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  • May 7th, 1915.

    1915年5月7日。

  • The great cruise liner the Lusitania is within sight of the Scottish coast.

    偉大的遊輪 "盧西塔尼亞號 "就在蘇格蘭海岸的視線範圍內。

  • Suddenly, a periscope breaks through the waves, and a German u-boat is about to rewrite the

    突然,一個潛望鏡破浪而來,一艘德國U型潛艇即將改寫歷史。

  • history books.

    歷史書籍。

  • The Lusitania was launched in 1906 as a luxury cruise liner, much like similar ships such

    盧西塔尼亞號於1906年下水,是一艘豪華遊輪,與類似的船舶如

  • as the infamous Titanic.

    作為臭名昭著的泰坦尼克號。

  • This was the age of the luxury liner, with fierce competition- specially between Britain

    這是一個豪華郵輪的時代,競爭非常激烈,特別是在英國和美國之間。

  • and France- to design and launch the grandest, and fastest ships in the world.

    和法國--設計並推出世界上最宏偉、最快的船隻。

  • Owned by Cunard Shipping Line, the Lusitania was partly funded by the British military,

    盧西塔尼亞號由庫納德航運公司擁有,部分資金來自英國軍方。

  • on the condition that if war were to break out, the mighty ship would serve as a cargo

    條件是,如果戰爭爆發,這艘強大的船將充當貨物

  • vessel.

    容器。

  • When World War I broke out in 1914, the Lusitania was not pressed into service as expected,

    當第一次世界大戰在1914年爆發時,盧西塔尼亞號並沒有像預期的那樣被徵召服役。

  • and instead remained a passenger liner.

    而仍然是一艘客運班輪。

  • Instead, the ship was secretly retrofitted for potential wartime service, with expanded

    相反,該艦被祕密改裝,以備戰時使用,並擴大了

  • cargo holds and even well camouflaged gun turrets hidden under coils of rope on her

    她的貨艙,甚至還有隱藏在繩圈下的偽裝好的炮塔。

  • deck.

    甲板。

  • This was before the British Admiralty had come to appreciate the threat posed by German

    這時,英國海軍部還沒有認識到德國人所構成的威脅。

  • u-boats.

    u-boats。

  • The British navy dwarfed the German navy, and the idea that it would be the Germans

    英國海軍使德國海軍相形見絀,而認為這將是德國人的想法

  • who starved Britain into submission, instead of the other way around, was a laughable one

    把英國餓得服服帖帖,而不是反其道而行之,這是一個可笑的問題。

  • as war began.

    隨著戰爭的開始。

  • However, Germany understood its tactical position far better than even the British, and knowing

    然而,德國甚至比英國人更瞭解自己的戰術地位,並且知道

  • it could not compete with the Royal Navy on the surface, took to new technology to subvert

    它無法在表面上與皇家海軍競爭,於是採取了新技術來顛覆皇家海軍。

  • it from below- the infamous U-Boat.

    它從下面--臭名昭著的U型潛艇。

  • Early u-boats were less true submarines and more temporarily submerged craft.

    早期的U型潛艇與其說是真正的潛艇,不如說是臨時潛入水中的船隻。

  • Their electric batteries would allow them to cruise under the water and out of sight

    它們的電動電池將使它們在水下巡航,不被人發現。

  • of surface ships, but they regularly needed to surface in order to run their diesel engines

    的水面艦艇,但它們經常需要浮出水面,以便運行它們的柴油發動機。

  • and recharge their batteries.

    併為他們的電池充電。

  • If they wanted to move at any significant speed, they had to do so on the surface as

    如果他們想以任何顯著的速度移動,他們必須在表面上這樣做,因為

  • well, where they were incredibly vulnerable to enemy fire.

    在那裡,他們非常容易受到敵人火力的攻擊。

  • However, u-boats could remain submerged long enough to break the British blockade in the

    然而,u型潛艇可以在水下保持足夠長的時間來打破英國的封鎖。

  • North Sea and move out into the Atlantic, where they could wreak havoc on British shipping.

    北海,並向大西洋移動,在那裡他們可以對英國航運造成破壞。

  • International law mandated that u-boats followprize laws”.

    國際法規定u型船必須遵守 "獎賞法"。

  • These rules of war aimed at limiting the devastation of war.

    這些戰爭規則的目的是限制戰爭的破壞性。

  • Under these laws u-boats must allow a merchant ship to evacuate their vessel and get them

    根據這些法律,u型船必須允許商船撤離他們的船隻,讓他們

  • to safety- unless they were close to land, in which case they could remain in their life

    除非他們靠近陸地,在這種情況下,他們可以留在他們的生活中。

  • boats.

    舟車勞頓。

  • More importantly, the law stated that passenger ships may not be sunk.

    更重要的是,法律規定,客船不得被擊沉。

  • As the war progressed, the Germans obeyed these laws, but then the British changed the

    隨著戰爭的進行,德國人遵守了這些法律,但後來英國人改變了這些法律。

  • rules.

    規則。

  • An empire that depended wholly on the sea, Britain was particularly vulnerable to Germany's

    作為一個完全依賴海洋的帝國,英國特別容易受到德國的攻擊。

  • blisteringly successful u-boat campaign against it.

    對它進行了極度成功的U型潛艇運動。

  • Soon, the British began to arm merchant vessels with hidden guns.

    很快,英國人開始用暗槍武裝商船。

  • Under international law, u-boats were forced to surface and warn merchants their vessel

    根據國際法,U型潛艇被迫浮出水面,並向商人警告他們的船隻

  • was to be sunk, which gave British 'Q-ships', as they came to be called, time to unveil

    這給了英國的 "Q型船"(他們後來被稱為 "Q型船")以時間來揭開其面紗。

  • their hidden guns and sink the u-boat.

    他們隱藏的槍支並擊沉了U型潛艇。

  • This blatant exploitation of international law led to Germany declaring a war zone around

    這種公然利用國際法的行為,導致德國宣佈周圍為戰區。

  • the British isles on February 4th, 1915.

    1915年2月4日,英屬島嶼。

  • This now meant that any ship entering those waters and flying the British flag was under

    這現在意味著,任何進入這些水域並懸掛英國國旗的船隻都受到

  • threat of German attack.

    德國攻擊的威脅。

  • This move deeply angered neutral countries, specially the US, and in a bid to avoid any

    此舉深深激怒了中立國,特別是美國,為了避免任何

  • unfortunate catastrophes, the German embassy in the United States put out ads in newspapers

    不幸的災難發生後,德國駐美國大使館在報紙上刊登了廣告

  • warning that Britain had been declared a war zone, and that ships sailing to England should

    警告說,英國已被宣佈為戰區,駛往英國的船隻應

  • be avoided.

    儘量避免。

  • The declaration of a war zone around British waters was an unexpected boon to the British.

    在英國水域周圍宣佈設立戰區,對英國人來說是一個意想不到的好事。

  • For a long time the British Admiralty, led by young Winston Churchill, had been pushing

    長期以來,由年輕的溫斯頓-丘吉爾上司的英國海軍部一直在推動

  • for a strategy to lure in neutral ships in the hopes they'd be attacked by the Germans.

    誘使中立國船隻的戰略,希望它們會受到德國人的攻擊。

  • As Churchill himself said, if a neutral ship should be attacked and end in tragedy, all

    正如丘吉爾本人所說,如果一艘中立的船隻受到攻擊並以悲劇收場,所有的

  • the better.

    越多越好。

  • Arming merchant vessels wasn't the only way a desperate Britain was flouting international

    武裝商船並不是絕望的英國藐視國際的唯一方式。

  • laws however, as it was also using civilian ships to transfer desperately needed supplies

    然而,由於它也在使用民用船隻轉移急需的物資,是以,它的法律

  • from the US.

    來自美國的。

  • Passenger liners were off-limits target to German u-boats, a fact the British took advantage

    客輪是德國U型潛艇的禁區目標,英國人利用了這一事實。

  • of by smuggling war supplies in their holds.

    在他們的船艙裡偷運戰爭物資。

  • Germany repeatedly warned Britain and the US about this practice, but it was ignored.

    德國多次警告英國和美國這種做法,但都被忽略了。

  • Germany thus had no choice, and with the declaration of a war zone around Britain, unrestricted

    是以,德國別無選擇,隨著英國周圍戰區的宣佈,不受限制的

  • submarine warfare would begin.

    潛艇戰將開始。

  • Ignoring all warnings that any ship flying the British flag would be attacked, passengers

    乘客無視所有關於任何懸掛英國國旗的船隻都會受到攻擊的警告,他們

  • boarded the Lusitania in the New York Harbor on May 1st, 1915.

    1915年5月1日在紐約港登上了盧西塔尼亞號。

  • As they boarded, several of the ship's wealthiest passengers received an emergency telegram,

    在他們登船的時候,船上最富有的幾位乘客收到了一份緊急電報。

  • warning them that the Lusitania was under u-boat threat.

    警告他們,盧西塔尼亞號受到了U型潛艇的威脅。

  • The passengers ignored this telegram, laughing it off as a joke.

    乘客們沒有理會這封電報,把它當作一個笑話而一笑置之。

  • They had been reassured that the Lusitania was too fast for any u-boat, and were still

    他們已經得到保證,盧西塔尼亞號對任何一艘U型潛艇來說都太快了,而且還在

  • under the impression that even if they were attacked, the Germans would allow them to

    他們的印象是,即使他們受到攻擊,德國人也會允許他們這樣做。

  • board lifeboats before sinking the ship.

    在沉船前登上救生艇。

  • They couldn't have been more wrong, and the ominous telegram- who's origin remains a mystery

    他們錯得不能再錯了,而那封不祥的電報--其來源仍然是個謎。

  • to this day- was no joke.

    時至今日,這並不是一個玩笑。

  • The British Admiralty had broken the German radio codes and been listening in on its communications

    英國海軍部已經破譯了德國的無線電密碼,並一直在監聽其通信。

  • with its u-boats for a while now.

    它的U型船已經有一段時間了。

  • While u-boats were still incredibly difficult to locate, they had listened in as the commander

    雖然U型潛艇仍然非常難以定位,但它們已經聽從了指揮官的命令

  • of u-boat U-20 departed his anchorage in north Germany, and then communicated that he had

    U-20號潛艇離開了他在德國北部的錨地,然後通報說他已經

  • arrived on station off the Scottish coast.

    抵達蘇格蘭海岸附近的駐地。

  • The British knew that a u-boat was in the Lusitania's path, and were keenly aware of

    英國人知道有一艘U型潛艇在盧西塔尼亞號的航道上,並敏銳地意識到

  • the 128 Americans onboard the ship.

    船上的128名美國人。

  • Yet they said nothing, in the hopes that if the Americans met with tragedy, it would spur

    然而,他們什麼也沒說,希望如果美國人遇到悲劇,會刺激到

  • them to join the war.

    他們加入戰爭。

  • Six days after leaving New York, with the coast in sight, u-boat U-20 fired a single

    離開紐約六天後,在看到海岸時,U-20號潛艇發射了一枚

  • torpedo at the Lusitania.

    在盧西塔尼亞號上發射魚雷。

  • The explosion tore a massive hole in the side of the large ship and she began to take on

    爆炸在大船的側面撕開了一個巨大的洞,她開始承擔起了

  • water.

    水。

  • Moments later, a second explosion rocked the cruise liner, sealing her fate.

    幾分鐘後,第二次爆炸震撼了這艘遊輪,註定了她的命運。

  • Other ships had taken much greater damage than her and sunk in hours, yet the Lusitania

    其他船隻受到的損害比它大得多,並在數小時內沉沒,但盧西塔尼亞號卻

  • was under the waves in less than 20 minutes, dooming most of her passengers.

    在不到20分鐘的時間裡就被淹沒在海浪中,她的大部分乘客都被淹死了。

  • The second explosion, long believed to be the result of secret munitions being carried

    第二次爆炸,長期以來被認為是攜帶祕密彈藥的結果。

  • in her hold, was actually due to a boiler exploding on contact with ice cold water,

    在她的船艙裡,實際上是由於鍋爐與冰冷的水接觸時發生了爆炸。

  • adding to the damage and increasing the rate of flooding.

    增加了損失,提高了洪水的速度。

  • However, what truly doomed the ship was the lack of electricity, which prevented watertight

    然而,真正註定要失敗的是缺乏電力,這使水密性受到影響。

  • doors across compartments from being closed and sealing off the flooded sections.

    跨越隔間的門被關閉,並封住了被淹沒的部分。

  • In short order, nearly 1200 people were dead, including 128 Americans and over 100 children.

    在短時間內,近1200人死亡,包括128名美國人和100多名兒童。

  • When news of her sinking spread around the world, the British Admiralty went into a panic

    當她沉沒的消息傳遍世界時,英國海軍部陷入了恐慌之中

  • trying to conceal the real circumstances behind the sinking.

    試圖掩蓋沉船事件背後的真實情況。

  • All evidence at the time wrongly pointed to the secondary explosion being caused by the

    當時的所有證據都錯誤地指出,二次爆炸是由

  • secret munitions being set off, and the truth wouldn't be discovered until nearly 80 years

    祕密彈藥被引爆,而真相直到近80年後才被發現。

  • later.

    後來。

  • At the time however, the Admiralty had to suppress all evidence of the secret munitions,

    然而,當時海軍部不得不壓制所有關於祕密軍火的證據。

  • or risk losing goodwill from the world community.

    否則就有可能失去國際社會的善意。

  • They had to desperately spin the event as a bloodthirsty attack on an innocent passenger

    他們不得不拼命地將該事件說成是對無辜乘客的嗜血攻擊

  • liner, especially in America, as the fate of the war depended on this one big lie.

    襯,特別是在美國,因為戰爭的命運取決於這一個大謊言。

  • The Admiralty however also had to ensure that the Americans never discover that they had

    然而,海軍部還必須確保美國人永遠不會發現他們有這樣的想法。

  • been aware of the pending attack the entire time.

    一直以來,他都知道即將發生的攻擊。

  • If Washington ever found out the Admiralty had intercepted U-20's messages, they might

    如果華盛頓發現海軍部截獲了U-20的資訊,他們可能會

  • not only refuse to join the war, but might even cut off all aid completely.

    不僅拒絕加入戰爭,甚至可能完全切斷所有援助。

  • Luckily for the British, the American public was swept up in anti-German furor over the

    對英國人來說,幸運的是,美國公眾被捲入了反德的狂潮中。

  • sinking of the Lusitania, and the fact that the British had been aware of the pending

    呂西塔尼亞號的沉沒,以及英國人已經意識到即將發生的事情。

  • attack wouldn't come to light for decades later.

    襲擊事件在幾十年後才會被發現。

  • Americans were angry, with many clamoring for war against Germany, but President Woodrow

    美國人很憤怒,許多人吵著要對德國開戰,但總統伍德羅

  • Wilson remained reluctant to embroil the US in a European war.

    威爾遜仍然不願意讓美國捲入一場歐洲戰爭。

  • Then in August, a German u-boat sunk yet another British ocean liner, the S.S. Arabic, which

    然後在8月,一艘德國U型潛艇擊沉了另一艘英國遠洋輪船--S.S. Arabic號。

  • also had Americans on board.

    也有美國人在船上。

  • The Germans claimed the attack had been in self-defense, as the Arabic was attempting

    德國人聲稱,這次襲擊是自衛,因為阿拉伯人正試圖

  • to ram them.

    來衝撞他們。

  • Truthfully, British ships had been instructed to do just that if they encountered a u-boat,

    說實話,英國的船隻被訓示在遇到u型潛艇時就這樣做。

  • as their massive bulk would easily cut a u-boat in half.

    因為它們巨大的體積可以輕易地將一艘U型潛艇切成兩半。

  • President Wilson warned Germany that if their investigation of the incident proved Germany

    威爾遜總統警告德國,如果他們對事件的調查證明德國

  • was at fault, it could lead to war.

    是錯誤的,這可能導致戰爭。

  • Germany conceded, and announced that it would once more instruct its u-boats to warn merchant

    德國讓步了,並宣佈它將再次訓示其U型潛艇警告商船

  • ships and get their crews to safety before sinking the ship.

    船隻,並在船隻沉沒前將其船員帶到安全地帶。

  • As the British were still actively arming their merchant ships- also against international

    由於英國人仍在積極武裝他們的商船--這也是違反國際慣例的。

  • law- this placed German u-boats at huge risk, but for the Germans it was favorable to the

    法律--這使德國的U型潛艇面臨巨大的風險,但對德國人來說,這對他們是有利的。

  • US entering the war on the side of the British.

    美國站在英國一邊參戰。

  • The US would remain neutral for two more years, until British intelligence intercepted a telegram

    美國將再保持兩年的中立,直到英國情報部門截獲了一份電報

  • from the German Foreign Minister to the German Minister to Mexico.

    從德國外交部長到德國駐墨西哥部長。

  • The telegram stated that Germany would once more resume unrestricted submarine warfare

    該電報指出,德國將再次恢復無限制的潛艇戰

  • in a bid to cut off supplies to England, and that it would begin to sink any ship flying

    為了切斷對英國的供應,它將開始擊沉任何飛行的船隻。

  • the British flag.

    英國國旗。

  • It specifically warned that this would include even ships carrying American passengers, and

    它特別警告說,這甚至包括運送美國乘客的船隻,而且

  • attempted to draw up a contingency should the US enter the war.

    試圖在美國參戰的情況下擬定一份應急方案。

  • In exchange for Mexico's aid against the US, the Germans would offer large amounts of financial

    為了換取墨西哥對美國的援助,德國人將提供大量的財政援助。

  • aid and help it restore its lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

    援助並幫助其恢復失去的德克薩斯、新墨西哥和亞利桑那州的領土。

  • The intercepted telegram was rushed to President Wilson, who was immediately outraged.

    被截獲的電報被趕到威爾遜總統那裡,他立即感到憤怒。

  • In an unprecedented move, the President authorized for the telegram to be published in its entirety

    在一個史無前例的舉動中,總統授權公佈電報的全部內容

  • in American newspapers, stoking anti-German sentiment to a fever pitch.

    在美國的報紙上,反德情緒被激起,達到了熱潮。

  • Just days later, the American congress approved the US's entry into the war on the side of

    僅僅幾天後,美國國會就準許了美國站在美國的一邊加入戰爭。

  • the Allies, just as Britain had always wanted and been willing to trade innocent American

    就像英國一直希望並願意與無辜的美國人進行交易一樣。

  • lives for.

    生活為。

  • Now go watch How Did World War I Start?

    現在去看《第一次世界大戰是如何開始的?

  • Or click this other video instead!

    或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!

May 7th, 1915.

1915年5月7日。

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B2 中高級 中文 潛艇 德國 英國 船隻 戰爭 德國人

美國為什麼要參加第一次世界大戰 (Why USA Actually Entered World War 1)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 22 日
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