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  • There is nothing more detestable to an American than losing.”

    "對一個美國人來說,沒有什麼比輸掉比賽更可恨的了。"

  • So said General Patton in World War II.

    第二次世界大戰中的巴頓將軍也這樣說。

  • Almost immediately after winning World War II, the United States would go on to lose

    幾乎在贏得第二次世界大戰後,美國立即就會失去

  • most conflicts it entered in against irregular forces.

    它參與的大多數衝突都是針對非正規部隊的。

  • So how exactly does one win at war?

    那麼,究竟如何才能在戰爭中獲勝呢?

  • Total Annihilation

    徹底毀滅

  • The best way to defeat an enemy is to, well, kill all of them.

    打敗敵人的最好方法是,把他們全部殺死。

  • The battle of annihilation was perhaps the first way that man learned how to wage war,

    殲滅戰也許是人類學會的第一種發動戰爭的方式。

  • and gave us some of the greatest battles in history such as the battle of marathon, the

    併為我們提供了一些歷史上最偉大的戰役,如馬拉松戰役,以及在中國和美國之間的戰爭。

  • battle of the bulge, and the battle of the Somme.

    突擊戰,以及索姆河戰役。

  • The strategy is simple, in that there is no strategy.

    戰略很簡單,就是沒有戰略。

  • Armies rush forward and victory is decided by the side with superior firepower, or in

    軍隊衝鋒陷陣,勝利是由火力強大的一方決定的,或在

  • ancient times, the best trained or most men.

    古代,最好的訓練或最多的人。

  • During the American Civil War, the battle of Gettysburg was a battle of annihilation,

    在美國內戰期間,葛底斯堡戰役是一場殲滅性的戰鬥。

  • and resulted in the greatest single-day loss of life in American history.

    並導致了美國曆史上最大的單日生命損失。

  • There were no feints, no cunning ploys or stratagem- the goal was simple: total destruction

    沒有任何佯攻,沒有任何狡猾的伎倆或策略,目標很簡單:徹底摧毀。

  • of the opposing force.

    的反對力量。

  • In World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy was outnumbered by the American Navy.

    在第二次世界大戰中,日本帝國海軍在人數上超過了美國海軍。

  • To further add to the IJN's troubles, its supply lines stretched across the sea and

    為了進一步增加IJN的麻煩,它的補給線延伸到了海上,並且

  • were vulnerable to interruption by the Americans, while the Americans were impossible to blockade

    在美國人的干擾下,美國人是不可能封鎖的。

  • due to the massive size of the American pacific coast and the US drawing few critical supplies

    由於美國太平洋沿岸面積巨大,而美國的關鍵物資很少。

  • from overseas pacific trade that it couldn't simply re-source from elsewhere.

    它不能簡單地從其他地方重新獲得來自海外太平洋貿易的資源。

  • The only advantage that the IJN had was that its home ports in Japan were close to the

    IJN唯一的優勢是它在日本的母港接近於

  • theater of war, while the US's pacific coast was thousands of miles away.

    在戰區,美國的太平洋海岸在數千英里之外。

  • In order to win against the US, Japan knew it could not afford to fight a widely dispersed

    為了贏得對美國的勝利,日本知道它無法承受廣泛分散的戰鬥。

  • war throughout the Pacific theater.

    整個太平洋地區的戰爭。

  • Instead, it would need to deliver crippling blows to the Americans in order to shut them

    相反,它需要給美國人以致命的打擊,以使他們閉嘴。

  • out of the Pacific altogether.

    徹底離開太平洋。

  • To this end, Japan sought a decisive battle of annihilation against the US, and almost

    為此,日本尋求與美國進行一場決定性的殲滅戰,並幾乎

  • achieved this at both Pearl Harbor and Midway.

    在珍珠港和中途島都實現了這一點。

  • However, the US wasn't biting, and after the devastating ambush at Pearl Harbor, the US

    然而,美國並沒有上鉤,在珍珠港發生毀滅性的伏擊事件後,美國

  • navy couldn't afford to go toe-to-toe with the bulk of the IJN fleet.

    海軍沒有能力與IJN艦隊的大部分人交手。

  • Therefore the US engaged in numerous skirmishes with the IJN, and only fought decisive engagements

    是以,美國與IJN進行了許多小規模的衝突,只進行了決定性的交戰。

  • when the tactical situation favored the US overwhelmingly.

    當戰術形勢壓倒性地有利於美國時。

  • It was a brilliant strategy straight out of Sun Tzu's own playbook, and worked to keep

    這是一個直接從孫子自己的劇本中提取的出色策略,並且成功地保持了

  • the IJN off-balance long enough for US forces to reconstitute- at which point even if it

    足夠長的時間使美軍失去平衡,從而使美軍得以重組--此時,即使它是

  • had been able to engage the US navy in a battle of annihilation, the IJN would've lost anyways.

    如果能夠與美國海軍進行一場殲滅戰,IJN無論如何都會輸。

  • Fabian Strategy

    法比安戰略

  • While the battle of annihilation doctrine seeks to win a single decisive engagement,

    而殲滅戰學說則是為了贏得一次決定性的交戰。

  • the Fabian strategy is the complete opposite, and instead seeks to avoid any decisive engagements.

    法比安的戰略則完全相反,而是尋求避免任何決定性的交戰。

  • Rather, the Fabian strategy seeks to engage in numerous skirmishes with light, highly

    相反,法比安的戰略尋求與輕型的、高度的小規模戰鬥。

  • mobile forces that sap the enemy's morale, supplies, and troop strength.

    消耗敵人的士氣、物資和兵力的機動部隊。

  • The strategy is named after Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, who ruled the Roman Republic

    該戰略是以統治羅馬共和國的昆圖斯-法比烏斯-馬克西姆斯-維魯科斯命名的。

  • during the time that Hannibal of Carthage was busy trampling most of it with his elephants.

    在迦太基的漢尼拔忙著用他的大象踐踏它的大部分的時候。

  • Hannibal had pulled off an incredible feat of military brilliance at the start of his

    漢尼拔在開始的時候就完成了一個令人難以置信的軍事壯舉。

  • invasion by crossing the Alps with his army, a feat thought to be impossible.

    他的軍隊越過阿爾卑斯山入侵,這一壯舉被認為是不可能的。

  • This allowed him to stab straight into the soft underbelly of southern Roman Italy, which

    這使他能夠直接刺入羅馬南部意大利的軟肋,這

  • was largely undefended.

    基本上是不設防的。

  • The move caught the Romans completely by surprise, and Hannibal quickly took much Roman territory

    此舉讓羅馬人完全措手不及,漢尼拔迅速佔領了羅馬的大部分領土

  • for himself.

    為自己。

  • Hannibal defeated the Romans in two separate major engagements, as he himself pursued a

    漢尼拔在兩次單獨的重大交戰中擊敗了羅馬人,因為他自己追求的是一個

  • battle of annihilation strategy.

    殲滅戰的策略。

  • Deep in the heart of his enemy's territory, Hannibal's only hope for ultimate victory

    在敵人領土的深處,漢尼拔取得最終勝利的唯一希望

  • would be to win a decisive victory against Rome, and the strategy was working.

    將贏得對羅馬的決定性勝利,而且這一戰略正在發揮作用。

  • That's when Fabius Maximum was appointed leader of Rome, and immediately implemented a new

    這時,法比尤斯最大被任命為羅馬的領導人,並立即實施了一個新的

  • method of fighting.

    戰鬥的方法。

  • Fabius understood two things about his enemy: Hannibal may be in the heart of Roman territory,

    法比尤斯對他的敵人有兩點了解:漢尼拔可能處於羅馬領土的中心。

  • but this placed him in a strategically perilous position, and Hannibal could never achieve

    但這使他處於戰略上的危險境地,漢尼拔永遠無法實現

  • victory against Rome on his own, but instead needed Rome's allies in italy to lose faith

    他需要羅馬在意大利的盟友對他失去信心,才能取得對羅馬的勝利。

  • and turn on her.

    並轉向她。

  • The more victories that Hannibal won, the weaker Rome's position became- so Fabius denied

    漢尼拔贏得的勝利越多,羅馬的地位就越弱,所以法比尤斯拒絕了

  • Hannibal his victories.

    漢尼拔他的勝利。

  • Instead of sortieing out for climactic battles worthy of a Hollywood film, Rome would fight

    羅馬並沒有為值得好萊塢電影的高潮戰鬥而出動,而是在

  • a war of attrition.

    一場消耗戰。

  • War parties set out to find and destroy Carthaginian foraging parties, and they would burn crops

    戰隊出發尋找並摧毀迦太基人的覓食隊伍,他們會燒燬農作物

  • and kill livestock that they came across.

    並殺死他們遇到的牲畜。

  • Fabius further moved his troops so as to force Hannibal to make the difficult choice of leaving

    法比尤斯進一步調動他的部隊,以迫使漢尼拔做出艱難的選擇,即離開

  • his Mediterranean sea ports, and source of resupply, if he wished to engage the Romans.

    如果他想與羅馬人交戰,他的地中海港口和補給來源。

  • Fabius' strategy worked like a charm, preventing Hannibal from taking any decisive military

    法比尤斯的戰略像一個魅力,阻止漢尼拔採取任何決定性的軍事行動。

  • action and steadily chipping away at the morale of his army while exploding his operational

    行動,並穩步削減他的軍隊的士氣,同時引爆他的行動。

  • costs to keep that army in the field.

    保持該軍隊在戰場上的費用。

  • Romans however were used to winning decisive battles, and public opinion turned against

    然而,羅馬人習慣於贏得決定性的戰鬥,公眾輿論轉向反對

  • Fabius, believing that he was a coward for avoiding a direct confrontation.

    法比尤斯,認為他是一個避免直接對抗的懦夫。

  • He was removed from power and his successor soon led Roman legions into glorious battle

    他被趕下臺,他的繼任者很快就帶領羅馬軍團投入了光榮的戰鬥

  • against Hannibal- only to be immediately crushed.

    對抗漢尼拔--只是立即被擊潰。

  • The Romans quickly learned that Fabius had been right all along, and re-adopted his strategy

    羅馬人很快就知道法比尤斯一直都是正確的,並重新採用了他的策略

  • to ultimately force Hannibal out of Italy.

    以最終迫使漢尼拔離開意大利。

  • The Fabian Strategy focuses on long-term attrition against the enemy.

    法比安戰略的重點是對敵人進行長期消耗。

  • The purpose is to deny enemy forces any clear political or military victories, while overextending

    其目的是不讓敵軍取得任何明顯的政治或軍事勝利,同時過度擴張

  • his forces and destroying his means of resupply.

    他的部隊和破壞他的補給手段。

  • The Taliban have successfully employed a Fabian strategy to drive the United States out of

    塔利班成功地採用了法比安戰略,將美國趕出了美國。

  • Afghanistan, denying the US a decisive victory for nearly 20 years of war.

    阿富汗,使美國在近20年的戰爭中沒有取得決定性的勝利。

  • Despite its hopes of victory in a battle of annihilation against the US Navy, the Imperial

    儘管它有希望在與美國海軍的殲滅戰中取得勝利,但帝國的

  • Japanese Navy was ultimately defeated by the use of the Fabian strategy.

    日本海軍最終因使用法比安戰略而被打敗。

  • While IJN battle groups doggedly pursued a decisive confrontation against the Americans,

    而IJN戰鬥群則頑強地追求與美國人的決定性對抗。

  • US submarines slipped past them to wreak havoc on Japanese supply lines which were left largely

    美國潛艇從他們身邊溜過,對日本的補給線造成了嚴重的破壞,而這些補給線在很大程度上被留在了日本。

  • undefended due to a lack of available assets.

    由於缺乏可用的資產,沒有進行防禦。

  • The Japanese refused to disperse their forces for the majority of the war, and despite making

    在戰爭的大部分時間裡,日本人拒絕分散他們的部隊,儘管做出了

  • up the smallest component of the US Navy, American submarines sunk an incredible 54%

    作為美國海軍最小的組成部分,美國潛水艇擊沉了令人難以置信的54%的船隻。

  • of all Japanese shipping, totaling 4.9 million tons of badly needed war supplies.

    的所有日本航運,共計490萬噸急需的戰爭物資。

  • The Siege

    圍困

  • The problem with waging war is that sometimes an enemy position is too strong to take in

    發動戰爭的問題是,有時敵人的陣地過於強大,無法攻入

  • one sweeping offensive.

    一場席捲而來的攻勢。

  • Modern battle doctrine states that for an offensive operation to be successful, friendly

    現代作戰理論指出,要使進攻行動獲得成功,友好的

  • forces should outnumber enemy forces at least three to one.

    部隊的人數應至少超過敵軍的三倍。

  • This disparity in numbers is to make up for the many force multipliers that a defender

    這種數量上的差異是為了彌補保衛者的許多力量倍增器

  • enjoys- things such as well-protected fortified positions, clear fields of fire, and support

    享有的東西,如保護良好的防禦陣地、清晰的火力範圍和支持。

  • artillery.

    炮兵。

  • Sometimes though waging a battle, no matter the numerical advantage, is suicidal, or would

    有時,儘管發動一場戰鬥,無論數量上的優勢如何,都是自殺性的,或者會

  • produce casualties so great as to result in a pyrrhic victory.

    產生的傷亡如此之大,以至於導致金字塔式的勝利。

  • In these cases, the siege has often been the strategy of choice.

    在這些情況下,圍攻往往是所選擇的戰略。

  • The aim of a siege is simple: starve out an enemy and force them to surrender or to leave

    圍攻的目的很簡單:餓死敵人,迫使他們投降或離開。

  • their fortifications and meet you for battle without the force multipliers of their defensive

    他們的防禦工事和迎接你的戰鬥,而沒有他們的防禦力量的倍增器。

  • positions.

    職位。

  • In order to successfully lay siege to an enemy however, two elements are critical.

    然而,為了成功地圍攻敵人,有兩個因素是至關重要的。

  • First, the enemy must have no means of viable resupply.

    首先,敵人必須沒有可行的補給手段。

  • If you're laying siege to an enemy force that is still receiving routine resupply, you aren't

    如果你正在圍攻一支仍在接受常規補給的敵軍,你就不是

  • laying siege at all- instead, you're allowing your force to be pinned down while the enemy

    相反,你讓你的部隊被壓制住,而敵人

  • can maneuver other forces around you.

    可以操縱你周圍的其他力量。

  • Secondly, you must be able to resist the enemy's attempts to break out of the siege, holding

    其次,你必須能夠抵制敵人衝出包圍圈的企圖,守住

  • your own strong enough defensive positions that an enemy's attempts to rally and break

    你自己足夠強大的防禦陣地,使敵人試圖集結和打破

  • the siege will fail.

    圍攻將失敗。

  • In modern, post World War I combat sieges are extremely rare.

    在現代,第一次世界大戰後的戰鬥中,圍攻極為罕見。

  • This is largely due to the incredible power of modern weapons, which when brought to bear

    這主要是由於現代武器的驚人威力,當這些武器被投入使用時

  • in large enough numbers all but nullify the defensive advantage of strong defensive positions.

    在足夠大的數量下,強大的防禦陣地的防守優勢幾乎蕩然無存。

  • The Battle of Stalingrad in World War II is often wrongly thought of as a siege, but it

    二戰中的斯大林格勒戰役常常被錯誤地認為是一場圍攻戰,但它是

  • was in fact a fluid battle, with both sides struggling to capture and hold strategic points

    事實上,這是一場多變的戰鬥,雙方都在努力奪取和守住戰略要點

  • throughout the city.

    整個城市。

  • Before the modern era sieges were very commonplace, and entire cities could be held under siege,

    在現代社會之前,圍困是非常普遍的,整個城市都可能被圍困。

  • slowly starved into submission.

    慢慢地被餓死。

  • Some truly horrible human tragedies have taken place during sieges, as the powers that be

    一些真正可怕的人類悲劇發生在圍城期間,因為當權者

  • refused to surrender even as people were dying inside their walls from starvation.

    即使人們在牆內因飢餓而死亡,他們也拒絕投降。

  • In the modern era technology has made weapons too destructive to employ effective long-term

    在現代,技術已經使武器的破壞力太大,無法長期有效地使用。

  • fortified defense strategies, and the adoption of combined arms and maneuver warfare threatens

    堅固的防禦戰略,以及採用聯合武器和機動戰威脅到了

  • to destroy any army adopting a long-term fortified strategy.

    以摧毀任何採取長期強化戰略的軍隊。

  • While protracted battles in a singular location may be termed 'sieges', the truth is far from

    雖然在一個單一地點的持久戰可能被稱為 "圍攻",但事實遠非如此。

  • it as in these fights both sides are constantly maneuvering against each other, such as both

    因為在這些戰鬥中,雙方都在不斷地相互周旋,比如說雙方都在

  • battles of Fallujah in Iraq.

    在伊拉克費盧傑的戰鬥中。

  • Combined Arms

    聯合武器

  • Combined arms warfare has its roots in the earliest days of human history and the domestication

    聯合作戰起源於人類歷史上最早的時期,也是人類歷史上最早的馴化。

  • of the horse.

    的馬。

  • This led to the creation of cavalry, mounted warriors with excellent mobility and a high

    這導致了騎兵的產生,這些騎兵具有出色的機動性和較高的

  • degree of shock value against non-mounted opponents.

    對非騎馬的對手具有一定程度的震撼力。

  • However, few historical generals made effective use of cavalry in combination with more traditional

    然而,歷史上很少有將軍能有效地利用騎兵與更傳統的

  • forces, often simply treating the two as wholly separate tools doing different jobs on the

    往往只是把兩者當作完全獨立的工具,在不同的地方做不同的工作。

  • battlefield.

    戰場。

  • Alexander the Great is believed to be amongst the first European generals to make use of

    據信,亞歷山大大帝是歐洲最早使用 "大炮 "的將軍之一。

  • cavalry in what today would be called a combined arms doctrine.

    在今天被稱為聯合武器理論的情況下,騎兵。

  • Most ancient militaries used cavalry for the purpose of harassing an enemy force while

    大多數古代軍隊使用騎兵的目的是騷擾敵方部隊,同時

  • the infantry did the real fighting, thus their cavalry was equipped with light lances and

    步兵才是真正的戰鬥力,是以他們的騎兵配備了輕型長矛和

  • javelins which would continually harass the enemy's flanks without being pulled into a

    標槍將持續騷擾敵人的側翼而不被拉入

  • decisive engagement.

    果斷的參與。

  • Alexander's legendary Companions however made up the first part of his 'hammer and anvil'

    然而,亞歷山大的傳奇夥伴們構成了他的 "錘子和鐵砧 "的第一部分。

  • strategy.

    戰略。

  • Much like ancient Iranian cavalry, the Companions were armed with spears and pikes, and would

    與古代伊朗騎兵非常相似,同伴們的武器是長矛和長槍,而且會

  • be dispatched to attack the enemy's rear or flank.

    被派去攻擊敵人的後方或側翼。

  • The infantry meanwhile would be fully engaged at the enemy's front, thus making the Companions

    同時,步兵將在敵人的前線全力投入,從而使同伴們

  • the hammer, and the infantry the anvil upon which the enemy was smashed upon.

    錘子,而步兵則是砸在敵人身上的鐵砧。

  • This brilliant use of cavalry led Alexander to become one of the greatest conquerors of

    這種對騎兵的出色使用使亞歷山大成為世界上最偉大的征服者之一。

  • all time, and help cement the doctrine of combined arms warfare in military thinkers.

    在所有的時間,並幫助鞏固了軍事思想家的聯合武器戰爭理論。

  • Today no military can achieve victory without mastering combined arms warfare.

    今天,如果不掌握聯合作戰,任何軍隊都無法取得勝利。

  • This modern doctrine makes use of tanks supported by mobile infantry to decisively engage the

    這種現代學說利用坦克在機動步兵的支持下果斷地與敵軍作戰。

  • enemy, while attack helicopters and ground attack airplanes provide direct fire support.

    攻擊直升機和對地攻擊機則提供直接火力支援。

  • Artillery can pin down enemy units attempting to move to reinforce, or devastate an enemy's

    炮兵可以壓制試圖移動增援的敵方組織、部門,或破壞敵方的

  • rear area forces, while electronic attack assets disrupt enemy communications or gather

    後方部隊,而電子攻擊資產則擾亂敵人的通信或收集資訊。

  • vital intelligence.

    重要的情報。

  • High above the battlefield, fighter jets provide air cover, defending friendly forces from

    在戰場的高空,戰鬥機提供空中掩護,保護友軍不受傷害。

  • enemy air attack and destroying enemy fighters that threaten friendly air support assets.

    敵方的空中攻擊和摧毀威脅友方空中支援資產的敵方戰鬥機。

  • To attempt to use any one of these forces without the other in modern warfare would

    試圖在現代戰爭中使用這些力量中的任何一種而不使用另一種,都會導致

  • be an absolute disaster, and even a weaker force that has a greater mastery of combined

    是一場絕對的災難,即使是一個較弱的部隊,如果能更多地掌握聯合的方法,也會是一場災難。

  • arms can achieve victory against a much larger force.

    武裝可以取得對更大部隊的勝利。

  • US forces in Iraq and Afghanistan were routinely outnumbered in combat, sometimes with disparities

    駐伊拉克和阿富汗的美軍在戰鬥中經常以寡敵眾,有時差距很大

  • as great as 12 to 1!

    大到12比1!

  • Yet American mastery of combined arms warfare and the lack of suitable capabilities from

    然而,美國對聯合軍備戰的掌握,以及美國政府缺乏合適的能力。

  • the enemy led to US victory in these engagements.

    在這些交戰中,美軍取得了勝利。

  • Most famously, in 2018 Syrian pro-government forces led by Russian special forces and aided

    最著名的是,2018年,由俄羅斯特種部隊上司並協助的敘利亞親政府部隊

  • by Russian mercenaries attacked a position held by 40 American special forces troops

    俄羅斯僱傭兵襲擊了由40名美國特種部隊阿兵哥把守的一個陣地

  • and a small number of Syrian Democratic Front militia.

    和少數敘利亞民主陣線民兵。

  • The attacking force was estimated to number at around 500 by US sources, and was supported

    據美國方面估計,進攻部隊的人數約為500人,並得到了以下支持

  • by artillery and a number of T-72 and T-55 tanks.

    由大炮和一些T-72和T-55坦克組成。

  • US forces on the ground were vastly outnumbered, and the engagement should have ended in complete

    地面上的美軍在人數上大大超過了他們,這場交戰本應以徹底結束。

  • annihilation for the small American contingent.

    小規模的美國特遣隊被殲滅。

  • Instead, US artillery immediately engaged the enemy from nearby positions, while American

    相反,美國的炮兵立即從附近的陣地與敵人交戰,而美國的

  • B-52s, F-22s, F-15s, AC-130 gunships and Apache attack helicopters provided direct ground

    B-52戰鬥機、F-22戰鬥機、F-15戰鬥機、AC-130炮艇和阿帕奇攻擊直升機提供了直接的地面服務。

  • attack support.

    攻擊支持。

  • America's superior use of combined arms led to a stunning US victory, with zero casualties

    美國對聯合武器的卓越使用導致了美國的驚人勝利,零傷亡

  • amongst US troops and only 1 SDF fighter wounded.

    美軍中,只有一名自衛隊戰士受傷。

  • The enemy meanwhile suffered up to 100 killed with many more wounded, the loss of most of

    與此同時,敵人被殺的人數多達100人,還有更多的人受傷,大部分的損失都是來自於他們自己。

  • its heavy vehicles, and the deaths of many of their Russian private contractor advisors.

    其重型車輛,以及他們的許多俄羅斯私人承包商顧問的死亡。

  • Now go check out deadliest weapons of world war 3, or click this other video instead!

    現在去看看第三次世界大戰中最致命的武器,或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!

There is nothing more detestable to an American than losing.”

"對一個美國人來說,沒有什麼比輸掉比賽更可恨的了。"

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如何真正地在戰爭中獲勝 (How To ACTUALLY Win At War)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 11 日
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