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  • As climate change, scarce resources, and ever-advancing military technology push the boundaries of

    由於氣候變化、資源稀缺和不斷進步的軍事技術推動了

  • humans towards deadlier and protracted conflicts, they look to other domains to gain a competitive

    在人類走向更致命和更持久的衝突時,他們將目光投向其他領域以獲得競爭優勢。

  • edge.

    邊緣。

  • With the world devastated by years of war and depleted of most of its natural resources,

    隨著世界被多年的戰爭所破壞,大部分的自然資源被耗盡。

  • the global powers have turned space into its final battlefront.

    全球大國已將太空變成其最後的戰線。

  • While these battles have not reached the point of firing lasers and other nifty space gadgets

    雖然這些戰鬥還沒有達到發射脈衝光和其他靈巧的太空小玩意的程度

  • like from an unnamed popular science fiction franchise, at this point in the future, due

    就像來自一個不知名的流行科幻小說系列,在未來的這一時刻,由於

  • in no small part to Dogecoin billionaires, outfitting large armies of space soldiers

    在很大程度上,Dogecoin的億萬富翁們正在裝備大量的太空阿兵哥軍隊。

  • has become possible.

    已經成為可能。

  • While there are many possibilities for this war to be fought in space, let's look at the

    雖然這場戰爭在太空中進行的可能性很多,但讓我們看一下

  • first and most likely battlefield: the Moon.

    第一個也是最有可能的戰場:月球。

  • However, before we can even begin to see how this battle would play out, we first need

    然而,在我們能夠開始看到這場戰鬥將如何進行之前,我們首先需要

  • to tackle the major question of if a gun can even be fired in space.

    來解決槍支是否能在太空中發射這一重大問題。

  • When you pull the trigger of any gun, a firing pin strikes the primer that ignites the powder

    當你扣動任何槍支的扳機時,撞針會撞擊底火,點燃火藥。

  • inside the cartridge.

    筒內的。

  • These expanding gases force the bullet out of its casing and propel it down the barrel.

    這些膨脹的氣體迫使子彈離開彈殼,並將其推入槍管。

  • While there are quite literally hundreds of different powder combinations used throughout

    雖然有數以百計的不同粉末組合用於整個

  • the centuries, one of the basic physics principles that remains constant though is the ability

    幾個世紀以來,保持不變的基本物理學原理之一就是

  • of the powders to combust.

    粉末的燃燒。

  • For that to happen there must be air.

    要做到這一點,必須有空氣。

  • Now, I know what you are thinking- there is no air in space so you cannot fire a gun in

    現在,我知道你在想什麼--太空中沒有空氣,所以你不能在太空中開槍。

  • a vacuum.

    一個真空。

  • But you see if you thought that you would be sorely mistaken.

    但是你看,如果你這麼想,你就大錯特錯了。

  • Inside each cartridge, you would find that the tiny amount of oxygen contained in each

    在每一個筒子裡面,你會發現,每一個筒子裡所包含的微量的氧氣

  • air-tight and self-contained cartridge would still allow the gun to be fired.

    氣密性和自給自足的彈體仍能使槍支發射。

  • However, once you do fire that gun in space that is where the otherworldly physics starts

    然而,一旦你在太空中發射槍支,那就是另一個世界的物理學的開始。

  • to take place.

    來進行的。

  • Firstly, no matter where you fire a gun in space you would not hear it, since there is

    首先,無論你在太空中哪裡開槍,你都不會聽到,因為有

  • not a medium like air or water for sound to travel.

    而不是像空氣或水這樣的媒介來傳播聲音。

  • However, you would still hear a small yet very altered sound due to the small vibrations

    然而,由於微小的振動,你仍然會聽到微小但非常有變化的聲音。

  • firing the gun would have in your ear drum.

    開槍會對你的耳鼓造成影響。

  • But when other people shoot a gun, because the sound vibrations cannot travel, you would

    但當其他人開槍時,由於聲音振動無法傳播,你會

  • not hear them so if you forget to bring that hearing protection with you on your spaceship

    所以如果你忘記在飛船上攜帶聽力保護裝置

  • do not fear since it would not make a difference anyway.

    不要害怕,因為這不會有什麼影響。

  • Once the bullet leaves the barrel of the gun, gravity starts to take effect immediately.

    一旦子彈離開槍管,重力就會立即開始起作用。

  • That is why when you fire a bullet it will eventually drop to the ground.

    這就是為什麼當你發射子彈時,它最終會掉到地上。

  • However, on the moon, gravity is one-sixth the strength of the gravity on earth and this

    然而,在月球上,重力是地球上重力強度的六分之一,這

  • would make for some very interesting dynamics.

    將會產生一些非常有趣的動態。

  • Taking a look at three of the most common military cartridges, one can see how the ranges

    看看三種最常見的軍用子彈,我們可以看到範圍如何

  • at which firefights can take place in space become exponentially increased.

    在太空中發生交火的時間會成倍增加。

  • The standard-issue pistol round for the US is 9mm, the standard rifle round is 5.56 mm,

    美國發行的標準手槍子彈是9毫米,標準步槍子彈是5.56毫米。

  • and the standard machine gun round is the 7.62mm cartridge.

    而標準機槍子彈是7.62毫米子彈。

  • These rounds will travel a maximum of 1900, 3400, and 4500 yards respectively.

    這些子彈的最大射程分別為1900碼、3400碼和4500碼。

  • While their effective ranges are much shorter than these, these are the maximum ranges that

    雖然它們的有效射程比這些要短得多,但這些都是在以下情況下的最大射程。

  • when fired on a completely flat plain, gravity will eventually pull them down into the ground.

    當在完全平坦的平原上發射時,重力最終會把它們拉到地面上。

  • Because the moon’s gravity is one-sixth the strength of the gravity on earth, that

    因為月球的引力是地球引力的六分之一,即

  • means you could multiply these distances by a factor of almost 2.5 times greater!

    意味著你可以將這些距離乘以幾乎2.5倍的係數!

  • So that means for a 9mm pistol, a space cadet could fire a 9mm bullet up to almost 4700

    是以,這意味著對於9毫米手槍來說,一個太空學員可以將9毫米子彈發射到近4700

  • yards, snipe at an enemy with his rifle at almost 8300 yards, and suppress their positions

    在近8300碼的距離上用步槍狙擊敵人,並壓制他們的位置

  • with machine-gun fire at 11000 yards!

    在11000碼處用機槍掃射!

  • Surely these numbers are all theoretical since the military, at least publically, has never

    當然,這些數字都是理論上的,因為軍隊,至少在公開場合,從來沒有

  • tested its weapons in space.

    在太空中測試其武器。

  • But if we are going off just the straight math then it should work out this way.

    但是,如果我們只是根據直接的數學計算,那麼它應該是這樣的。

  • Of course, these numbers are just the maximum range and do not factor in things like the

    當然,這些數字只是最大的範圍,並沒有考慮到諸如以下的因素

  • ability to aim or the fact that the visible horizon for the human eye is around 11 nautical

    瞄準的能力或人眼可見的地平線約為11海里的事實

  • miles or about 22000 yards, so shooting at a target over the horizon would be impractical

    英里或約22000碼,是以在地平線上射擊目標將是不切實際的。

  • for the average space soldier.

    為普通太空阿兵哥。

  • Or would it be?

    或者會是這樣嗎?

  • You see, space does some weird things and one of those is the pull of a gravitational

    你看,空間做了一些奇怪的事情,其中之一就是引力的拉動。

  • field.

    領域。

  • Unlike on earth where the atmosphere is tens of thousands of meters up, if you are already

    不像在地球上,大氣層在幾萬米高的地方,如果你已經在

  • in space or on an astral body with a limited atmosphere like the moon, or a very strong

    在太空中或在像月球這樣大氣層有限的星體上,或在一個非常強大的

  • atmosphere like say, Jupiter, then bullets can easily get sucked into these atmospheres.

    像木星那樣的大氣層,那麼子彈就很容易被吸入這些大氣層中。

  • As one scientist described it, if you wanted to shoot yourself on the moon you would simply

    正如一位科學家所描述的那樣,如果你想在月球上射擊自己,你只需

  • need to stand on a mountain at least 1600 meters up and then fire straight ahead.

    需要站在一個至少1600米高的山上,然後向前方射擊。

  • Now, granted the bullet would have to not impact any other mountains or debris but by

    當然,子彈必須不撞擊任何其他的山或碎片,但通過

  • doing this the bullet could eventually circumnavigate the moon and come back to hit its hapless

    這樣做,子彈最終可以繞過月球,回來擊中它那無助的人。

  • shooter, eventually.

    射手,最終。

  • If you fired your gun while in the void of space, it also has some weird physics that

    如果你在虛空中開槍,它也有一些奇怪的物理學原理,即

  • would go on.

    會繼續下去。

  • One of those would be its ability to keep moving forever, at least sort of.

    其中之一是它能夠永遠保持移動,至少是某種程度上。

  • You see, as discussed previously space being a vacuum, if there were no forces such as

    你看,正如前面所討論的,空間是一個真空,如果沒有諸如以下的力量

  • gravity, wind, or weather that could impact a bullet’s path and sap its energy, it would

    在重力、風或天氣的作用下,子彈的路徑會受到影響,並消耗其能量。

  • go on forever.

    永遠地走下去。

  • In an ideal scenario, this would be the case.

    在一個理想的情況下,情況會是這樣。

  • However, the likelihood of your bullet traveling forever in the cosmos with no other forces

    然而,你的子彈永遠在宇宙中旅行而沒有其他力量的可能性

  • acting on it would be next to nothing due to all the planetary bodies acting on it.

    由於所有行星體對它的作用,作用在它身上的能量將幾乎為零。

  • Going back to our earlier example of firing a gun at a planet, if during your lunar firefight

    回到我們之前的例子,對一個星球開炮,如果在你的月球交火期間

  • you happen to miss your target and the bullet eventually makes its way towards say, Jupiter,

    你碰巧錯過了你的目標,而子彈最終走向了比如說木星。

  • you could count on its strong gravitational pull to suck in your bullet.

    你可以指望它強大的引力來吸住你的子彈。

  • At about three times the strength of the earth's gravitational pull, you could expect that

    在大約三倍於地球引力的強度下,你可以期望

  • even at distances up to tens of thousands of meters away the bullet would feel the effect

    即使在數萬米之外,子彈也會感到影響。

  • of its gravity and eventually get sucked into orbit.

    的引力,並最終被吸到軌道上。

  • Here, after getting trapped in orbit, the bullet could expect to travel at speeds of

    在這裡,在被困在軌道上後,子彈可望以下列速度飛行

  • more than 17000 miles per hour!

    超過每小時17000英里的速度!

  • That is because the speed of objects in orbit is dependent upon their mass, gravity, and

    這是因為在軌道上的物體的速度取決於它們的品質、重力和

  • altitude among a few other factors.

    除其他一些因素外,還有海拔高度。

  • While this would change from planet to planet, one would see the velocities of these bullets

    雖然這在不同的星球上會有變化,但人們會看到這些子彈的速度

  • increase in magnitudes of ten or more when placed in such scenarios.

    當被置於這種情況下時,增加的幅度為10或更多。

  • Another interesting aspect of firing guns in space is just how hot or how cold they

    在太空中發射槍支的另一個有趣的方面是,它們有多熱或多冷?

  • would be when impacting a target.

    在衝擊目標的時候,會有這樣的效果。

  • On earth, heat is transferred through a variety of radiation, convection, and conduction,

    在地球上,熱量是通過各種輻射、對流和傳導的方式傳遞的。

  • which gives bullets, though hot, a more graduated temperature to its environment than space.

    這使子彈雖然很熱,但與空間相比,其環境的溫度更有刻度。

  • In space, heat only exists as radiation.

    在太空中,熱量只以輻射形式存在。

  • So if your bullet travels through say a patch of solar wind, it would instantly be melted

    是以,如果你的子彈穿過比如說一片太陽風,它就會立即被融化。

  • since the melting point of lead is around 320 degrees Celsius while solar wind can reach

    因為鉛的熔點約為320攝氏度,而太陽風可以達到

  • temperatures of a million degrees Celsius!

    攝氏一百萬度的溫度!

  • However, all of these data points and figures revolve around firearms that are currently

    然而,所有這些數據點和數字都是圍繞著目前正在使用的槍支。

  • used on Earth that are repurposed for space use.

    在地球上使用的、被重新用於空間用途的設備。

  • After all, if the human race were ever to fight a war in space then it is probably safe

    畢竟,如果人類有一天要在太空打仗,那麼它可能是安全的。

  • to assume that the gun designs would also have to be upgraded.

    假設槍支設計也要升級。

  • But what exactly would the ideal gun in space look like and be made out of to operate in

    但是,理想的太空槍支究竟是什麼樣子的,是用什麼材料製成的,以便在太空中操作。

  • such a harsh environment?

    如此惡劣的環境?

  • First of all, that space assault rifle or pistol with wooden grips would probably best

    首先,那支太空突擊步槍或手槍的木質握把可能是最好的

  • be left back at home.

    被留在家裡。

  • The obvious reason for this is that you should not bring highly flammable things into space

    其明顯的原因是,你不應該把高度易燃的東西帶入太空

  • as due to the intense amount of heat that can be present, a material like wood would

    由於可能存在大量的熱量,像木材這樣的材料會

  • instantly catch on fire if exposed to such extreme temperatures.

    如果暴露在這種極端溫度下,會立即起火。

  • Additionally, the water inside wood would expand and evaporate inside a vacuum.

    此外,木材內部的水會在真空中膨脹和蒸發。

  • What that means for our hapless space warrior is that potentially in the middle of the action

    這對我們無助的太空戰士來說,意味著可能在行動中

  • their gun could literally start falling apart with the screws and anything else banding

    他們的槍可以從字面上開始分崩離析,螺絲和其他東西都帶著。

  • the stock to the gun coming apart.

    在槍支散開的時候,槍托也會散開。

  • But what about the material that makes up the gun itself?

    但構成槍支本身的材料呢?

  • Though many people might suggest Tungsten, as it has the highest melting point of any

    雖然很多人可能會建議使用鎢,因為它的熔點是所有材料中最高的。

  • naturally occurring metal yet is still malleable enough to be bent into shape, you might be

    屬於自然形成的金屬,但仍有足夠的延展性,可以彎曲成各種形狀,你可能會是

  • mistaken.

    錯了。

  • Rhenium is probably the best metal to make guns out of that would fire in space for a

    錸可能是製造可以在太空中開火的槍支的最佳金屬。

  • few reasons.

    幾個原因。

  • Firstly, it is still the second highest heat resistant metal known to humankind.

    首先,它仍然是人類已知的第二高耐熱金屬。

  • It also has strong electrical resistance properties in space, which is great since everything

    它在太空中還具有很強的電阻特性,這很好,因為一切

  • that goes into space has to be able to dissipate electrostatic charges that are everywhere

    進入太空後,必須能夠消解無處不在的靜電荷。

  • up there.

    在上面。

  • It is commonly used in the construction of aircraft so it already has a good track record

    它通常用於建造飛機,所以它已經有一個良好的記錄。

  • of good performance in harsh environments.

    在惡劣的環境中具有良好的性能。

  • Though people might point out that Tungsten has also been used in a number of high speed

    儘管人們可能會指出,鎢也已被用於一些高速的

  • and highly successful jet aircraft programs in both the US, Russia, and elsewhere, they

    在美國、俄羅斯和其他地方都非常成功的噴氣式飛機項目,他們

  • would be correct.

    將是正確的。

  • However, though Tungsten does have a slight edge over Rhenium in melting point, the metal

    然而,儘管鎢在熔點方面確實比錸略勝一籌,但該金屬

  • still beats it out in areas of ductility, electrical resistance, and creep resistance.

    在延展性、抗電性和抗蠕變性方面仍然勝過它。

  • Despite these advantages, Rhenium is usually combined with Tungsten to make an alloy to

    儘管有這些優點,錸通常與鎢結合在一起製成合金。

  • get the best properties of both and it is this combination that might actually make

    獲得兩者的最佳特性,正是這種組合可能真正使

  • the best material to manufacture firearms out of for space combat.

    是製造用於太空作戰的槍支的最佳材料。

  • But what about the bullets that are fired?

    但射出的子彈呢?

  • After all, these bullets would have to survive their flight to their target through potentially

    畢竟,這些子彈在飛向目標的過程中,必須要經歷可能是 "不可能 "的過程。

  • much more extreme temperatures and conditions due to the increased distances that space

    由於空間距離的增加,溫度和條件更加極端。

  • combat can occur at.

    戰鬥可以發生在。

  • The answer to this problem might actually be an experimental alloy that was designed

    這個問題的答案實際上可能是一種實驗性的合金,它的設計理念是

  • in 2015 that, to this date, has the highest melting point of any experimental or natural

    迄今為止,在所有實驗性或自然性研究中具有最高的熔點。

  • substance discovered so far.

    迄今為止發現的物質。

  • The alloy that was created was a combination of three elements: hafnium, tantalum, and

    所創造的合金是三種元素的組合:鉿、鉭、和。

  • carbon.

    碳。

  • The resulting concoction allowed for a blistering melting point of about 7500 degrees Fahrenheit

    由此產生的混合物允許約7500華氏度的爆炸性融化點。

  • or about two-thirds the surface temperature of the sun!

    或約為太陽表面溫度的三分之二!

  • Such a metal would be perfect to use for space combat since they could handle almost everything

    這樣的金屬非常適合用於太空作戰,因為他們幾乎可以處理所有的事情。

  • space could throw at them save for maybe solar wind and a black hole.

    除了太陽風和黑洞之外,空間可以扔給他們。

  • Though this experimental alloy is still being developed at the University of California,

    儘管這種實驗性合金仍在加利福尼亞大學進行開發。

  • there is real hope that it could be used in military applications in the future since

    有真正的希望,它可以在未來用於軍事用途,因為

  • a good portion of the funding for this research has come from the US Navy.

    這項研究的很大一部分資金來自美國海軍。

  • Despite this influx of cash from Uncle Sam, the last report from 2015 was that scientists

    儘管有這些來自山姆大叔的現金湧入,但2015年的最後一份報告是,科學家們

  • were only able to make 100 grams of the material so it is unlikely such bullets would be available

    他們只能製造100克的材料,所以不太可能有這種子彈。

  • anytime soon.

    很快就會有。

  • Overall, while firing guns in space might seem like a commander's dream with the increased

    總的來說,雖然在太空中開炮可能看起來是指揮官的夢想,但由於增加了

  • ranges and zero noise, when one factors in all the harsh realities of space, firing guns

    如果考慮到空間的所有嚴酷現實,射擊槍支的噪音為零。

  • might not be as simple as one might think.

    可能並不像人們想象的那樣簡單。

  • But who knows, maybe by the time humans actually start fighting space battles guns might be

    但誰知道呢,也許到了人類真正開始打太空戰的時候,槍支可能是

  • obsolete anyways!

    反正已經過時了!

As climate change, scarce resources, and ever-advancing military technology push the boundaries of

由於氣候變化、資源稀缺和不斷進步的軍事技術推動了

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如果你在太空中開槍會發生什麼? (What Happens If You Fire a Gun in Space?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 14 日
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