用laid (you laid down your copy of "The Fault in Our Stars")

  • "Lie" does not require an object, and the past tense of "lie" is, of course,

    「說謊/躺」(lie)不需要受詞,過去式是,你知道的,lay

  • "lay." So if you need to get out of gym class, and if you're like me, you do, then

    如果你跟我一樣體育課想蹺課,你一定是的,

  • you need to go to the nurse's office and "lie" down,

    你要去保健室「躺下」(lie down)

  • whereas Clark Kent "lay" down when he find that he could not save Toad from

    而超人(Clark Kent)發現自己無法從巨熊手上救出Toad

  • the gigantic bear...

    他「躺下」(lay down)

  • skeleton. 2. Literally means something that 100%, for sure,

    骷髏。2.「按照字面地」(literally)意思是百分之百,保證

  • no doubt, is true. For example, you did not

    毫無疑問,真的。比如說,

  • "literally" die when you fell down the stairs, because you are telling me the

    當你摔下樓梯時,你還能告訴我這個文字上的故事

  • story of your literal dying. 3. This is a bad sentence: I wish One Direction would

    所以你沒有「真正」(literally)死掉。3.這句有點糟:我希望一世代(One Direction)

  • come to Indianapolis; I think Niall Horan would like it here.

    會來印第安納波利斯市。我覺得Niall Horan會喜歡這裡。

  • If your sentence contains two independent thoughts, you have a

    如果你的句子中包含兩個個別得想法,就是冗長句子(run-on sentence)

  • run-on sentence. You put a comma in the middle, that just gives you a comma splice.

    你在中間加上逗號,那只是逗號的錯誤用法(comma splice)

  • Try using a semi-colon, or even better, a period. 4. There's this band I like called

    試著用分號(semi-colon),或者用句號(period)更好。4.有一個叫

  • the Avett[ay-vit] Brothers (possibly the Avett[ah-vit] Brothers) and they have this song I like

    Avett Brothers的樂團。我喜歡他們唱的一首歌:

  • in which they sing, "I want to have friends that I can trust, who love me for

    「我想要有個可以信任的朋友,他愛

  • the man I've become, not the man

    現在的我,而非過去的我」

  • 'that' I was," but it should be "who," it should be 3 "who"s - I wanna have

    但其實應該用代替人的關係代名詞"who",歌詞應該有三個"who"

  • friends who I can trust,

    「我想要有個可以信任的朋友

  • who love me for the man who I've become. "That" is for non-people;

    他愛現在的我,而非過去的我」。關係代名詞"that"不是指人

  • "who" is for people, and when you call a "who" a "that," you are dehumanizing the "who"

    關係代名詞"who"是指人,而當你用"that"代替"who",你就「去人化」(dehumanize)那個人

  • And don't dehumanize The Who (band); they already have enough problems just with

    不要把The Who樂團去人化,他們團員年紀大,問題已經夠多了。

  • old age. 5. Your delicious new chili red mini cooper is not "for sell"

    5.你的那臺令人垂涎欲滴,辣椒紅的寶馬迷你(mini cooper)不是「為了賣」(for sell)

  • it is "for sale". 6. Okay "who" and "whom". "Who" and "whom" are both pronouns. "Who" is a subject;

    而是「待售」(for sale)。6."who"和"whom";這兩個都是代名詞。"Who"當主詞用

  • "whom" is in object. So "who" is your favorite spice girl? But

    "whom"當受詞用。「誰是你最喜歡的辣妹合唱團團員?」

  • "whom" do you like among the Spice Girls? Easy trick, if your answer would

    「你喜歡的辣妹合唱團團員是誰?」。小把戲;如果你會用

  • contain a "he" or a "she,"

    主格"he"或"she"回答,問句用"who"。

  • use "who"; if your answer would contain a "him" or a "her,"

    如果你會用受格"him"或"her"回答,問句用"whom"。

  • use "whom." 7. If you're using a singular noun, use a singular pronoun, and if you're

    7.如果你用單數名詞,代名詞就用單數;

  • using a plural noun, use a plural pronoun. For example,

    如果你用複數名詞,代名詞就用複數。例如,

  • everyone in our office has "their" friends, but everyone in

    我們辦公室裡每個人都有「他們的」朋友,但

  • our office has "his or her" favorite episode of Duck Dynasty. 8. It's Catcher

    我們辦公室裡每個人都有「他/她」最喜歡的鴨子王朝影集。

  • "in" the Rye, but Sex "and" the City. 9. You "nip it

    8.是「麥田捕手」(Catcher "in" the rye)和「慾望城市」(Sex "and" the City)。

  • in the bud". Never nip anything

    9.你「防患未然」(nip in the bud)。不要從

  • in the butt! 10. You couldn't care less. Saying you could care less implies that

    屁股(butt)裡捏(nip)起任何東西!10.你不能少擔心點(care less)。當你說care less代表

  • you care at least somewhat, because you could reduce your level of caring.

    你某種程度上在意,你可以降低介意的程度。

  • 11. "A lot" is two words, as in "I have a-space-lot of unwatched episodes of The

    11."A lot"是兩個字,例如"我有很,空格(space),多還沒看的吸血鬼日記(The Vampire Diaries)"

  • Vampire Diaries on my DVR. 12. "Lose," as in "lose" the game, has one "o";

    在我的硬碟裡。12.「輸」"lose",例如「輸掉比賽」(lose the game),有一個o

  • as in "hey Justin Bieber, I haven't seen pants that "loose" since MC Hammer,

    而「嘿,小賈斯汀,從MC Hammer後我就沒看過這麼鬆(loose)的褲子了」

  • has 2 "o"s. 13. If you're referring to something you can count, use

    有兩個o。13.如果你在說可以數的東西,就用「少數」"fewer"

  • "fewer". If it's an uncountable quality, like love, use "less".

    如果是不可數的東西,例如愛,用「少許」"less"

  • For instance, there is now one fewer matryoshka doll on the Wall of Magic, and

    比如說,魔術牆這裡少了一個俄羅斯娃娃(matryoshka doll)

  • it is a little bit less magical. 14. "Could

    變得比較不神奇了。

  • of" is not a thing. Neither is "should of", neither is "would of", you get the

    14.沒有"could of"的用法,也沒有"should of"和"would of",你有點概念了。

  • picture.

  • "Could've" is a contraction of "could have"; "Should've" is a contraction of

    "Could've" 是"could have"的縮寫(constraction),"Sould've" 是

  • "should have." I'll leave it to you to figure out what "woul've" means. 15. Speaking

    "Sould have"的縮寫我讓你自己釐清"woul've"的意思。

  • of commonly said things that are not in fact

    15.既然提到了常用卻不存在的句子

  • things, "for all intensive purposes" is wrong.

    「為了所有加強的目的」是錯的

  • It's "for all intents and purposes." 16. Subjects: I, you, he, she

    是「實際上」(for all intents and purposes)。16.主格:我,你,他,她

  • it, we, they. Ojects: me, you, him, her it, us, them.

    它,我們,他們。受格:我,你,他,她,它,我們,他們

  • So: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

    所以,我,你,他,她,它,我們,他們

  • ate ice cream. But Henry the VIII married and then decapitated me, you, him, her

    吃冰淇淋,但是亨利八世娶了後就斬首的我,你,他,她

  • it, us, them.

    它,我們,他們。

  • 17. Here's a quick tip for figuring out whether to use "me" or "I." Take away the other

    17.這裡有個了解 "me"或"I"使用時機的秘訣。去掉句子裡

  • noun in the sentence. For example, "Mark and me"went to Starbucks, or "Mark and

    其他的名詞。例如,「馬克跟我去星巴克」,Mark and me 或是

  • I" went to Starbucks? First, you have to remove Mark, I am sorry, Mark.

    Mark and I呢?首先,你要去掉馬克,抱歉了,馬克。

  • "I" went to Starbucks, makes sense, but "Me" went to Starbucks sounds like Captain

    「我去星巴克」聽起來合理,但如果用"me"聽起來像是Captain Caveman(美國卡通,山頂洞人)

  • Caveman, so you use "I"!

    說的話,所以要用"I" !

  • 18. "Anxious" means you are nervous. It comes from "anxiety." If you're excited for

    3."Anxious" 是緊張的意思,從來自「焦慮」(anxiety),

  • something, you're

    如果你為某事高興,

  • "eager," not anxious. 19. "Good" is an adjective or a noun. "Well"

    用"eager",而非"anxious"。19."Good"是形容詞或名詞。

  • always an adverb. So you're not "doing good" because you're describing how

    "Well"是副詞。所以當你描述你的情況時(doing)

  • you're "doing." You're "doing

    不能用"doing good",而是"doing well"

  • well," which is good. 20. "If" implies a condition, "whether" implies there are two

    「過得好」,那就好。20.「如果」(if)表示條件,「是否」(whether)表示有兩個選項。

  • options. So "we don't know whether to watch Full House

    所以「我們不知道要看"俏皮老爸天才妞(Full House)還是

  • or Sabrina the Teenage Witch" but watch Full House

    "女巫莎賓娜(Sabrina the Teenage Witch)",但如果這集是說

  • if it's the episode about Michelle getting amnesia. 21. If it's coming toward

    麥可喪失記憶,就看俏皮老爸天才妞」。21.「拿」:如果往說話者方向前進

  • the speaker, use "bring". If it's going away from the speaker use

    用"bring",如果離開說話者方向,用"take"。

  • "take". So mark is "bringing" me the laser cat. Thank you, Mark, this is so awesome. I

    「馬克把雷射貓「拿給」(bringing)我(我是說話者)。」謝了馬克,這很棒

  • am so.. yes!

    我非常... 好啊。

  • Do itwhy did you "take" it away? 22. "Historic" is something significant that

    你做吧... 你幹嘛「拿走」(take)他?22.「有歷史性的」"historic"用在歷史上

  • happened in history, but "historical" is just

    發生過的重要事件,但「歷史上的」"historical"

  • anything that happened in the past. Of course, deciding what's significant is

    用在過去發生過的任何事情。當然,決定事情的重要性

  • subjective; that's why we have Crash Course History. All right, let's quickly

    是很主觀的,所以我們才要有「世界歷史速成班」(Crash Course:World History)。好,讓我們

  • go through some words that sound the same:

    快速瀏覽幾個聽起來一模一樣的字:

  • 23. "You're" means "you are"; "your" is something you possess.

    23."You're" 是「你是」 "you are";「你的」"your"是你擁有的東西

  • 24. "It's" means "it is" or "it has"; "its" is something that

    24."It's" 是「它/這是」"it is" 或「它曾經」 "it has";"its"是它擁有的東西

  • it possesses. This is "its" eye. "Its" name is Cellophane, by the way, we can't tell you

    這是「他的」(its)眼睛。順便一提,「他的」(its)名字是「玻璃紙」(Cellophane)

  • the story; "it's" too cute.

    我們不能告訴你原因,它太可愛了。("It's" too cute.)

  • 25. You're going "there", something they own is "theirs" and "they're" all weird. 26. If you're

    25.你要去「那裡」"there",他們擁有的東西是「他們的」"theirs",而且「他們」"they're"都很奇怪。

  • trying to say

    26.如果你要說""who is

  • "who is", contract to "who's". "Whose" indicates ownership or of "whom or which"

    縮短成"who's";所有格「誰的」"Whose"指出(東西)所有權,或是「誰的」"of whom",「哪個的」"of which"

  • 27. "Emigrate" with an "e" if you're moving away from your home country; "immigrate"

    27.「(從...)移民」"emigrate"有個"e",代表你從家鄉離開;「移民」"immigrate"

  • with an

    有個"i"

  • "i" if you're moving to a new country. I mean, usually you're doing both at the

    代表你搬進一個新國家。兩件事你通常同時進行。

  • same timeit's really a matter of which country's paperwork you're filling out.

    就看你正在填寫哪一國的相關文件。

  • Pro tip: keep all passports. 28. "Two" is the number that comes after "one";

    專家建議:兩國護照都留著。28.「2」"two"是「1」之後的數字

  • "too" is "also," and "to" is the only one you can use as an infinitive or as a

    '"too"是「也」"also",只有"to"你可以用來作「不定詞」或

  • preposition, as in "I want to go to Disney World."

    「介係詞」,例如「我想去迪士尼樂園」。

  • 29. "Allusion" is the noun form of the verb "to allude".

    29.「隱喻」"allusion"是動詞"allude"轉變的

  • "Illusion" is what Gob does on Arrested Development. 30. A "bear" is what you don't

    「幻覺」"illusion"是上帝在影集「發展受阻」(Arrested Development)裡做的事。30.「熊」"bear"

  • want to encounter on your camping trip; it's also "to carry" or "to tolerate" as in

    是你露營時不想碰到的動物,動詞也是「容忍」"to carry/ to tolerate"的意思

  • "bear with me" or "to stay in one direction": "bear right." "Bare"

    例如「忍受我」(bear with me),或是「保持同一方向」:bear right。"Bare"

  • means "exposed" or "naked" as in how I feel when singing karaoke.

    是「暴露的」"exposed"或「赤裸的」"naked",就像我唱卡拉OK的感覺。

  • 31. "Elicit" is a verb; "illicit" is an adjective.

    31.「引出」"elicit"是動詞,「不法的」"illicit"是形容詞

  • you can think of it this way: "illicit" drugs will make you ill.

    你可以這樣想:「不法的」毒品會讓你生病。

  • 32. "Led" is the past tense of "lead"; "lead" is the kind of paint you shouldn't eat.

    32."Led"是"'lead"的過去式;「鉛」"lead"是你不該食用的含鉛油漆

  • 33. You write notes on "stationery". Think

    33.你把筆記寫在「文具用品」"stationery"上。跟「信封」"envelope"的"e"

  • "e" for envelope and you remain stationary. 34. The Weather Channel is

    聯想在一起,但你是保持「不動」"stationary"。34.天氣(weather)預報

  • completely unnecessary, because

    台完全是多餘的,因為我們有Siri

  • Siri, whereas "whether" I already explained. 35. "Affect" is a verb implying

    而我已經解釋過「是否」"whether"了。35."Affect" 是動詞,意思是改變

  • change;

  • "effect" is a noun meaning "the result". Some people think that you can use

    "effect" 是名詞,意思是結果。有的人說effect也可以

  • "effect" as a verb as well, but those people are wrong. 36. Use "than" for

    當動詞用,但其實他們錯了。36."than"用在比較級

  • comparisons; otherwise, use "then" to mean "next", or

    然而"then"是「接下來」或「之後」的意思

  • "later". Like One Tree Hill is better then the O.C.! Well, we can watch One Tree Hill,

    就像是籃球兄弟(One Tree Hill)比玩酷世代(the O.C.)好看!ㄟ,我們等等可以看籃球兄弟

  • then, instead of The O.C.

    不要看玩酷世代。

  • 37. Speaking of my love for early 2000 TV, Mr. Feeney was Cory Matthews' "principal".

    37.談到西元2千年初期我喜歡的電視劇(小淘氣看世界 Boy Meets World)裡,Mr.Fenney是Cory Matthews的校長

  • "Principal" with an "a" can also mean "the highest in importance":

    "Principal",後面有a,代表「重要性極高」

  • the "principal" problem in this office is, for instance, that no one appreciates a

    比方說,這個辦公室「最大的」"principal"問題,就是沒人欣賞

  • good Boy Meets World reference.

    「小淘氣看世界」(Boy Meets World)這個例子。

  • A "principle" is only a noun, meaning "a law" or "a rule"

    "principle"是名詞,代表「法律」或「規定」。

  • 38. "Accept" as a verb as in "you have to accept that we are back at the salon, and

    38.「接受」"Accept"是動詞,例如「你要接受我們又回到這個沙龍裡

  • therefore this video is almost over";

    而且這支影片要結束了」。

  • "except" is a preposition or conjunction, like "this video is over,

    「(但是)除了」"eccept"是介係詞或連接詞(conjunction),例如「這支影片要結束了

  • except for the credits" Thanks for watching mental_floss, which is brought to you

    但掌聲會留下」。謝謝你收看內心紛亂,是由這群善心人士的幫忙

  • with the help of these nice people; every week we endeavor to answer one

    贊助撥出。我們每週都會努力回答

  • of your mind-blowing questions. This week's question comes from user "IHate4Kids"

    一個令你心煩的問題。這禮拜的問題是網友「我討厭4個小孩」"IHate4Kids"問的

  • I hope not your 4 kids. "Why is the sky blue?

    希望不是你的小孩。「天空為什麼是藍色的?」

  • I don't know. Hank? Thanks John. And great question, IHate4Kids...

    我不知道耶,漢克?謝了約翰。這提問的好。

  • I guess you probably hate kids because they keep asking

    我猜你討厭小孩應該是因為

  • questions like this that are seemingly obvious but actually ridiculously

    他們一直問這種表面上淺顯易懂,但難如登天的問題。

  • difficult to answer.

  • The problem here is that we don't have to understand why the sky is blue to

    問題是,我們不必了解天空是藍色的原因來

  • understand why the sky is blue; we also have to understand what

    理解為什麼天空為什麼是藍色的。我們也要了解藍色是什麼。

  • is blue? Surprisingly this is a difficult question to answer, but if someone asks

    令人驚訝,這很難回答,但如果有人問你

  • you what blue is,

    什麼是藍色,

  • this is what you should say: the light that we see is a very narrow band of the

    你應該回答:我們看到的光其實是電磁光譜(electromagnetic spectrum)中的窄波頻

  • electromagnetic spectrum,

  • a spectrum of radiation wavelengths that stretches all the way from waves the

    是輻射波長光譜從建築物一樣大變成

  • size of buildings to waves the size of atomic nuciei.

    像原子核一樣小。

  • Visible light has wavelength roughly the size of single-celled organisms like

    可見光的波長大概只有單細胞生物

  • protozoans,

    或原生動物(protozoan)那麼小

  • so small but not anywhere near as small as atoms.

    但沒有到原子那麼小。

  • Our eyes are actually extremely sensitive wavelength detectors in the

    我們的肉眼其實是極為敏銳的

  • visible range.

    可見光波長偵測器。

  • We can distinguish between the longer wavelengths of red light, and the shorter wavelengths

    我們可以分辨紅光的那麼長的波長,到藍光那麼短的波長。

  • of blue light. And that is what blue is, an interaction between

    這就是藍色,由我們的眼睛,大腦,和特定電磁波

  • our eyes, our brains and certain electromagnetic waves. Now, as to what's

    之間的互動而產生的。現在,回到

  • actually happening in the atmosphere.

    大氣層裡的真正情形。

  • Radiation can interact with particles in a few different ways, it can bounce off,

    輻射(radiation)會跟粒子產生一些不同變化,可以反彈

  • it can reflect, it can be absorbed and remitted.

    可以反射,可以被吸收後再釋放

  • But if it's interacting with particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of

    但如果是遇到比輻射波長還小的粒子

  • the radiation, like molecules of the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere,

    例如氧分子或大氣層中的氮氣

  • the radiation is not absorbed or reflected, it's scattered.

    輻射就不會被吸收或反射,而會分散(scattered)。

  • Because nitrogen and oxygen are particularly good at scattering blue light,

    氮氣和氧氣特別助於藍光的分散

  • with shorter wavelengths rather than other colors, blue light is scattered

    而藍光的波長又比其他顏色的光線短,因此藍光就被從

  • out from the main beam of the sun's light, and all around the atmosphere.

    匯集的太陽光束分散,散佈在大氣層中。

  • Before scattering down to

    在散佈到我們的肉眼前

  • our eyes. The effect? A yellow-tinged blue-less sun, and the beautiful shell

    結果是?一個偏黃色,藍色較少的太陽,和美麗的

  • of blue light from Horizon

    藍色天際。

  • to Horizon. Again, thanks for watching mental_floss; remembers to submit your own

    再次謝謝你收看內心紛亂,記得提出你想問的問題

  • questions and DFTBA.

    別忘了保持在超棒狀態!(DFTBA; Don't forget to be amazing.)

Hi I'm John Green. Welcome to my salon. This is menopause, is what many of

Hi 我是 John Green,歡迎來到我的沙龍。當我說「內心紛亂」(mental floss)時,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 波長 代名詞 動詞 藍色 馬克 過去式

必看!38個常見拼字文法錯誤(中英字幕) (38 Common Spelling and Grammar Errors- mental_floss)

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    Tong-Ann Sytwu 發佈於 2014 年 09 月 15 日
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