字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Millennials and Gen Z have all heard the frequent Baby Boomer complaint: if you didn't spend your 千禧一代和Z世代都聽過嬰兒潮一代經常抱怨的一句話：如果你不把你的錢花在刀刃上，那麼你就會被淘汰。 money on lattes and avocado toast, you could buy a house. But, what did houses actually cost 50, 75, 在拿鐵咖啡和牛油果吐司上的錢，你可以買房子。但是，房子的實際價格是多少，50，75。 100 years ago? And how much could you buy back then for let's say...one dollar? 100年前？那時候你能買多少東西，比如說......一美元？ 1920: Picture it. A pandemic is winding down and people who have 1920:想象一下吧。一場大流行病正在逐漸結束，而那些已經 been locked down for over a year are starting to pretend it never happened, 被鎖了一年多的人開始假裝它從未發生過。 go out, and drink and party like there's no tomorrow. That wasn't hard, was it? 走出去，喝酒，開派對，就像沒有明天一樣。這並不難，不是嗎？ A US citizen collects their paycheck and starts figuring out their budget for the rest of the 一個美國公民領取了他們的工資，並開始計算他們剩餘時間的預算。 week. If you're a man, congratulations, you have earned an average of $27 周。如果你是一個男人，恭喜你，你已經平均賺了27美元。 a week! If you're a woman, we're sorry to inform you your salary is closer to $12 a week. But hey, 一個星期！如果你是一個女人，我們很抱歉地告訴你，你的工資接近12美元一個星期。如果你是一個女人，我們很遺憾地告訴你，你的工資更接近於每週12美元。但是，嘿。 on the upside, in August of 1920 you're getting the right to vote. 從正面看，在1920年8月，你將獲得選舉權。 Hang in there, equality is coming right along in the next thousand years or so. 堅持下去，在未來一千年左右的時間裡，平等就會到來。 A dollar in 1920 was equivalent to about $13.58 in 2021. 1920年的一美元相當於2021年的約13.58美元。 A man's cotton shirt cost on average around $1.31. However, depending on the brand, 一件男士棉質襯衫的平均成本約為1.31美元。然而，根據品牌的不同。 they could run as low as 75 cents or as high as $1.50 - that's pretty affordable. The bad news is, 它們可能低至75美分或高至1.5美元--這是很實惠的。壞消息是。 it's 1920, so men also required about 200% more clothing to be adequately covered for the era. 現在是1920年，所以男人也需要多穿200%的衣服，以充分覆蓋這個時代。 A woman could get a cotton blouse for around $1.58. However, let's not even go into how much 一個女人可以用大約1.58美元買到一件棉質上衣。然而，我們甚至不要去考慮有多少 more clothing women needed to be “modest” back then. A blouse ain't covering it, literally. 那時，婦女需要更多的衣服來 "適度"。一件上衣並不能掩蓋它，從字面上看。 Since the pandemic was still kinda around, and we now know that means hoarding toilet paper 由於大流行病還有點在，我們現在知道這意味著囤積衛生紙 like you ate Taco Bell leftovers, you're going to want to stock up on that. 就像你吃了Taco Bell的剩飯一樣，你會想要囤積這些東西。 Two rolls of toilet paper run around 25 cents. So for a dollar, 兩卷衛生紙大約需要25美分。是以，為了一美元。 a 1920s housewife - cause let's face it, who else is doing the shopping - could acquire eight rolls! 一個20世紀20年代的家庭主婦--因為讓我們面對現實吧，還有誰會去買東西呢--可以獲得8個卷子！"。 Now what else is on the shopping list for a good ol' 1920s family? Groceries, of course! 現在，對於一個好的1920年代的家庭來說，購物清單上還有什麼？當然是雜貨了! Some things, like a loaf of bread, were very affordable and roughly equivalent - accounting 有些東西，如一條麵包，是非常實惠的，大致相當於--會計 for inflation, of course - to what those products would cost now. At around 7 當然，要考慮到通貨膨脹因素--這些產品現在的價格。在大約7 cents - $1.69 in today's dollars - a family could buy almost thirteen loaves of bread for a dollar. 美分--以今天的美元計算為1.69美元--一個家庭可以用1美元購買幾乎13個麵包。 However, you may be surprised to discover that some foods were relatively much more 然而，你可能會驚訝地發現，有些食物相對來說要多得多。 expensive in 1920. For example, a dozen eggs cost around $0.34 - or 在1920年，價格昂貴。例如，一打雞蛋的價格約為0.34美元 - 或 $8.23 in today's dollars - way costlier than the average 2021 citizen expects. 按今天的美元計算為8.23美元--比2021年的普通公民所期望的費用要高得多。 A dollar in 1920 could buy around three dozen eggs, or, just under three pounds of butter. 1920年，一美元可以買到大約三打雞蛋，或者是不到三磅的黃油。 That's right, butter back then was 36 cents - $8.72 in today's dollars, or around double what it 沒錯，當時的黃油是36美分--以今天的美元計算是8.72美元，或者是現在的兩倍左右。 costs in most places in the US. So why were some foods so much more expensive than we're used to? 在美國大多數地方的成本。那麼，為什麼有些食物比我們習慣的要貴得多？ Well, in 1920, a lot of farm production was still on the smaller side. 那麼，在1920年，很多農場的生產仍然是偏小的。 Especially when it came to animal products like eggs and butter, 特別是當它涉及到雞蛋和黃油等動物產品時。 there was less efficient mass production than there is today. 當時的大規模生產效率不如今天。 Eggs and poultry used to be luxury items that American households would 雞蛋和家禽曾經是美國家庭的奢侈品。 serve only once in a while. In the first half of the 20th century, 偶爾才服務一次。在20世紀上半葉。 the average US citizen ate around 6 chickens per year in total. In 2021, the average US 美國公民平均每年總共吃了大約6只雞。在2021年，美國的平均 citizen can probably eat 6 chickens in an extra large bucket of KFC. More accurately though, 公民可能可以在一個超大的肯德基桶裡吃到6只雞。不過，更準確地說。 US citizens consume chicken around 3-4 times per week for a total of 30 whole birds per year. 美國公民每週大約食用3-4次雞肉，每年共食用30只整雞。 today, and fed grain. So poultry and eggs ended up much pricier than they are today. Cows also roamed 今天，餵養穀物。是以，家禽和雞蛋最終比今天的價格要高得多。奶牛也在遊蕩 around free and were almost all grass-fed. This was reflected in meat and dairy prices. 周圍是自由的，幾乎都是草飼的。 這反映在肉類和奶製品價格上。 A sirloin steak cost around 25 cents per pound, or $6.05 in today's dollars. 一塊沙朗牛排的成本約為每磅25美分，以今天的美元計算為6.05美元。 So for a dollar you could buy four pounds of steaks and feed your family; 是以，一美元可以買四磅牛排，養活你的家人。 but that was a pricey proposition and only to be used for special occasions and indulgences. 但這是一個昂貴的提議，只用於特殊場合和放縱。 The other group of products that was surprisingly pricier in 1920? Household appliances. Things 1920年，另一組產品的價格出奇的高？家用電器。事物 like vacuum cleaners were just starting to be marketed to American consumers. 像真空吸塵器這樣的產品剛剛開始向美國消費者銷售。 Cleaning the house was a much more exhausting and time-consuming proposition for women back then. 對那時的婦女來說，打掃房子是一個更累人、更耗時的命題。 For example, the new Hoover Electric Cleaner, one of the countless things 例如，新的胡佛電動清潔器，是無數的東西之一 we're certain a radio announcer marketed to US housewives as necessary for keeping their man 我們確信，一個電臺播音員向美國家庭主婦推銷的是保持其男人的必要條件。 or being a proper lady or whatever insanity was happening in advertising those days, 或成為一個合適的女士，或在那些日子裡廣告界發生的任何瘋狂的事情。 sold for about 39 dollars, or 503 dollars today. 售價約為39美元，即今天的503美元。 The technology was new and mass production was still being figured out, 當時的技術很新，大規模生產仍在摸索之中。 so women either had to budget almost three weeks of paychecks on a vacuum cleaner, 是以，婦女要麼不得不將幾乎三週的工資預算在一個吸塵器上。 or, more likely, sit there scrubbing the whole floor by hand. 或者，更有可能的是，坐在那裡用手擦洗整個地板。 How about home entertainment? What could you get for a dollar there? 家庭娛樂怎麼樣？在那裡一美元能買到什麼？ We're still a long way off from television, but surely radios were around every corner back then. 我們離電視還有很長的路要走，但那時的收音機肯定在每個角落。 Well, not exactly. See, an average radio back in 1920 cost over $200! That's even 嗯，不完全是。你看，在1920年，一臺普通的收音機的價格超過了200美元！這甚至是在1920年。這甚至是 more than a radio would cost in 2021. But 200 dollars back then translates to around $2,577 比2021年一臺收音機的價格還要高。但那時的200美元轉化為約2577美元 today. This was completely unaffordable for the average American household. 今天。這對普通美國家庭來說是完全負擔不起的。 However, the price of radios would drop to around $35 by the end of the decade, 然而，到了十年末，收音機的價格將下降到35美元左右。 as the technology became easier and cheaper to produce. 隨著技術的發展，生產變得更容易和更便宜。 That's why when it came to listening to music, most people opted for vinyl records. 這就是為什麼在聽音樂的時候，大多數人選擇了黑膠唱片。 Not because the sound quality is (a little sarcastically) just like, not the same now, 不是因為聲音品質（有點諷刺），只是喜歡，現在不一樣了。 man, or whatever Williamsburg hipsters tell you, but because it was the only 人，或者不管威廉斯堡的時髦人士告訴你什麼，但因為它是唯一的 other option for listening to music besides hiring a live band to perform in your house. 除了聘請現場樂隊在你的房子裡表演之外，還有其他聽音樂的選擇。 An average vinyl record cost between 85 cents and $1.25, 一張平均黑膠唱片的價格在85美分至1.25美元之間。 so a dollar could probably get you a pretty great album back then. 所以當時一美元可能就能買到一張相當不錯的專輯。 So this hypothetical 1920s family has already bought their steaks for 是以，這個假設的20世紀20年代的家庭已經為他們的牛排買好了 a special Sunday dinner and some other groceries, 一個特別的週日晚餐和一些其他雜貨。 and the father has been listening to his hip new album while his wife scrubs the floors. Now the 父親一直在聽他的新專輯，而他的妻子在擦洗地板。現在 couple realizes, it's the roaring 20s, they're still young, and they need to go out on the town. 一對夫婦意識到，現在是咆哮的20年代，他們還很年輕，他們需要到城裡去。 It's time to leave the kids at home - the walls should be a good enough babysitter 是時候把孩子留在家裡了--牆壁應該是一個足夠好的保姆了 in the non-helicopter parenting year of 1920 - and get ready! How are they getting everywhere? 在1920年的非直升機育兒年--準備好了!他們是如何走遍天下的？ Well, a family car, let's say a Chevrolet, is still incredibly expensive to own at around $525, 好吧，一輛家庭用車，比方說雪佛蘭，擁有的費用仍然高得驚人，約為525美元。 even though it sounds quite affordable compared to our cars, at just around $6,790 in 2021 prices. 儘管與我們的汽車相比，它聽起來相當實惠，按2021年的價格計算，只有6,790美元左右。 And gas costs an average of 30 cents a gallon nationwide, or around $3.87 in today's prices. We 而全國範圍內的汽油價格平均為每加侖30美分，以今天的價格計算，約為3.87美元。我們 generally only pay that now in the US if we live in a very expensive city or when one of our wars 在美國，一般來說，只有當我們住在一個非常昂貴的城市，或者當我們的一場戰爭發生時，才會支付這個費用。 has gone terribly, horribly wrong and we've ruined relations with several oil-producing countries. 已經出現了可怕的，可怕的錯誤，我們已經破壞了與幾個石油生產國的關係。 The better option, if our hypothetical 1920s family is living in a big city, 更好的選擇，如果我們假設的1920年代的家庭生活在一個大城市。 is to take the bus or the subway for just 5 cents. That's equivalent to around 68 cents today, 是乘坐公共汽車或地鐵，只需5美分。這相當於今天的68美分左右。 or in other words, much less than the $2.75 the MTA in New York currently charges you 或者換句話說，比紐約的MTA目前向你收取的2.75美元少得多。 for your most likely delayed subway. In general, public transportation was much cheaper back then. 為你最有可能延誤的地鐵。一般來說，那時的公共交通要便宜得多。 Our 1920s woman goes out first and stops by the hairdresser to fix her split ends, 我們這位20世紀20年代的女士先出門，順便去理髮店修理她的分叉頭髮。 which really got out of control while she was in lockdown. The 在她被關起來的時候，這真的失去了控制。監獄 stylist charges her 65 cents for a haircut - $10.53 in today's money. 髮型師向她收取65美分的理髮費--按今天的貨幣計算為10.53美元。 The hairdresser then asks her if she wants the latest trendy cut and style - the bob! How much, 然後，理髮師問她是否想要最新的時尚剪裁和風格--波波頭！她說："我不知道。多少錢。 you ask? Five whole dollars! Or $64.25 today. And an extra $2 a week to keep up the hairstyle. 你問？整整五美元!或今天的64.25美元。 每週還要多花2美元來保持髮型。 That's way out of our young lady's budget, 這超出了我們年輕女士的預算。 so she'll have to settle for keeping her longer hair for now. 所以她只能暫時保留她的長髮。 However, with the cash she has left over, she buys a nice face lotion for 25 cents 然而，她用剩下的現金，以25美分的價格買了一個漂亮的洗面乳。 to make sure she looks extra fresh that night. She now has ten cents left. And she's also realized 以確保她那天晚上看起來特別新鮮。她現在還剩下10美分。而且她還意識到 there's a popular new trend coming up, started by movie stars of the silver screen - makeup! 有一個流行的新趨勢，由銀幕上的電影明星開始--化妝! Makeup existed before 1920 of course, but up until then it wasn't something polite women in 當然，化妝在1920年之前就已經存在了，但在那之前，它並不是禮貌的女性的東西。 society wore. Besides a little face powder to even out the skin tone and give a fresh, 社會穿的。除了用一點麵粉來均勻膚色，給人一種新鮮感。 youthful appearance, women were not supposed to wear lipstick and 在年輕的外表下，女性不應該塗抹口紅和 eyeliner unless they were prostitutes or entertainers. We're not sure why those two 眼線，除非他們是妓女或藝人。我們不知道為什麼這兩個 groups frequently get lumped together in styles and trends, but there it is. 群體經常被歸結為風格和趨勢，但它就在那裡。 The social perception of make-up started to change in the 1920s. The rise of the film industry meant 社會對化妝的看法在20世紀20年代開始發生變化。電影業的興起意味著 the made up look of entertainers on the movie screen became extremely popular. So with the 電影螢幕上藝人的化妝造型變得非常流行。是以，隨著 last dime she has on her, our 1920s woman buys a tube of lipstick to try out this new look. 我們的20世紀20年代的女人買了一管脣膏，以嘗試這種新的外觀，這是她身上最後的一毛錢。 Since literally no one in her life has taught her to apply it, it will probably look shockingly bad, 由於她的生活中根本沒有人教過她如何應用，所以看起來可能會令人震驚地糟糕。 but A for effort. That's how most make-up applications in the 20s went. 但A代表努力。20年代的大多數化妝申請就是這樣進行的。 What does our 1920s man do to get ready with his dollar? Well, 我們20世紀20年代的男人是如何準備好他的美元的呢？好吧。 he stops by to pick up some aftershave for 21 cents - $3.40 in today's dollars. And he figures 他順便買了一些鬚後水，價格為21美分--以今天的美元計算為3.4美元。而他認為 since it's a special occasion out on the town tonight, why not make it the day he bathes? 既然今晚是在城裡的一個特殊場合，為什麼不把它作為他洗澡的日子？ Oh that's right, we forgot to mention that. People bathed around once a week 哦，對了，我們忘了提到這一點。人們大約每週洗一次澡 back in 1920. Before you scrunch up your face in disgust, know that most dermatologists say 早在1920年。在你厭惡地皺起你的臉之前，要知道大多數皮膚科醫生說 we shower way too often nowadays and it's damaging our skin, so the ideal bathing 我們現在洗澡太頻繁了，這損害了我們的皮膚，所以理想的洗澡方式是 frequency seems to be somewhere between 1920 and now, or around 2-3 times per week. 頻率似乎介於1920年和現在之間，或每週2-3次左右。 So our dapper 1920s man, on a mission to achieve cleanliness, 是以，我們這位20世紀20年代的瀟灑男子，肩負著實現清潔的使命。 picks up some shampoo for 39 cents - $6.32 in today's dollars. This 以39美分的價格買了一些洗髮水--以今天的美元計算為6.32美元。這 still leaves him with 40 cents in his pocket. But much like the genders now, 仍然讓他的口袋裡有40美分。但很像現在的性別。 getting ready to go out is usually a cheaper and less time-consuming proposition for men. 對男人來說，準備出門通常是一個更便宜、更省時的主張。 This dolled up couple decides to take another dollar with them for a night out on the town. 這對打扮得花枝招展的夫婦決定再帶一美元去城裡過夜。 What can they do for each dollar they have on them? 他們身上的每一塊錢能做什麼？ Well, a movie ticket cost 15 cents back then, unlike the car down payment a trip to the movie 好吧，那時一張電影票要15美分，不像汽車首付那樣，去看電影要花很多錢。 theater costs nowadays. So the couple buys two tickets for 30 cents, and feeling hungry after 現在的劇院費用。是以，這對夫婦以30美分的價格買了兩張票，之後感到餓了。 the theater, they stop by a diner. A meal for two runs approximately 70 cents, or $19 劇院，他們在一家餐館停下來。兩人的餐費約為70美分，即19美元。 in today's money, so about the same or slightly cheaper than today's prices. 以今天的貨幣計算，所以與今天的價格差不多或略微便宜。 We've now followed these hypothetical people out on the town and realized, 我們現在跟著這些假想的人出城，發現。 with the exception of some things like movie theater tickets, clothing, 除了一些東西，如電影院門票、衣服。 and haircuts, the costs of things out and about aren't that much different than today 和理髮，外出活動的費用與今天沒有多大區別 when accounting for inflation. In fact, some food products are pricier. So how did 當考慮到通貨膨脹時。事實上，一些食品的價格更貴。那麼，如何 people have so much more spending power back then than they do now? 那時人們的消費能力比現在強得多？ Well, we haven't touched upon one huge cost that most people in the US today, 好吧，我們還沒有觸及今天美國大多數人的一個巨大成本。 especially in urban areas, struggle to pay: housing. 特別是在城市地區，要努力支付：住房。 In 1920, the average monthly rent for an apartment in New York City, still one of 1920年，紐約市的公寓平均月租金，仍然是世界上最昂貴的城市之一。 the most expensive places to live in even back then, was $60; equivalent to around $773 in 2021. 即使在那個時候，最昂貴的居住地也是60美元；相當於2021年的773美元左右。 Currently in New York, it's hard to even find a single room/closet/trash can to crawl into a la 目前在紐約，甚至很難找到一個單獨的房間/壁櫥/垃圾桶來爬進一個La Oscar the Grouch for that amount, nevermind a whole apartment a family can live in together. 奧斯卡-格羅奇的金額，更不用說一個家庭可以共同居住的整個公寓了。 The other big area where prices have soared? Healthcare, at least in the US. 價格飆升的另一大領域是什麼？醫療保健，至少在美國是這樣。 In 1920, a couple of dollars - specifically, 在1920年，幾塊錢--具體而言。 $2 to $3 - would pay for a home visit from a doctor. Hospitals were generally avoided 2至3美元--可以支付醫生的家訪費用。人們通常避免去醫院 by those who could afford it because they were associated with poverty. 由那些能夠負擔得起的人，因為他們與貧窮有關。 Also, to be fair, healthcare back then wasn't really the healthcare we know today, 另外，公平地說，當時的醫療保健並不是我們今天所知的醫療保健。 resembling something closer to Gwyneth Paltrow's GOOP than actual medical prescriptions. Penicillin 類似於格溫妮絲-帕特洛的GOOP的東西，而不是實際的醫療處方。青黴素 still wasn't available, and most cures consisted of placebos, snake oil, or the 大多數治療方法包括安慰劑、蛇油，或者是 "不死鳥"。 doctor telling you about the imbalance of your humors while you impatiently waited for death. 當你不耐煩地等待死亡時，醫生會告訴你你的體液不平衡的情況。 In fact, the 1920s was the first decade in which major medical advances started being made. 事實上，20世紀20年代是開始取得重大醫學進步的第一個十年。 A few decades later in the 60s, the boom in health insurance companies followed along 幾十年後的60年代，健康保險公司的蓬勃發展也隨之而來。 to make sure these advances were needlessly expensive and semi-unaffordable. 以確保這些預付款是不必要的昂貴和半負擔得起的。 And today of course, we find ourselves in the beautiful position of having incredible 當然，今天我們發現自己處於一個美麗的位置，即擁有難以置信的 medical advances we are overcharged for and then refuse to take because we know better. 我們被過度收費的醫療進步，然後拒絕接受，因為我們知道更多。 So now that we've time traveled back to the present and you know what a dollar could and 所以，現在我們已經穿越時空回到了現在，你知道一美元可以和 couldn't get you back in 1920 - and how much some costs surprisingly differed from today - what do 在1920年的時候，你無法得到的東西--以及一些費用竟然與今天有多大的差別--什麼是 you think you could get for the price of an avocado toast back then? Let us know in the 你認為你可以用當時的牛油果吐司的價格得到什麼？讓我們知道在 comments! In the meantime, make sure to check out one of our other videos here, or there! 評論!同時，請確保在這裡或那裡查看我們的其他視頻!