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  • As World War I raged on in Europe, Allied forces were facing some of the most destructive

    當第一次世界大戰在歐洲肆虐時,盟軍正面臨著一些最具破壞性的

  • and brutal fighting the world had ever seen.

    這是世界上有史以來最慘烈的戰鬥。

  • Trench warfare had caused stalemates across battlefields, and the British were desperate

    壕溝戰造成了整個戰場的僵局,而英國人則絕望了

  • to find a way to turn the tide of the war.

    以找到扭轉戰爭局勢的方法。

  • The solution: tanks.

    解決辦法:坦克。

  • And it all started with a tank nicknamed Little Willie.

    而這一切都始於一輛綽號為小威利的坦克。

  • This was the first tank ever developed.

    這是有史以來開發的第一輛坦克。

  • Little Willie never saw the field of battle, but the development and lessons learned from

    小威利從來沒有見過戰場,但他的發展和所學到的教訓是

  • its construction allowed British forces to create tanks that would aid in the war effort

    它的建造使英國軍隊能夠製造出有助於戰爭的坦克。

  • and allow the Allied Powers to be victorious.

    並允許盟國取得勝利。

  • Little Willie was the first tank as we think of them today.

    小威利是我們今天認為的第一輛坦克。

  • However, there were vehicles that came before it, which were designed to aid infantry in

    然而,在它之前也有一些車輛,它們被設計用來幫助步兵在

  • battle.

    戰鬥。

  • For example, in 1899 Frederick Simms designed thewar-car,” which had a bullet-proof

    例如,在1899年,弗雷德裡克-西姆斯設計了 "戰車",它有一個防彈衣。

  • casing and Maxim guns.

    套管和馬克西姆槍。

  • It was basically a heavily armed truck and was the precursor to the armored cars used

    它基本上是一輛全副武裝的卡車,是所用裝甲車的前身。

  • by the military today.

    今天的軍隊。

  • It was in 1914 that Ernest Swinton, a British army colonel and William Hankey, secretary

    就在1914年,英國陸軍上校歐內斯特-斯溫頓和祕書威廉-漢基

  • of the Committee for Imperial Defence came up with the idea of a heavily armored vehicle

    帝國防務委員會的成員們提出了製造重型裝甲車的想法。

  • that would be able to aid infantry troops in moving across the battlefield.

    這將能夠幫助步兵部隊在戰場上移動。

  • Their thought process was that the vehicle would be useful for driving over rough terrain

    他們的思考過程是,該車將有助於在粗糙的地形上行駛

  • such as shell craters, deep mud and trenches.

    如炮彈坑、深泥和戰壕等。

  • But the most important obstacle the vehicle needed to overcome was barbed wire to break

    但該車需要克服的最重要的障礙是有刺鐵絲網,以打破

  • through enemy lines.

    穿過敵人的防線。

  • They presented their plans to Winston Churchill who quickly got on board with theland

    他們向溫斯頓-丘吉爾提出了他們的計劃,丘吉爾很快就同意了 "土地 "的概念。

  • shipidea.

    船 "的想法。

  • He then organized the Landships Committee to begin developing the prototype of what

    然後,他組織了Landships委員會,開始開發以下內容的原型

  • would become Little Willie.

    將成為小威利。

  • In order to keep this new project secret from British enemies, workers were told the vehicle

    為了對英國的敵人保守這個新項目的祕密,工人們被告知該車輛

  • they were building would carry water on the battlefield.

    他們正在建造的水車將在戰場上運水。

  • It was not too far fetched as the new prototype did resemble a water tank.

    這並不太牽強,因為新的原型確實很像一個水箱。

  • Though thetanksduring this war would be referred to as landships among military

    儘管這場戰爭中的 "坦克 "在軍隊中被稱為 "陸地艦"。

  • circles and once they were unveiled on the battlefield, the original secret term of tank

    圈子,一旦在戰場上亮相,原來的坦克祕密術語

  • was utilized after the war by historians and the name has stuck ever since.

    在戰後被歷史學家所利用,這個名字一直沿用至今。

  • The very first tank, later called Little Willie, was completed around September 8, 1915.

    最早的坦克,後來被稱為小威利,於1915年9月8日左右完成。

  • It was initially designed by R.E.B.

    它最初是由R.E.B.設計的。

  • Cromptonby as half of an agricultural vehicle called Juggernaut or Slug.

    克朗普頓比作為一種叫做Juggernaut或Slug的農業車輛的一半。

  • This design was then sent to August Tritton who modified it so it would work on its own.

    這個設計隨後被送到奧古斯特-特里頓那裡,他對其進行了修改,使其能夠獨立工作。

  • Finally, the design was sent to William Foster & Co. of Lincoln who built Little Willie.

    最後,設計圖被送到林肯的威廉-福斯特公司,他們建造了小威利。

  • The first name given to the tank was No. 1 Lincoln Machine.

    坦克的第一個名字是1號林肯機。

  • It weighed 16.5 tons and was designed to aid the allies in trench warfare.

    它重達16.5噸,被設計用來幫助盟國進行塹壕戰。

  • The name of the tank was changed to Little Willie based on an insult to German leadership.

    基於對德國領導人的侮辱,該坦克的名字被改為小威利。

  • Little Willie was alleged to be the nickname that the British gave to the German Crown

    據稱,小威利是英國人給德國王室起的綽號。

  • Prince Kaiser Wilhelm.

    德皇威廉親王。

  • Though historians debate when exactly and who started calling this machine Little Willie,

    儘管歷史學家們對究竟是什麼時候以及誰開始叫這臺機器為小威利進行了爭論。

  • the mocking of the crown prince has forever ended up as an affectionate name for the first

    對王儲的嘲諷永遠地結束了,成為了對第一任王儲的親切稱呼。

  • real tank ever produced.

    曾經生產的真正的坦克。

  • Putting together Little Willie was no easy feat since such an ambitious project had never

    將 "小威利 "放在一起並非易事,因為這樣一個雄心勃勃的項目從來沒有過。

  • been attempted before with this early design looking quite foreign to the tanks we see

    這款早期的設計與我們看到的坦克相當陌生,以前也曾嘗試過。

  • today especially with its tracks and running gears separate from the hull.

    今天,特別是它的軌道和運行齒輪與車體分離。

  • Assembling the tank was also a product of inter-country cooperation with the tracks

    坦克的組裝也是國家間合作的產物,它的軌道

  • themselves coming from the United States though it is doubtful any Americans knew the true

    他們來自美國,但很懷疑是否有美國人知道他們的真實情況。

  • purpose of these tracks due to the top secret nature of the program.

    由於該計劃的最高機密性,這些軌道的目的。

  • The body and turret were built separately and eventually welded together, adding the

    車身和炮塔是分開建造的,最終被焊接在一起,增加了

  • holes in the hull late in the design process.

    在設計過程的後期,在船體上開孔。

  • The uncut hull looked similar to a water carrier from Mesopotamia, hence giving the perfect

    未切割的船體看起來類似於美索不達米亞的運水船,是以給人以完美的印象。

  • top secret cover in case any word ever made it back to the Germans about their potentially

    以防有任何消息傳回給德國人,說他們有可能是 "最高機密"。

  • groundbreaking invention.

    突破性的發明。

  • The final model had 10 to 15 mm thick armor and could hold a crew of five soldiers.

    最終的模型有10到15毫米厚的裝甲,可以容納5名阿兵哥的船員。

  • Little Willie was powered by a Daimler inline six-cylinder engine that put out 105 horsepower.

    小威利由一臺戴姆勒直列六缸發動機提供動力,輸出功率為105馬力。

  • Considering the bulkiness and weight of Little Willie, the engine gave the tank a top speed

    考慮到小威利的體積和重量,該發動機使坦克的最高速度達到了

  • of about three miles per hour, which was a good pace during the time of the tank's

    罐體的速度約為每小時三英里,這在罐體運行期間是個不錯的速度。

  • inception.

    觀念上。

  • In order to help Little Willie steer, rear wheels were attached to the tail of the tank.

    為了幫助小威利轉向,後輪被安裝在坦克的尾部。

  • On rougher terrain the tank would slow down one of the tracks to turn.

    在比較粗糙的地形上,坦克會放慢其中一條履帶的速度來轉彎。

  • Due to transmission limitations of the time, the constant breaking of a single track would

    由於當時的傳輸限制,不斷打破單一的軌道將

  • cause the engine to lose half of its power, causing significant stress to the tracks,

    導致發動機失去一半的動力,對軌道造成巨大壓力。

  • brakes, transmission, and clutch.

    剎車、變速器和離合器。

  • On good terrain the rear wheels would allow Little Willie to turn slightly, thus alleviating

    在良好的地形上,後輪會讓小威利稍微轉彎,從而減輕了

  • some of the stress on other parts of the tank.

    坦克的其他部分的一些壓力。

  • These rear wheels also helped with trench crossings as they would allow the tank to

    這些後輪也有助於穿越壕溝,因為它們可以讓坦克在壕溝中行走。

  • go over longer stretches of trenches The ride inside of Little Willie was a little uncomfortable,

    走過更長的戰壕 小威利裡面的旅程有點不舒服。

  • because like almost all vehicles of the day, it had no suspension.

    因為像當時幾乎所有的車輛一樣,它沒有懸架。

  • This would make for a rough ride, but at 3 miles per hour it wasn't too bad.

    這將使騎行變得艱難,但以每小時3英里的速度,還不算太糟糕。

  • The weaponry on Little Willie would have worked well in combat.

    小威利身上的武器裝備在戰鬥中會有很好的效果。

  • The tank's main armament was a Vickers 2-pounder gun on a revolving turret on top of the tank.

    該坦克的主要武器是一門維克斯2磅炮,裝在坦克頂部的旋轉炮塔上。

  • If necessary the tank was also designed to replace the Vickers with other armaments such

    如有必要,該坦克還被設計成可以用其他武器取代維克斯坦克,如

  • as a Maxim, Hotchkiss, Lewis, or Madsen machine guns.

    如馬克沁、霍奇基斯、劉易斯或馬德森機槍。

  • These guns were never fitted onto Little Willie, as the tank would not see combat.

    這些火炮從未被安裝在小威利上,因為該坦克不會參加戰鬥。

  • However, its big brother, Big Willie, would make it into battle and help in the war effort

    然而,它的大哥,大威利,將進入戰場,幫助戰爭努力。

  • against the Central Powers.

    反對列強。

  • The British Army ordered 100 No. 1 Lincoln Machines to be used in the war.

    英國軍隊訂購了100臺1號林肯機,用於戰爭。

  • Unfortunately, during testing Little Willie was found to have significant transmission

    不幸的是,在測試過程中,小威利被發現有明顯的傳染病。

  • problems that resulted in getting stuck in trenches or rendering the tank immovable.

    導致卡在戰壕裡或使坦克無法移動的問題。

  • The initial tracks on Little Willie would not reconnect properly while going over rough

    小威利的初始軌道在經過崎嶇不平的路面時不能正常地重新連接。

  • terrain, and could cause the tank to sometimes throw a track.

    地形,並可能導致坦克有時拋出一個軌道。

  • This led to a redesign and inclusion of Tritton tracks, which fixed the problem, but at this

    這導致了重新設計並加入了Tritton軌道,從而解決了這個問題,但在此

  • point Little Willie had been relegated to testing only and would not be used in battle.

    點小威利已被降級為測試,不會在戰鬥中使用。

  • Little Willie and subsequent tanks during World War I were designed to be used exclusively

    小威利和第一次世界大戰期間的後續坦克被設計為專門用於

  • for long offensive operations.

    用於長期的進攻性行動。

  • These missions tended to be in a very specific area and the tanks would be used to slowly

    這些任務往往是在一個非常具體的區域,坦克會被用來慢慢地

  • move across no man's land and the trenches.

    在無人區和戰壕中移動。

  • The soldiers would follow the tank across the battlefield using it as mobile cover as

    阿兵哥們將跟隨坦克穿越戰場,利用它作為移動掩護。

  • they advanced.

    他們前進了。

  • They were also designed to be a mobile pillbox that could suppress enemy trenches so they

    它們還被設計成可以壓制敵方戰壕的移動藥箱,是以它們

  • soldiers could traverse no-mans-land safely.

    阿兵哥可以安全地穿越無人區。

  • It would not be until World War Two that the concept of tank on tank battles would be formulated

    直到第二次世界大戰,才形成了坦克對坦克作戰的概念。

  • though there would eventually be one such battle later in World War One.

    儘管後來在第一次世界大戰中最終會有這樣一場戰鬥。

  • Once they reached the enemy trench, the soldiers would enter and clear it of Central Power

    一旦他們到達敵人的戰壕,阿兵哥們就會進入戰壕並清除中央政權。

  • soldiers as the tank continued on.

    坦克繼續前進的時候,阿兵哥們也是如此。

  • One main problem that engineers ran into with tanks was that the massive weight would cause

    工程師在使用坦克時遇到的一個主要問題是,巨大的重量會導致

  • strain on the engine.

    對發動機造成的壓力。

  • This would lead to overheating.

    這將導致過熱。

  • Unfortunately, an overheating engine inside a large, enclosed, metal vehicle is like turning

    不幸的是,在一個大型、封閉的金屬車輛內,發動機過熱就像把

  • the burners of an oven on full blast while you're inside it.

    當你在爐子裡時,爐子的燃燒器全開。

  • This overheating problem was the same for Little Willie, and would not be solved for

    這個過熱的問題對小威利來說是一樣的,而且不會被解決。

  • many generations of tanks.

    許多世代的坦克。

  • Little Willie was very useful for engineers when identifying problems and coming up with

    小威利在發現問題和提出建議時對工程師非常有用。

  • solutions.

    解決辦法。

  • Using what they learned from Little Willie the Brits built a bigger, better, version

    英國人利用他們從小威利那裡學到的東西,建造了一個更大、更好的版本

  • of the tank called Big Willie.

    的坦克叫大威利。

  • This was done between Little Willie's first design and second design.

    這是在小威利的第一次設計和第二次設計之間進行的。

  • Big Willie ran into some similar problems as itslittle brother,” such as the tracks

    大威利遇到了一些與它的 "小兄弟 "類似的問題,如軌道

  • falling off.

    掉了。

  • This meant that the difficulties engineers ran into with Little Willie were vital problems

    這意味著,工程師們在小威利身上遇到的困難是至關重要的問題

  • to solve as other tanks designs would have run into them as well.

    要解決這個問題,因為其他坦克設計也會遇到這些問題。

  • On the first version of Little Willie the tracks only went part of the way up the body

    在 "小威利 "的第一個版本中,音軌只走了車身的一部分。

  • of the tank.

    坦克的。

  • This seemed like a good idea at the time because it saved on material, and made the tank a

    這在當時似乎是一個好主意,因為它節省了材料,並使坦克成為一個

  • little lighter.

    稍微輕一些。

  • But the tracks would damage easily or come off when driving over rough terrain.

    但在崎嶇的地形上行駛時,軌道很容易損壞或脫落。

  • So, the engineers went back to the drawing board and came up with a new idea.

    是以,工程師們回到繪圖板,想出了一個新的想法。

  • They re-designed the tracks to encircle the entire body of the tank from top to bottom.

    他們重新設計了履帶,使其從上到下環繞整個坦克的車身。

  • This was done to allow Little Willie and future tanks to traverse wider trenches and allowed

    這樣做是為了讓小威利和未來的坦克能夠穿越更寬的戰壕,並允許

  • the use of an unditching beam.

    使用脫溝梁。

  • It was due to the trial and error of Little Willie that better track systems were made

    正是由於小威利的試驗和錯誤,才有了更好的軌道系統。

  • and flaws that may have been fatal in battle were identified and fixed.

    而那些在戰鬥中可能是致命的缺陷也被發現並修復。

  • Without Little Willie the British may never have designed their new rhomboid shape tracks

    如果沒有小威利,英國人可能永遠不會設計出他們的新菱形軌道

  • and the evolution of the tank could have taken many, many, more years.

    而坦克的演變可能需要很多、很多、更多的時間。

  • Little Willie also validated that the engine, transmission, steering, and braking system

    小威利還驗證了發動機、變速器、轉向系統和制動系統

  • would all work for tanks.

    都會對坦克起作用。

  • Without this validation the whole project may have been scrapped, and the Britain might

    如果沒有這個驗證,整個項目可能就會被取消,而英國可能會

  • have given up on tanks altogether.

    已經完全放棄了坦克。

  • So, even though Little Willie never saw combat, without it Britain may very well have never

    是以,儘管小威利從未參加過戰鬥,但如果沒有它,英國很可能永遠不會有

  • fully developed tank technology that helped win World War I.

    充分發展了坦克技術,幫助贏得了第一次世界大戰。

  • Another aspect of Little Willie that made it so important to history was the potential

    小威利的另一個使其在歷史上如此重要的方面是潛在的

  • that political and military leaders saw in it.

    政治和軍事領導人在其中看到了這一點。

  • Although flawed in some ways, due to all sides wanting to break the stalemate of trench warfare,

    雖然在某些方面存在缺陷,但由於各方都想打破塹壕戰的僵局。

  • new and ambitious ideas were given intense study when before they might not have ever

    新的和雄心勃勃的想法得到了深入的研究,而在這之前,它們可能永遠不會被發現。

  • seen the light of day.

    睹物思人。

  • Even though Little Willie never saw combat, the lessons learned helped accelerate the

    儘管小威利從來沒有參加過戰鬥,但所學到的經驗有助於加速。

  • British tank program greatly and showed strategists that it was possible to build a machine that

    英國的坦克項目得到了極大的發展,並向戰略家們展示了製造一臺可以在短時間內完成的機器的可能性。

  • could traverse trenches and no man's land to support Allied troops in World War I.

    可以穿越戰壕和無人區,支持第一次世界大戰中的盟軍部隊。

  • Even though Little Willie contributed much to the development of tanks and is a crucial

    儘管小威利對坦克的發展做出了很大貢獻,而且是一個至關重要的人物。

  • stepping stone in the history of armored warfare, it was almost lost to history.

    在裝甲戰爭的歷史上,它是一塊墊腳石,幾乎被歷史遺忘。

  • The British government wanted to scrap it but thanks to military history enthusiasts

    英國政府想廢除它,但由於軍事歷史愛好者的幫助

  • within the army, Little Willie found its final resting place at Bovington training ground

    在軍隊內部,小威利在博文頓訓練場找到了它最後的安息之地。

  • where it remained until the end of the war and was eventually sent to the Tank Museum

    在那裡一直呆到戰爭結束,最後被送到了坦克博物館。

  • in Bovington after the end of World War Two.

    第二次世界大戰結束後,在博文頓。

  • Despite being almost lost to history, without those initial tests valuable lessons and information

    儘管幾乎被歷史遺忘,但如果沒有這些最初的測試,寶貴的教訓和資訊

  • learned from the building of Little Willie would never have been gained.

    從 "小威利 "的建設中學到的東西永遠不會得到。

  • The success of British tanks during World War I may have been hindered and the course

    英國坦克在第一次世界大戰期間的成功可能受到了阻礙,其過程

  • of history may have gone a different way.

    歷史的發展可能會走向另一個方向。

  • Maybe Little Willie's biggest contribution to the world of warfare is the nostalgia that

    也許小威利對戰爭世界的最大貢獻是懷舊,即

  • went along with it.

    隨之而去。

  • Curators at The Tank Museum in England are proud to display the first tank ever made.

    英國坦克博物館的館員們為展示有史以來的第一輛坦克而自豪。

  • At the time Little Willie rolled onto the testing field the automobile had only been

    當 "小威利 "駛入試驗場時,該汽車僅有一個星期的時間。

  • around for about 35 years.

    大約有35年了。

  • That is a lot of progress in such a short amount of time.

    在這麼短的時間內,這是一個很大的進步。

  • Little Willie could be outfitted with guns, a crew of five, and could successfully cross

    小威利可以配備槍支和五名船員,並可以成功地穿越邊境。

  • trenches in the heat of battle; something that no other vehicle at the time could do.

    在激烈的戰鬥中,在戰壕裡,當時沒有其他車輛可以做到這一點。

  • Without Little Willie, and the lessons learnt from it, the development of the tank may have

    如果沒有小威利和從中吸取的教訓,坦克的發展可能已經

  • taken years longer to complete.

    幾年後才能完成。

  • There is no telling what impact this may have had on the course of history.

    不知道這可能對歷史進程產生了什麼影響。

  • It was through the processes of modern engineering and science that Little Willie was made a

    正是通過現代工程和科學的進程,小威利才得以成為

  • reality.

    現實。

  • The British basically took the idea of an armored battleship and brought it onto land.

    英國人基本上採用了裝甲戰艦的概念,並將其帶到了陸地上。

  • Even though Little Willie never saw combat, it was something that had never been done

    儘管小威利從未參加過戰鬥,但這是前所未有的事情。

  • before, and had a lasting impact on history..

    前,並對歷史產生了持久的影響。

  • Now go see what Little Willie evolved into by watching the Top 10 Most Powerful Tanks.

    現在去看看小威利演變成了什麼,看看十大最強大的坦克。

  • Or for tank battles watch The Battle of 73 Easting - The Most Intense Tank Battle In

    或者觀看《東興73號戰役》--美國最激烈的坦克戰。

  • History.

    歷史。

As World War I raged on in Europe, Allied forces were facing some of the most destructive

當第一次世界大戰在歐洲肆虐時,盟軍正面臨著一些最具破壞性的

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B1 中級 中文 坦克 戰壕 軌道 設計 戰場 大戰

有史以來最無用的坦克?(小威利) (The Most Useless Tank Ever Made? (Little Willie))

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 30 日
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