Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Pleading insane during a trial can be highly  controversial. But what does it mean to be  

    在審判過程中聲稱自己精神錯亂可能會引起很大的爭議。但是,什麼叫做

  • criminally insane? Could someone who is criminally  insane get away with anything they want?

    犯罪性精神病?患有犯罪性精神病的人可以隨心所欲地逃脫嗎?

  • At the most basic level someone is considered  criminally insane if they have a mental illness  

    在最基本的層面上,如果一個人有精神疾病,就會被認為是犯罪的瘋子

  • that makes it impossible for them to understand  their actions when committing a crime. Another  

    這使得他們在犯罪時無法理解自己的行為。另一個

  • component of this is if the person's illness  prevents them from knowing that their actions  

    這方面的內容是,如果這個人的疾病使他們無法知道他們的行為

  • are wrong. This breaks the criminally  insane plea down into two categories.  

    是錯誤的。這就把犯罪性瘋癲的辯解抽成了兩類。

  • The first is that the person's mental illness  literally causes them to not know what they're  

    首先是這個人的精神疾病實際上導致他們不知道自己在做什麼。

  • doing. This could be due todisease such as schizophrenia.

    做。這可能是由於精神分裂症等疾病引起的。

  • The other category is people who knew what  they were doing when they committed the crime,  

    另一類是在實施犯罪時知道自己在做什麼的人。

  • but did not see it as morally  wrong. This could happen with  

    但不認為這在道德上是錯誤的。這種情況可能發生在

  • mental diseases that cause someone to have  a complete lack of empathy for others.

    導致某人對他人完全缺乏同情心的精神疾病。

  • Either way, to be considered criminally  insane, the defendant must plea guilty  

    無論哪種方式,要想被認為是刑事犯罪,被告人必須認罪。

  • to committing the crime, but prove they were  not culpable because of their mental illness.  

    他們可以證明自己犯了罪,但要證明他們因為有精神疾病而無罪。

  • The evidence needed to prove someone is criminally  insane varies by state. But in all cases,  

    證明某人是犯罪性精神病所需的證據因州而異。但在所有情況下。

  • the defense must prove that they were  either unaware of what they were doing,  

    辯方必須證明,他們要麼不知道自己在做什麼。

  • or that they could not see it as morally  wrong because of their mental state.

    或者說,由於他們的精神狀態,他們無法將其視為道德上的錯誤。

  • It is also interesting to note that the  definition of being legally insane is not  

    還值得注意的是,法律上的精神錯亂的定義並不是

  • determined by a psychologist, but by the courtPsychologists and medical professions do play a  

    由心理學家決定,但由法院決定。 心理學家和醫學界確實起到了一個

  • role in the analysis, but the designation of being  criminally insane is given by the court itself.  

    在分析中的作用,但刑事上的瘋狂的指定是由法院本身給出的。

  • Someone can even be considered  psychotic, yet not meet the legal  

    有人甚至可以被認為是精神病患者,但不符合法律規定。

  • criteria for being criminally insane. We  will definitely see a case of this later.

    屬於犯罪性精神病的標準。我們以後肯定會看到這樣的一個案例。

  • So when is someone considered criminally insane?  

    那麼,一個人什麼時候會被認為是犯罪性精神錯亂?

  • It all depends on the state they are being  tried in. Some of the criteria may shock you.

    這完全取決於他們被審判的狀態。有些標準可能會讓你震驚。

  • In most states the courts adhere to what is  called the M'Naghten Test. This test is used to  

    在大多數州,法院堅持所謂的M'Naghten測試。這個測試被用來

  • assess the thought process and perceptions of the  person at the time they committed the murder. So,  

    評估該人在實施謀殺時的思想過程和看法。所以。

  • when using the M'Naghten Test the defendant  does not need to be currently insane,  

    當使用M'Naghten測試時,被告不需要目前是精神錯亂。

  • they only needed to be cognitively  impaired during the time of the crime.

    他們只需要在犯罪期間有認知障礙就可以了。

  • This means that someone could seem  completely normal in the courtroom,  

    這意味著某人在法庭上可能看起來完全正常。

  • but still be declared criminally insane if  their mental illness impaired their reasoning,  

    但如果他們的精神疾病損害了他們的推理能力,仍然會被宣佈為犯罪性精神病。

  • or drove their actions, while committing  the crime. In some states such as Arizona  

    或驅使他們的行動,而實施犯罪。在一些州,如亞利桑那州

  • the courts revised the test to remove  certain phrases. This was done to ensure  

    法院修訂了該測試,刪除了某些短語。這樣做是為了確保

  • that someone who knew what they were doingbut did not believe it to be morally wrong  

    有人知道自己在做什麼,但不認為這是道德上的錯誤。

  • because of their mental illness, could  also be considered criminally insane.

    因為他們的精神疾病,也可以被認為是刑事上的瘋子。

  • Therefore, someone could be in complete  control of their actions and know exactly  

    是以,有人可以完全控制自己的行為,並清楚地知道

  • what they were doing when they committed  the crime, but if their morality was  

    他們在犯罪時在做什麼,但如果他們的道德觀是

  • impaired by their mental illness, they  could be considered criminally insane.  

    由於他們的精神疾病受損,他們可以被認為是刑事上的瘋子。

  • This would lead to an acquittal of the charges  if the M'Naghten Test was being employed.

    如果採用M'Naghten測試,這將導致指控的無罪釋放。

  • Another test used by about 20 states in the  U.S. is the The American Law Institute Model,  

    美國大約20個州使用的另一個測試是美國法律協會模式。

  • or Brawner Rule. This test determines whether  when the person committed the crime they lacked  

    或Brawner規則。這個測試決定了當該人實施犯罪時,他們是否缺乏

  • the capacity to appreciate the criminality  of their actions. Of course this also must  

    有能力理解其行為的犯罪性。當然,這也必須

  • be connected to some sort of mental disease or  illness. The caveat is that this rule excludes  

    與某種精神疾病有關。需要注意的是,這一規則不包括

  • mental illnesses that cause the defendant to  commit the same crime over and over during the  

    患有精神疾病,導致被告人在服刑期間不斷地犯下同樣的罪行。

  • course of their life. Therefore, if someone  is tried in a state using the Brawner Rule,  

    他們的生活過程。是以,如果某人在一個使用布勞恩規則的州受審。

  • and their mental illness causes them to repeatedly  commit the same crime, they cannot plead insanity.

    而他們的精神疾病導致他們重複犯下同樣的罪行,他們不能以精神錯亂為藉口。

  • The final test is only used by one state  and that's the Live Free or Die state  

    最後的測試只有一個州使用,那就是自由生存或死亡州

  • of New Hampshire. The test they use is called  the Durham Test. This test only requires the  

    的新罕布什爾州。他們使用的測試被稱為達勒姆測試。這個測試只要求

  • defense to prove that the criminal act was  a product of a mental disease or illness,  

    為證明犯罪行為是精神疾病的產物而進行辯護。

  • which allows the definition of  criminal insanity to be much  

    這使得犯罪性精神錯亂的定義可以在更大程度上體現出來。

  • broader. The Durham Test requires the defense  to prove a lot less than in other states.

    更廣泛。達勒姆測試要求辯方證明的內容比其他州少很多。

  • You may not be surprised that this makes  pleading criminal insanity slightly  

    你可能不會感到驚訝,這使得為刑事犯罪的精神錯亂辯護略顯不足

  • easier in New Hampshire. Also, some defense  attorneys in the state interpret the Durham Test  

    在新罕布什爾州更容易。另外,該州的一些辯護律師對達勒姆測試的解釋是

  • to include any mental illness, which makes what  is considered criminally insane much more vague.

    以包括任何精神疾病,這使得被認為是犯罪性精神病的內容更加模糊。

  • Regardless of which state the defendant is  in, the burden of proof is on the defendant,  

    無論被告在哪個州,舉證責任都在被告身上。

  • not the prosecution when seeking a plea  of criminal insanity. The defendant must  

    而不是控方在尋求刑事精神錯亂的抗辯時。被告必須

  • prove that they had a mental illnesswhich caused them to be unaware they  

    證明他們有精神疾病,導致他們沒有意識到自己

  • were committing a crime at the time. This  is the exact opposite of a normal court  

    當時正在實施犯罪。這與正常的法院完全相反

  • case where the prosecution must prove beyondreasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty.

    在這種情況下,公訴人必須排除合理的懷疑,證明被告是有罪的。

  • At this point you may be wondering who has  succeeded in pleading criminal insanity,  

    在這一點上,你可能想知道誰成功地進行了刑事精神錯亂辯護。

  • and what their crimes were. In today's  court system it is incredibly hard to  

    以及他們的罪行是什麼。在今天的法院系統中,要做到這一點是非常困難的。

  • win an insanity plea. In fact, it has  one of the lowest success rates out  

    贏得精神錯亂的抗辯。事實上,它的成功率是最低的之一。

  • of all criminal defenses. But  that wasn't always the case.

    在所有刑事辯護中。但情況並不總是如此。

  • The first known assassination attempt onUnited States president was by Richard Lawrence  

    第一個已知的對美國總統的暗殺企圖是由理查德-勞倫斯

  • who tried to kill Andrew Jackson in 1835. He  fired two pistols at the back of the president,  

    他在1835年試圖殺死安德魯-傑克遜。他向總統的背部發射了兩支手槍。

  • but they both misfired. Lawrence was  tackled to the ground and arrested.  

    但他們都失誤了。勞倫斯被撲倒在地並被捕。

  • In his trial the jury learned that Lawrence was  a house painter, and may have been subjected to  

    在對他的審判中,陪審團瞭解到,勞倫斯是一名房屋油漆工,可能已經受到了

  • harmful chemicals during his work that made him  mentally unstable. They found him criminally  

    他在工作中使用了有害的化學品,使他的精神狀態不穩定。他們發現他有犯罪行為

  • insane and he was sent to several different  mental institutions before he passed away 1861.

    在他去世前的1861年,他被送到幾個不同的精神病院。

  • On October 14, 1912 John Schrank shot  President Theodore Roosevelt while he  

    1912年10月14日,約翰-施蘭克向西奧多-羅斯福總統開槍,當時他正在

  • was campaigning in Milwaukee, WisconsinThe bullet struck Roosevelt in the chest,  

    當時正在威斯康星州的密爾沃基進行競選。 子彈擊中了羅斯福的胸部。

  • but he miraculously survivedWhen he was questioned by police,  

    但他奇蹟般地活了下來。 當他被警察審問時。

  • Schrank declared that President William McKinley  had come to him in a dream and told him that  

    施蘭克宣稱,威廉-麥金利總統在夢中來到他身邊,告訴他

  • he had been assassinated by RooseveltSo, Schrank was on a mission of revenge.

    他被羅斯福暗殺了。 是以,施格蘭克肩負著復仇的使命。

  • Schrank also said: "I looked upon his plan to  start a third party as a danger to the country; my  

    施蘭克還說。"我認為他建立第三黨的計劃是對國家的一種危險;我的

  • knowledge of history, gained through much readingconvinced me that Colonel Roosevelt was engaged  

    通過大量閱讀獲得的歷史知識使我相信,羅斯福上校從事的是

  • in a dangerous undertaking. I was convinced that  if he was defeated at the Fall election he would  

    在一項危險的事業中。我相信,如果他在秋季選舉中被擊敗,他將會

  • again cry 'Thief' and that his action would  plunge the country into a bloody civil war.”

    再次喊出'小偷',他的行動將使國家陷入一場血腥的內戰。"

  • Schrank truly believed that the only  thing he could do to save the country  

    施格蘭克真正相信,他能做的唯一一件事就是拯救國家

  • was to assassinate Roosevelt. The judge  determined he was criminally insane,  

    是為了刺殺羅斯福。法官認定他患有刑事上的精神病。

  • and Schrank spent the rest  of his life in an asylum.

    而施蘭克在精神病院度過了他的餘生。

  • You may be thinking that there is no way a third  person attempting to assassinate a president would  

    你可能會想,企圖刺殺總統的第三個人不可能是

  • be declared criminally insanebut you'd  be wrong. It seems like if you attempt to  

    被宣佈為犯罪性精神病......但你會錯的。似乎如果你試圖

  • assassinate a president and fail, the way  to go is pleading insanity as a defense.

    如果刺殺總統而失敗,就應該以精神錯亂為由進行辯護。

  • In 1981 John Hinckley Jr. tried to  kill President Ronald Reagan. His  

    1981年,小約翰-欣克利試圖殺死羅納德-里根總統。他的

  • insanity plea was bolstered by the fact that  shortly before his assassination attempt,  

    在刺殺未遂前不久,他的精神錯亂辯護得到了支持。

  • Hinckley wrote a letter that explained  he was going to shoot the president to  

    欣克利寫了一封信,說明他要向總統開槍,以

  • impress actress Jodie Foster. He clearly had  a deeply unhealthy obsession with the actress.

    對女演員朱迪-福斯特印象深刻。他顯然對這位女演員有一種極不健康的迷戀。

  • He was found criminally insane during his  trial. However, this led to public outrage  

    他在審判中被認定為犯罪性精神病。然而,這導致了公眾的憤怒

  • over the verdict and led to the Insanity  Defense Reform Law of 1984. This law greatly  

    對該判決的質疑導致了1984年的《精神錯亂辯護改革法》。這項法律大大

  • modified the process for pleading insane  and made it much more rigorous. Hinckley  

    修改了申辯精神錯亂的程序,使之更加嚴格。辛克雷

  • was sent to an asylum, but was allowed  to make periodic visits to his mother.

    他被送入精神病院,但被允許定期探望他的母親。

  • With the reforms put in place after Hinckley's  case it became much more difficult for someone  

    隨著欣克利案件後的改革到位,對某人來說,變得更加困難了。

  • to win an insanity plea. For example, in 1991  Jeffrey Dahmer was convicted of murdering,  

    以贏得精神錯亂的辯護。例如,1991年,傑弗裡-達默被判定犯有謀殺罪。

  • mutilating, and cannibalizing 15 young  men. At his trial he admitted to the  

    肢解並吃掉了15名年輕人。在審判中,他承認了

  • killings and put in for an insanity  plea. The court rejected his plea,  

    殺人並提出精神錯亂的辯護。法院駁回了他的抗辯。

  • and his case was sent to trial where he  was convicted as a legally sane individual.  

    而他的案件被送去審判,在那裡他被判定為合法的精神正常者。

  • He was sentenced to 15 consecutive life  sentences in prison with no chance of parole.

    他被判處連續15年的無期徒刑,沒有假釋的機會。

  • The treatment of Dahmer's case prompted many  to believe the end of the insanity defense had  

    對達默爾案件的處理促使許多人相信,精神錯亂辯護的終結已經到來。

  • finally come. The result of the case may have  been in direct response to the acquittal of  

    終於來了。該案的結果可能是直接回應了無罪釋放的

  • Hinckley during his trial. If the defense could  not prove that Jeffrey Dahmer was legally insane,  

    欣克利的審判中。如果辯方不能證明傑弗裡-達默在法律上是瘋了。

  • it seemed that no one would ever be able  to plea insanity and win ever again.

    似乎再也沒有人能夠為精神錯亂辯護並獲勝。

  • However, this was not the case. In 1994 Lorena  Bobbitt was declared criminally insane during  

    然而,事實並非如此。1994年,羅蕾娜-博比特被宣佈為犯罪性精神病患者。

  • her trial for cutting off her husband's penis  and throwing it out the car window while driving  

    她因在駕車時割下丈夫的陰莖並將其扔出車窗而受到審判

  • down a Virginia highway. Bobbitt said the reason  she did this was because of years of emotional,  

    在弗吉尼亞州的一條高速公路上。波比特說,她之所以這樣做,是因為多年來的情感。

  • physical, and sexual abuse by her husbandAfter being found criminally insane she was  

    她的丈夫對她進行身體和性虐待。 在被認定為犯罪性精神病後,她被

  • sent to a mental hospital for five months  before the judge ordered her released.

    在法官下令釋放她之前,她被送進精神病院五個月。

  • We know that in order to be considered  criminally insane the defense must prove  

    我們知道,要想被認為是刑事上的精神錯亂,辯方必須證明

  • that their mental illness made them unable  to comprehend what they were doing during  

    他們的精神疾病使他們無法理解他們在做什麼。

  • the time of the crime. From the stories of  people who were found criminally insane,  

    犯罪的時候。從那些被發現有犯罪傾向的人的故事來看。

  • most were sent to mental hospitalsBut is this always the case?

    大多數人被送入精神病院。 但情況總是這樣嗎?

  • The law says that if someone is found criminally  insane they should immediately be committed to a  

    法律規定,如果某人被發現患有刑事上的精神病,他們應立即被送入醫院。

  • suitable facility. That is unless the court  finds that releasing the person back into  

    適當的設施。除非法院認為將該人釋放回監獄的做法是不可取的。

  • society would pose no substantial risk of  bodily harm to themselves or others. They  

    社會不會對他們自己或其他人構成實質性的身體傷害風險。他們

  • must also pose no risk of damaging another's  property as a result of their mental illness.  

    還必須不因其精神疾病而構成破壞他人財產的風險。

  • If this is the case, the person will be set free.

    如果是這種情況,這個人將被釋放。

  • If someone is found criminally insane  and they do pose a risk to others,  

    如果有人被發現患有刑事精神病,而且他們確實對他人構成危險。

  • they are handed over to the Attorney General  who must find them a suitable institution to  

    他們被移交給總檢察長,總檢察長必須為他們找到一個合適的機構。

  • reside in. After the Attorney General does  their job, the person is surrendered to the  

    居住在這裡。在總檢察長完成他們的工作後,該人將被移交給政府。

  • State who is in charge of custody, careand treatment of the individual. Once the  

    說明誰負責監護、照顧和治療該人。一旦

  • State deems that the person can safely be  released back into society they will be.

    國家認為該人可以安全地被釋放回社會,他們將被釋放。

  • This does not always happen, and some people who  are found criminally insane will spend the rest  

    這種情況並不總是發生,一些被認定為犯罪性精神病的人將在剩下的時間裡

  • of their lives in a mental health institutionWinning a plea of insanity is incredibly difficult  

    他們在精神健康機構中的生活。 贏得精神錯亂的抗辯是非常困難的

  • because of the strict rules and laws around what  constitutes being legally insane. The defendant  

    因為圍繞什麼是法律上的精神錯亂有嚴格的規則和法律。被告人

  • must prove without a doubt that during the time  they committed their crime they had a mental  

    必須毫無疑問地證明,在他們犯罪期間,他們有精神上的問題。

  • illness that impaired their judgment, or made  them unaware that they were doing anything wrong.

    疾病影響了他們的判斷力,或使他們不知道自己做錯了什麼。

  • Now watchJournalist Goes  Undercover At Insane Asylum  

    現在觀看《記者在精神病院臥底》。

  • Becomes Prisoner.” Or check out  “Average Day in an Insane Asylum.”

    成為囚犯。"或者看看 "瘋人院的普通一天"。

Pleading insane during a trial can be highly  controversial. But what does it mean to be  

在審判過程中聲稱自己精神錯亂可能會引起很大的爭議。但是,什麼叫做

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 精神 精神病 刑事 測試 法院 審判

犯罪性精神病意味著什麼? (What Does it Mean to be Criminally Insane)

  • 10 0
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 06 日
影片單字