字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 May 7th, 1915. 1915年5月7日。 The great cruise liner the Lusitania is within sight of the Scottish coast. 偉大的遊輪 "盧西塔尼亞號 "就在蘇格蘭海岸的視線範圍內。 Suddenly, a periscope breaks through the waves, and a German u-boat is about to rewrite the 突然，一個潛望鏡破浪而來，一艘德國U型潛艇即將改寫歷史。 history books. 歷史書籍。 The Lusitania was launched in 1906 as a luxury cruise liner, much like similar ships such 盧西塔尼亞號於1906年下水，是一艘豪華遊輪，與類似的船舶如 as the infamous Titanic. 作為臭名昭著的泰坦尼克號。 This was the age of the luxury liner, with fierce competition- specially between Britain 這是一個豪華郵輪的時代，競爭非常激烈，特別是在英國和美國之間。 and France- to design and launch the grandest, and fastest ships in the world. 和法國--設計並推出世界上最宏偉、最快的船隻。 Owned by Cunard Shipping Line, the Lusitania was partly funded by the British military, 盧西塔尼亞號由庫納德航運公司擁有，部分資金來自英國軍方。 on the condition that if war were to break out, the mighty ship would serve as a cargo 條件是，如果戰爭爆發，這艘強大的船將充當貨物 vessel. 容器。 When World War I broke out in 1914, the Lusitania was not pressed into service as expected, 當第一次世界大戰在1914年爆發時，盧西塔尼亞號並沒有像預期的那樣被徵召服役。 and instead remained a passenger liner. 而仍然是一艘客運班輪。 Instead, the ship was secretly retrofitted for potential wartime service, with expanded 相反，該艦被祕密改裝，以備戰時使用，並擴大了 cargo holds and even well camouflaged gun turrets hidden under coils of rope on her 她的貨艙，甚至還有隱藏在繩圈下的偽裝好的炮塔。 deck. 甲板。 This was before the British Admiralty had come to appreciate the threat posed by German 這時，英國海軍部還沒有認識到德國人所構成的威脅。 u-boats. u-boats。 The British navy dwarfed the German navy, and the idea that it would be the Germans 英國海軍使德國海軍相形見絀，而認為這將是德國人的想法 who starved Britain into submission, instead of the other way around, was a laughable one 把英國餓得服服帖帖，而不是反其道而行之，這是一個可笑的問題。 as war began. 隨著戰爭的開始。 However, Germany understood its tactical position far better than even the British, and knowing 然而，德國甚至比英國人更瞭解自己的戰術地位，並且知道 it could not compete with the Royal Navy on the surface, took to new technology to subvert 它無法在表面上與皇家海軍競爭，於是採取了新技術來顛覆皇家海軍。 it from below- the infamous U-Boat. 它從下面--臭名昭著的U型潛艇。 Early u-boats were less true submarines and more temporarily submerged craft. 早期的U型潛艇與其說是真正的潛艇，不如說是臨時潛入水中的船隻。 Their electric batteries would allow them to cruise under the water and out of sight 它們的電動電池將使它們在水下巡航，不被人發現。 of surface ships, but they regularly needed to surface in order to run their diesel engines 的水面艦艇，但它們經常需要浮出水面，以便運行它們的柴油發動機。 and recharge their batteries. 併為他們的電池充電。 If they wanted to move at any significant speed, they had to do so on the surface as 如果他們想以任何顯著的速度移動，他們必須在表面上這樣做，因為 well, where they were incredibly vulnerable to enemy fire. 在那裡，他們非常容易受到敵人火力的攻擊。 However, u-boats could remain submerged long enough to break the British blockade in the 然而，u型潛艇可以在水下保持足夠長的時間來打破英國的封鎖。 North Sea and move out into the Atlantic, where they could wreak havoc on British shipping. 北海，並向大西洋移動，在那裡他們可以對英國航運造成破壞。 International law mandated that u-boats follow “prize laws”. 國際法規定u型船必須遵守 "獎賞法"。 These rules of war aimed at limiting the devastation of war. 這些戰爭規則的目的是限制戰爭的破壞性。 Under these laws u-boats must allow a merchant ship to evacuate their vessel and get them 根據這些法律，u型船必須允許商船撤離他們的船隻，讓他們 to safety- unless they were close to land, in which case they could remain in their life 除非他們靠近陸地，在這種情況下，他們可以留在他們的生活中。 boats. 舟車勞頓。 More importantly, the law stated that passenger ships may not be sunk. 更重要的是，法律規定，客船不得被擊沉。 As the war progressed, the Germans obeyed these laws, but then the British changed the 隨著戰爭的進行，德國人遵守了這些法律，但後來英國人改變了這些法律。 rules. 規則。 An empire that depended wholly on the sea, Britain was particularly vulnerable to Germany's 作為一個完全依賴海洋的帝國，英國特別容易受到德國的攻擊。 blisteringly successful u-boat campaign against it. 對它進行了極度成功的U型潛艇運動。 Soon, the British began to arm merchant vessels with hidden guns. 很快，英國人開始用暗槍武裝商船。 Under international law, u-boats were forced to surface and warn merchants their vessel 根據國際法，U型潛艇被迫浮出水面，並向商人警告他們的船隻 was to be sunk, which gave British 'Q-ships', as they came to be called, time to unveil 這給了英國的 "Q型船"（他們後來被稱為 "Q型船"）以時間來揭開其面紗。 their hidden guns and sink the u-boat. 他們隱藏的槍支並擊沉了U型潛艇。 This blatant exploitation of international law led to Germany declaring a war zone around 這種公然利用國際法的行為，導致德國宣佈周圍為戰區。 the British isles on February 4th, 1915. 1915年2月4日，英屬島嶼。 This now meant that any ship entering those waters and flying the British flag was under 這現在意味著，任何進入這些水域並懸掛英國國旗的船隻都受到 threat of German attack. 德國攻擊的威脅。 This move deeply angered neutral countries, specially the US, and in a bid to avoid any 此舉深深激怒了中立國，特別是美國，為了避免任何 unfortunate catastrophes, the German embassy in the United States put out ads in newspapers 不幸的災難發生後，德國駐美國大使館在報紙上刊登了廣告 warning that Britain had been declared a war zone, and that ships sailing to England should 警告說，英國已被宣佈為戰區，駛往英國的船隻應 be avoided. 儘量避免。 The declaration of a war zone around British waters was an unexpected boon to the British. 在英國水域周圍宣佈設立戰區，對英國人來說是一個意想不到的好事。 For a long time the British Admiralty, led by young Winston Churchill, had been pushing 長期以來，由年輕的溫斯頓-丘吉爾上司的英國海軍部一直在推動 for a strategy to lure in neutral ships in the hopes they'd be attacked by the Germans. 誘使中立國船隻的戰略，希望它們會受到德國人的攻擊。 As Churchill himself said, if a neutral ship should be attacked and end in tragedy, all 正如丘吉爾本人所說，如果一艘中立的船隻受到攻擊並以悲劇收場，所有的 the better. 越多越好。 Arming merchant vessels wasn't the only way a desperate Britain was flouting international 武裝商船並不是絕望的英國藐視國際的唯一方式。 laws however, as it was also using civilian ships to transfer desperately needed supplies 然而，由於它也在使用民用船隻轉移急需的物資，是以，它的法律 from the US. 來自美國的。 Passenger liners were off-limits target to German u-boats, a fact the British took advantage 客輪是德國U型潛艇的禁區目標，英國人利用了這一事實。 of by smuggling war supplies in their holds. 在他們的船艙裡偷運戰爭物資。 Germany repeatedly warned Britain and the US about this practice, but it was ignored. 德國多次警告英國和美國這種做法，但都被忽略了。 Germany thus had no choice, and with the declaration of a war zone around Britain, unrestricted 是以，德國別無選擇，隨著英國周圍戰區的宣佈，不受限制的 submarine warfare would begin. 潛艇戰將開始。 Ignoring all warnings that any ship flying the British flag would be attacked, passengers 乘客無視所有關於任何懸掛英國國旗的船隻都會受到攻擊的警告，他們 boarded the Lusitania in the New York Harbor on May 1st, 1915. 1915年5月1日在紐約港登上了盧西塔尼亞號。 As they boarded, several of the ship's wealthiest passengers received an emergency telegram, 在他們登船的時候，船上最富有的幾位乘客收到了一份緊急電報。 warning them that the Lusitania was under u-boat threat. 警告他們，盧西塔尼亞號受到了U型潛艇的威脅。 The passengers ignored this telegram, laughing it off as a joke. 乘客們沒有理會這封電報，把它當作一個笑話而一笑置之。 They had been reassured that the Lusitania was too fast for any u-boat, and were still 他們已經得到保證，盧西塔尼亞號對任何一艘U型潛艇來說都太快了，而且還在 under the impression that even if they were attacked, the Germans would allow them to 他們的印象是，即使他們受到攻擊，德國人也會允許他們這樣做。 board lifeboats before sinking the ship. 在沉船前登上救生艇。 They couldn't have been more wrong, and the ominous telegram- who's origin remains a mystery 他們錯得不能再錯了，而那封不祥的電報--其來源仍然是個謎。 to this day- was no joke. 時至今日，這並不是一個玩笑。 The British Admiralty had broken the German radio codes and been listening in on its communications 英國海軍部已經破譯了德國的無線電密碼，並一直在監聽其通信。 with its u-boats for a while now. 它的U型船已經有一段時間了。 While u-boats were still incredibly difficult to locate, they had listened in as the commander 雖然U型潛艇仍然非常難以定位，但它們已經聽從了指揮官的命令 of u-boat U-20 departed his anchorage in north Germany, and then communicated that he had U-20號潛艇離開了他在德國北部的錨地，然後通報說他已經 arrived on station off the Scottish coast. 抵達蘇格蘭海岸附近的駐地。 The British knew that a u-boat was in the Lusitania's path, and were keenly aware of 英國人知道有一艘U型潛艇在盧西塔尼亞號的航道上，並敏銳地意識到 the 128 Americans onboard the ship. 船上的128名美國人。 Yet they said nothing, in the hopes that if the Americans met with tragedy, it would spur 然而，他們什麼也沒說，希望如果美國人遇到悲劇，會刺激到 them to join the war. 他們加入戰爭。 Six days after leaving New York, with the coast in sight, u-boat U-20 fired a single 離開紐約六天後，在看到海岸時，U-20號潛艇發射了一枚 torpedo at the Lusitania. 在盧西塔尼亞號上發射魚雷。 The explosion tore a massive hole in the side of the large ship and she began to take on 爆炸在大船的側面撕開了一個巨大的洞，她開始承擔起了 water. 水。 Moments later, a second explosion rocked the cruise liner, sealing her fate. 幾分鐘後，第二次爆炸震撼了這艘遊輪，註定了她的命運。 Other ships had taken much greater damage than her and sunk in hours, yet the Lusitania 其他船隻受到的損害比它大得多，並在數小時內沉沒，但盧西塔尼亞號卻 was under the waves in less than 20 minutes, dooming most of her passengers. 在不到20分鐘的時間裡就被淹沒在海浪中，她的大部分乘客都被淹死了。 The second explosion, long believed to be the result of secret munitions being carried 第二次爆炸，長期以來被認為是攜帶祕密彈藥的結果。 in her hold, was actually due to a boiler exploding on contact with ice cold water, 在她的船艙裡，實際上是由於鍋爐與冰冷的水接觸時發生了爆炸。 adding to the damage and increasing the rate of flooding. 增加了損失，提高了洪水的速度。 However, what truly doomed the ship was the lack of electricity, which prevented watertight 然而，真正註定要失敗的是缺乏電力，這使水密性受到影響。 doors across compartments from being closed and sealing off the flooded sections. 跨越隔間的門被關閉，並封住了被淹沒的部分。 In short order, nearly 1200 people were dead, including 128 Americans and over 100 children. 在短時間內，近1200人死亡，包括128名美國人和100多名兒童。 When news of her sinking spread around the world, the British Admiralty went into a panic 當她沉沒的消息傳遍世界時，英國海軍部陷入了恐慌之中 trying to conceal the real circumstances behind the sinking. 試圖掩蓋沉船事件背後的真實情況。 All evidence at the time wrongly pointed to the secondary explosion being caused by the 當時的所有證據都錯誤地指出，二次爆炸是由 secret munitions being set off, and the truth wouldn't be discovered until nearly 80 years 祕密彈藥被引爆，而真相直到近80年後才被發現。 later. 後來。 At the time however, the Admiralty had to suppress all evidence of the secret munitions, 然而，當時海軍部不得不壓制所有關於祕密軍火的證據。 or risk losing goodwill from the world community. 否則就有可能失去國際社會的善意。 They had to desperately spin the event as a bloodthirsty attack on an innocent passenger 他們不得不拼命地將該事件說成是對無辜乘客的嗜血攻擊 liner, especially in America, as the fate of the war depended on this one big lie. 襯，特別是在美國，因為戰爭的命運取決於這一個大謊言。 The Admiralty however also had to ensure that the Americans never discover that they had 然而，海軍部還必須確保美國人永遠不會發現他們有這樣的想法。 been aware of the pending attack the entire time. 一直以來，他都知道即將發生的攻擊。 If Washington ever found out the Admiralty had intercepted U-20's messages, they might 如果華盛頓發現海軍部截獲了U-20的資訊，他們可能會 not only refuse to join the war, but might even cut off all aid completely. 不僅拒絕加入戰爭，甚至可能完全切斷所有援助。 Luckily for the British, the American public was swept up in anti-German furor over the 對英國人來說，幸運的是，美國公眾被捲入了反德的狂潮中。 sinking of the Lusitania, and the fact that the British had been aware of the pending 呂西塔尼亞號的沉沒，以及英國人已經意識到即將發生的事情。 attack wouldn't come to light for decades later. 襲擊事件在幾十年後才會被發現。 Americans were angry, with many clamoring for war against Germany, but President Woodrow 美國人很憤怒，許多人吵著要對德國開戰，但總統伍德羅 Wilson remained reluctant to embroil the US in a European war. 威爾遜仍然不願意讓美國捲入一場歐洲戰爭。 Then in August, a German u-boat sunk yet another British ocean liner, the S.S. Arabic, which 然後在8月，一艘德國U型潛艇擊沉了另一艘英國遠洋輪船--S.S. Arabic號。 also had Americans on board. 也有美國人在船上。 The Germans claimed the attack had been in self-defense, as the Arabic was attempting 德國人聲稱，這次襲擊是自衛，因為阿拉伯人正試圖 to ram them. 來衝撞他們。 Truthfully, British ships had been instructed to do just that if they encountered a u-boat, 說實話，英國的船隻被訓示在遇到u型潛艇時就這樣做。 as their massive bulk would easily cut a u-boat in half. 因為它們巨大的體積可以輕易地將一艘U型潛艇切成兩半。 President Wilson warned Germany that if their investigation of the incident proved Germany 威爾遜總統警告德國，如果他們對事件的調查證明德國 was at fault, it could lead to war. 是錯誤的，這可能導致戰爭。 Germany conceded, and announced that it would once more instruct its u-boats to warn merchant 德國讓步了，並宣佈它將再次訓示其U型潛艇警告商船 ships and get their crews to safety before sinking the ship. 船隻，並在船隻沉沒前將其船員帶到安全地帶。 As the British were still actively arming their merchant ships- also against international 由於英國人仍在積極武裝他們的商船--這也是違反國際慣例的。 law- this placed German u-boats at huge risk, but for the Germans it was favorable to the 法律--這使德國的U型潛艇面臨巨大的風險，但對德國人來說，這對他們是有利的。 US entering the war on the side of the British. 美國站在英國一邊參戰。 The US would remain neutral for two more years, until British intelligence intercepted a telegram 美國將再保持兩年的中立，直到英國情報部門截獲了一份電報 from the German Foreign Minister to the German Minister to Mexico. 從德國外交部長到德國駐墨西哥部長。 The telegram stated that Germany would once more resume unrestricted submarine warfare 該電報指出，德國將再次恢復無限制的潛艇戰 in a bid to cut off supplies to England, and that it would begin to sink any ship flying 為了切斷對英國的供應，它將開始擊沉任何飛行的船隻。 the British flag. 英國國旗。 It specifically warned that this would include even ships carrying American passengers, and 它特別警告說，這甚至包括運送美國乘客的船隻，而且 attempted to draw up a contingency should the US enter the war. 試圖在美國參戰的情況下擬定一份應急方案。 In exchange for Mexico's aid against the US, the Germans would offer large amounts of financial 為了換取墨西哥對美國的援助，德國人將提供大量的財政援助。 aid and help it restore its lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 援助並幫助其恢復失去的德克薩斯、新墨西哥和亞利桑那州的領土。 The intercepted telegram was rushed to President Wilson, who was immediately outraged. 被截獲的電報被趕到威爾遜總統那裡，他立即感到憤怒。 In an unprecedented move, the President authorized for the telegram to be published in its entirety 在一個史無前例的舉動中，總統授權公佈電報的全部內容 in American newspapers, stoking anti-German sentiment to a fever pitch. 在美國的報紙上，反德情緒被激起，達到了熱潮。 Just days later, the American congress approved the US's entry into the war on the side of 僅僅幾天後，美國國會就準許了美國站在美國的一邊加入戰爭。 the Allies, just as Britain had always wanted and been willing to trade innocent American 就像英國一直希望並願意與無辜的美國人進行交易一樣。 lives for. 生活為。 Now go watch How Did World War I Start? 現在去看《第一次世界大戰是如何開始的？ Or click this other video instead! 或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!