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  • There is a facility in Maryland, mostly used for housing military members and civilian

    在馬里蘭州有一個設施,主要用於安置軍事人員和平民。

  • workers.

    工人。

  • But in the past, it was a testing ground - as people were exposed to some of the deadliest

    但在過去,它是一個試驗場--因為人們接觸到了一些最致命的疾病。

  • substances around.

    周圍的物質。

  • And the test subjects?

    試驗對象呢?

  • American soldiers.

    美國士兵。

  • It was the late 1940s, and the United States and its allies were still sorting through

    當時是20世紀40年代末,美國及其盟國仍在整理

  • the rubble after their victory in the Second World War.

    他們在第二次世界大戰勝利後的廢墟上。

  • The two World Wars had introduced a terrifying new element to warfare - chemical weapons

    兩次世界大戰為戰爭引入了一個可怕的新元素--化學武器

  • that could incapacitate, disable, or even kill soldiers simply by releasing a spray

    僅僅通過釋放噴霧就能使阿兵哥喪失能力、失能、甚至死亡。

  • or gas into the battlefield.

    或氣體進入戰場。

  • While the use of these weapons had decreased in the Second World War due to treaties, the

    雖然在第二次世界大戰中,由於條約的原因,這些武器的使用有所減少,但

  • Nazis had continued developing the deadly tools of war.

    納粹繼續發展致命的戰爭工具。

  • And the United States wanted to understand them - and how to stop them.

    而美國想了解他們--以及如何阻止他們。

  • The government obtained the formulas for a trio of nerve gases developed by the Nazis

    政府獲得了由納粹開發的三種神經毒氣的配方

  • - deadly chemical agents that could interrupt the flow of signals between the brain and

    - 可阻斷大腦和其他器官之間信號流動的致命化學制劑。

  • the body.

    的身體。

  • These could have long-term debilitating effects and were more dangerous than many other chemical

    這可能會產生長期的衰弱影響,比許多其他化學品更危險。

  • weapons, which were primarily irritants or caused respiratory distress.

    武器,這些武器主要是刺激性的,或引起呼吸道的不適。

  • The gases, named tabun, soman, and the soon-to-be-notorious sarin, all had the potential to be fatal.

    這些氣體被命名為塔崩(tabun)、索曼(soman)和即將臭名昭著的沙林(sarin),都有可能是致命的。

  • At the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, the government

    在阿伯丁試驗場的埃奇伍德化學生物中心,政府

  • started doing tests on the gases and how to prevent and treat their effects.

    開始對這些氣體以及如何預防和治療其影響進行測試。

  • But there would soon be a shocking twist to these early tests.

    但這些早期測試很快就會出現令人震驚的轉折。

  • It was only 1948 when the government first started involving human test subjects in their

    直到1948年,政府才首次開始讓人類試驗對象參與他們的工作。

  • experiments.

    實驗。

  • While it doesn't seem any test subjects were exposed deliberately to these deadly

    雖然似乎沒有任何試驗對象被故意暴露在這些致命的化學物質中。

  • gases, technicians were exposed to trace amounts - and the government learned a lot from these

    技術人員被暴露在微量的氣體中--政府從這些氣體中學到了很多東西。

  • accidents.

    事故。

  • While the amounts the employees were exposed to wasn't enough to be fatal, it was more

    雖然員工接觸到的數量不足以致命,但它更多的是

  • than enough to cause psychological distress - and that gave the government a potentially

    足夠造成心理困擾--這給了政府一個潛在的機會。

  • risky idea.

    冒險的想法。

  • What if the weapons could be refined into something less deadly - but still powerful?

    如果這些武器可以被提煉成不那麼致命的東西--但仍有威力呢?

  • Luther Wilson Greene, the technical director of a specialized division at Edgewood, published

    路德-威爾遜-格林(Luther Wilson Greene)是埃奇伍德公司一個專門部門的技術主管,他發表了

  • a classified report in 1949 about the possibility of psychochemical weapons.

    在1949年的一份機密報告中提到了精神化學武器的可能性。

  • Based partially on the experiments that showed the psychoactive effects of the nerve gases

    部分基於顯示神經氣體的精神作用的實驗

  • in small doses, Greene argued that this weapon could change war forever.

    格林認為,在小劑量的情況下,這種武器可以永遠改變戰爭。

  • What if instead of creating deadlier weapons that would leave carnage in their wake, the

    如果不是製造出更致命的武器,在它們之後留下大屠殺,而是

  • US developed chemical weapons that could cause mental incapacitation and end battles without

    美國開發的化學武器可以使人精神失常,結束戰鬥而不需要

  • a shot being fired?

    鳴槍了嗎?

  • It wouldn't be long before the experiments took on new importance.

    不久之後,實驗就有了新的重要性。

  • Harvard anesthesiologist Henry K. Beecher was soon recruited to work on experiments

    哈佛大學的麻醉師亨利-K-比徹(Henry K. Beecher)很快就被招募來從事實驗工作。

  • at Camp King in Germany - working with many illegal drugs that could earn someone a hefty

    在德國的國王營--與許多非法毒品打交道,可以讓人獲得高額的收入。

  • prison sentence for civilian use.

    監獄服刑,供平民使用。

  • Could LSD and mescaline have military implications?

    LSD和麥司卡林會不會有軍事影響?

  • The government also interviewed former Nazi physicians to learn everything they could

    政府還採訪了前納粹醫生,以瞭解他們所能瞭解的一切。

  • about these tools, and many in the military brass thought that these weapons could actually

    關於這些工具,許多軍方高層認為,這些武器實際上可以

  • be more humane than bombs and other traditional weapons.

    比炸彈和其他傳統武器更人性化。

  • But to find out, the government needed test subjects.

    但為了找出答案,政府需要測試對象。

  • It was 1948 when the government first authorized what would be known as the Edgewood Arsenal

    那是1948年,政府首次授權建立後來被稱為埃奇伍德兵工廠的地方。

  • human experiments - a series of tests of chemical substances on human volunteers at their Aberdeen

    人體實驗--在阿伯丁對人類志願者進行的一系列化學物質測試

  • facilities.

    設施。

  • In total, they would experiment on around eight thousand people over close to three

    在接近三個月的時間裡,他們總共對大約八千人進行了實驗。

  • decades, and test over two hundred and fifty chemicals.

    幾十年來,測試了二百五十多種化學品。

  • Most would be midspectrum incapacitants, or drugs that cause a mental effect without much

    大多數都是中光譜的無能劑,或者是能造成精神影響的藥物,而沒有太多的副作用。

  • in the way of long-term physical consequences.

    在長期的身體後果的方式。

  • For airborne gases, the government would use a wind tunnel to deliver the compound in a

    對於空氣傳播的氣體,政府將使用風洞,將化合物以

  • way similar to how it would be blown by the wind on the battlefield.

    與戰場上被風吹動的方式相似。

  • Now, the government just needed to get volunteers.

    現在,政府只需要獲得志願者。

  • While the use of human subjects in experiments on potential chemical weapons was controversial,

    雖然在潛在化學武器的實驗中使用人類作為實驗對象是有爭議的。

  • the government tried to stay above board with how they conducted it.

    政府試圖在他們的工作方式上保持公正。

  • No enlisted men were ordered by their commanding officers to be part of these experiments.

    指揮官沒有命令阿兵哥參加這些實驗。

  • Instead, the government conducted a series of recruitments at Army installations.

    相反,政府在陸軍設施中進行了一系列的招募。

  • The soldiers would be shown a short film and given some handouts to explain the experiment,

    阿兵哥們將會看到一部短片,並得到一些解釋實驗的講義。

  • and those who showed interest were given a medical and psychological screening.

    並對那些表現出興趣的人進行了醫學和心理學檢查。

  • The Army wanted men who were healthy and able to withstand the effects of the compounds,

    軍隊想要的是健康並能承受化合物影響的人。

  • but they also needed to be in the right frame of mind and know their limits.

    但他們也需要有正確的心態,知道自己的極限。

  • Men who were too enthusiastic and wanted to see how much they could handle were usually

    那些太過熱情,想看看自己能承受多少的男人通常會被

  • rejected, but those with an interest in science were prime recruits.

    被拒絕,但那些對科學有興趣的人是主要的招募對象。

  • It was surprisingly easy to get the men they needed.

    要得到他們所需要的人出乎意料地容易。

  • By the time the military had gone through ten Army bases, they would often be given

    當軍隊經過十個陸軍基地時,他們往往會被賦予

  • four to six hundred applications.

    四到六百份申請。

  • They would be winnowed down to no more than one hundred, and these soldiers would be brought

    他們將被篩選到不超過一百人,而這些阿兵哥將被帶到

  • to Edgewood where they would serve one to two months as test subjects.

    在那裡,他們將作為試驗對象服役一到兩個月。

  • There were perks for volunteering - a small allowance, free weekends, and only light duty

    志願服務是有好處的--少量的津貼、自由的週末,以及只有輕微的工作。

  • while volunteering.

    志願服務時。

  • But it still wasn't for the faint of heart - because these test subjects would be spending

    但這仍然不適合膽小的人--因為這些測試對象將花費

  • some very unpleasant hours being exposed to substances that could cause chaos in large

    在一些非常不愉快的時間裡,接觸到一些可能導致大面積混亂的物質。

  • amounts.

    金額。

  • So what substances were tested?

    那麼,測試的是什麼物質?

  • The government was particularly interested in the effects of popular drugs and if they

    政府對流行藥物的影響特別感興趣,如果它們

  • could be weaponized.

    可能會被武器化。

  • LSD, a psychoactive drug notorious for causing intense hallucinations and altered thoughts,

    LSD,一種因引起強烈的幻覺和思想改變而臭名昭著的精神活性藥物。

  • was thought to be a potential way to send an opposing army into a panic.

    被認為是使對方軍隊陷入恐慌的一個潛在方法。

  • THC, one of the key components in marijuana, had no known lethal dose and was seen as a

    大麻中的關鍵成分之一四氫大麻,沒有已知的致死劑量,被視為一種

  • possible tool for slowing down enemy soldiers and reducing their aggression levels.

    可能的工具是減緩敵方阿兵哥的速度並降低他們的攻擊性水準。

  • The same goes for benzodiazepines, which lower brain activity and are commonly used to treat

    苯二氮卓類藥物也是如此,它們降低大腦活動,通常用於治療

  • anxiety and insomnia.

    焦慮和失眠。

  • Making an entire enemy army fall asleep would certainly be an effective tool in a war.

    讓整個敵人的軍隊陷入沉睡,在戰爭中肯定是一個有效的工具。

  • But there was one drug that was considered of particular interest.

    但是有一種藥物被認為是特別值得關注的。

  • BZ, also known as 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate, is an odorless and stable powder that can

    BZ,也被稱為3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate,是一種無味且穩定的粉末,可以

  • survive a lot - even being spread by hot munitions.

    經歷了很多--甚至被熱彈藥傳播。

  • It can dissolve in most subjects, and has powerful effects - including a state of delirium.

    它可以在大多數科目中溶解,並具有強大的效果--包括神志不清的狀態。

  • Subjects exposed become confused, start to hallucinate, and find it challenging to perform

    受試者接觸到的東西會變得混亂,開始產生幻覺,並發現執行起來很有難度。

  • even basic tasks.

    甚至是基本任務。

  • It can also cause some uncomfortable and distracting physical effects, including temporary blindness,

    它還會造成一些不舒服的、令人分心的身體影響,包括暫時性失明。

  • a high heart rate, overheating, dry mouth, and skin disorders.

    高心率、過熱、口乾和皮膚疾病。

  • But can it kill?

    但它能殺人嗎?

  • Unlike many other chemical weapons, it has a very high lethal dose - with people needing

    與許多其他化學武器不同,它的致死劑量非常高--人們需要

  • to ingest around 450 milligrams to die from it, although testing is inconclusive.

    攝入大約450毫克就會死於此,儘管測試並不確定。

  • This makes it very different from other powerful chemical weapons, which could wipe out an

    這使得它與其他強大的化學武器非常不同,後者可以消滅一個國家。

  • army or kill a scientist with a minor spill.

    軍隊或殺死一名科學家的輕微洩漏。

  • BZ had the potential to change the face of warfare, letting armies win battles by rendering

    BZ有可能改變戰爭的面貌,讓軍隊通過渲染來贏得戰鬥。

  • the opposing sideMad as a hatter, red as a beet, dry as a bone, and blind as a bat”,

    對方 "像瘋了一樣,像甜菜一樣紅,像骨頭一樣幹,像蝙蝠一樣瞎"。

  • as a famous mnemonic put it.

    正如一個著名的記憶法所說。

  • But this wasn't a drug invented for combat.

    但這不是一種為戰鬥而發明的藥物。

  • BZ had actually been developed by a Swiss pharmaceutical company as an attempt to treat

    實際上,BZ是由一家瑞士製藥公司開發的,目的是為了治療癌症。

  • gastrointestinal ailments and ulcers, but was repeatedly ruled out due to its severe

    胃腸道疾病和潰瘍,但由於其嚴重性而被反覆排除。

  • host of non-lethal but highly unpleasant side effects.

    一系列非致命但非常令人不快的副作用。

  • While it was quickly dropped as a drug, it was soon picked up by the US military for

    雖然它很快就被放棄作為一種藥物,但它很快就被美國軍方選中用於

  • potential weaponization and was extensively tested on the Edgewood subjects.

    潛在的武器化,並在埃奇伍德實驗對象身上進行了廣泛的測試。

  • It even became the first chemical authorized for military use and was weaponized to be

    它甚至成為第一個被授權用於軍事用途的化學品,並被武器化。

  • released by cluster bombs - but these plans would never be realized as the bombs were

    但這些計劃將永遠不會實現,因為炸彈已經被銷燬。

  • destroyed in 1989 when the government downsized the program.

    1989年,當政府縮小該計劃的規模時,該計劃被摧毀。

  • But BZ wouldn't be the only substance that the government would test on the Edgewood

    但BZ不會是政府在埃奇伍德號上測試的唯一物質。

  • volunteers.

    志願者。

  • Not all documents relating to the experiments are public, but the government did keep a

    並非所有與實驗有關的文件都是公開的,但政府確實保留了一份

  • detailed list of the time the volunteers spent on different subjects.

    志願者們在不同科目上花費的時間的詳細清單。

  • Almost a third of volunteer hours were spent on incapacitating compounds, but another fourteen

    幾乎三分之一的志願服務時間用於使化合物喪失能力,但另外十四個小時

  • percent were spent on riot control techniques.

    1%用於防暴技術。

  • This likely became much more prominent in the 1960s, as protests swept the nation.

    這可能在1960年代變得更加突出,因為抗議活動席捲全國。

  • Sometimes typical crowd control methods didn't work, but the government didn't want to

    有時典型的人群控制方法並不奏效,但政府並不想

  • resort to lethal force.

    訴諸致命武力。

  • They needed to find compounds like pepper spray and tear gas that are non-lethal in

    他們需要找到像胡椒噴霧和催淚瓦斯這樣的化合物,這些化合物對人體沒有殺傷力。

  • most cases but can cause pain and discomfort - and usually send large groups running for

    大多數情況下,會引起疼痛和不適--通常會讓大夥兒跑去找你。

  • cover and a place to wash their eyes out.

    覆蓋物和一個可以洗掉他們眼睛的地方。

  • Not all experiments involved direct exposure to chemicals.

    並非所有的實驗都涉及直接暴露於化學品。

  • Sometimes the goal was to see how to avoid this exposure.

    有時,目標是看如何避免這種暴露。

  • Some volunteers tried out new protective equipment and clothing.

    一些志願者試用了新的防護設備和服裝。

  • Others were subject to sleep deprivation to determine how well they could function under

    另一些人則被剝奪了睡眠,以確定他們能在多大程度上履行職責。

  • different circumstances.

    不同的情況。

  • Some of these tests may have been combined - as the government was likely interested

    其中一些測試可能已經被合併--因為政府可能對這些測試感興趣。

  • to see how the presence of drugs like BZ could impact mental performance on tests.

    以瞭解像BZ這樣的藥物的存在如何影響測試中的心理表現。

  • The government even tested alcohol and caffeine's effects on soldiers.

    政府甚至測試了酒精和咖啡因對阿兵哥的影響。

  • But for 14.5% of the hours at Edgewood, the tests took on a darker note.

    但是,在埃奇伍德的14.5%的時間裡,測試呈現出更黑暗的色彩。

  • The roster is simply listed aslethal compounds”, but it's believed that this involved some

    名冊上簡單地列出了 "致命的化合物",但據信這涉及到一些

  • of the deadliest weapons ever created for war.

    有史以來為戰爭創造的最致命的武器。

  • This includes some of the deadly nerve agents like Sarin that created the project, as well

    這包括一些致命的神經毒劑,如沙林,創造了這個項目,以及

  • as the notorious mustard gas that burned the soldiers of the First World War.

    作為臭名昭著的芥子氣,它燒傷了第一次世界大戰的阿兵哥。

  • Industrial-strength pesticides were also tested - but the US had no apparent intention of

    工業強度的殺蟲劑也進行了測試--但美國顯然無意於

  • re-introducing any of them to the battlefield.

    將他們中的任何一個重新引入到戰場。

  • So why did they introduce them in testing?

    那麼,為什麼他們在測試中引入了它們?

  • Many of the tests involved nerve agent antidotes and reactivators, indicating that the US Army

    許多試驗涉及神經毒劑的解毒劑和再激活劑,表明美國軍隊

  • may have been trying to figure out how to best prepare for these substances if they

    可能一直在試圖弄清楚如何為這些物質做最好的準備,如果他們

  • were introduced in combat by an enemy.

    是由敵人在戰鬥中引入的。

  • By testing them in small amounts and seeing how to bring soldiers back from the brink

    通過少量的測試,看看如何將阿兵哥從邊緣地帶拉回來

  • if they were poisoned, the government could equip its soldiers to survive a sudden chemical

    如果他們被毒死,政府可以讓其阿兵哥在突如其來的化學危機中生存。

  • attack.

    攻擊。

  • But the government's secret testing ground would eventually come to an end.

    但政府的祕密試驗場最終會結束。

  • It was the 1970s when the government began investigating the program after more reports

    在更多的報告之後,政府開始調查該項目時已經是1970年代了

  • of long-term side effects of exposure began to surface.

    暴露的長期副作用開始浮現。

  • In 1975, the program was terminated and all the current volunteers were removed.

    1975年,該計劃被終止,目前所有的志願者都被清除。

  • The founder of the program, Dr. Van Murray Sim, had the run of the place for decades

    該計劃的創始人範-默裡-辛博士幾十年來一直掌管著這個地方。

  • - but soon he had been hauled before Congress to testify before lawmakers enraged that the

    - 但很快他就被拖到了國會,在立法者面前作證,因為他被激怒了。

  • government had been experimenting on soldiers.

    政府一直在對阿兵哥進行實驗。

  • The Army defended themselves, claiming that there were no serious injuries or deaths associated

    軍隊為自己辯護,聲稱沒有發生與之相關的嚴重傷害或死亡。

  • with the program.

    與該計劃。

  • However, top brass did admit that their recruitment process may have taken advantage of the soldiers.

    然而,高層確實承認,他們的招募過程可能利用了阿兵哥。

  • But future investigations of the program's documents would tell a different story.

    但是,未來對該項目文件的調查會告訴我們一個不同的故事。

  • Once all the documents were unsealed, the government took action to help the soldiers

    一旦所有文件被解封,政府就會採取行動幫助這些阿兵哥

  • who had been exposed.

    被曝光的人。

  • Many had not even been told what substance they were being exposed to during the tests,

    許多人甚至沒有被告知他們在測試中會接觸到什麼物質。

  • simply being placed in a wind tunnel as a substance was blown towards them.

    當一種物質被吹向他們時,他們只是被放在一個風洞裡。

  • It would have been difficult if not impossible for them to address any side effects they

    他們很難甚至不可能解決他們的任何副作用。

  • had from the chemical agents in the years after their testing - but for the first time

    在測試後的幾年裡,他們從化學制劑中獲得了一些好處--但這是第一次

  • they had information and could seek help.

    他們有資訊,可以尋求幫助。

  • While most of the tests were of irritant agents only without side effects, the percentage

    雖然大多數試驗只是刺激性藥劑,沒有副作用,但百分比

  • who had been exposed to nerve agents or other lethal compounds were given extra attention.

    接觸過神經毒劑或其他致命化合物的人得到了特別關注。

  • But for some, it might have been too late.

    但對一些人來說,這可能已經太晚了。

  • The government would continue to investigate the experiments through 2004, and uncover

    政府將繼續調查這些實驗,直到2004年,並發現

  • the classified secrets.

    的機密祕密。

  • In the 1993 report, it was authorized to grant restitution to the families of test subjects

    在1993年的報告中,它被授權向試驗對象的家屬提供賠償金

  • who may have died of causes related to the experiments.

    可能因與實驗有關的原因而死亡的人。

  • But while over seven thousand test subjects were identified, the full number may never

    但是,雖然已經確定了七千多名試驗對象,但全部數字可能永遠不會出現。

  • be known - and with decades past since the tests, there is no way to investigate those

    而在測試結束後的幾十年裡,沒有辦法對這些問題進行調查。

  • who had died since for links to the experiments.

    在那之後,因與實驗有關聯而死亡的人。

  • But debates continue over the program's legacy.

    但關於該計劃遺產的爭論仍在繼續。

  • In the 1990s, lawsuits were filed over the program by veterans' rights organizations,

    在20世紀90年代,退伍軍人權利組織對該計劃提出了訴訟。

  • but they were initially dismissed.

    但他們最初被駁回了。

  • In 2013, a judge ordered the government to provide the test subjects with all information

    2013年,一名法官命令政府向測試對象提供所有資訊

  • related to their well-being, but denied other claims of liability against the government.

    與他們的福祉有關,但否認了對政府的其他責任要求。

  • Psychiatrist Col. James Ketchum, who worked with many of the subjects, denied most of

    精神病學家詹姆斯-凱徹姆(James Ketchum)上校曾與許多受試者一起工作,他否認了大部分的

  • the claims against the government - saying that any who died during their test periods

    對政府的索賠 - 說任何在測試期間死亡的人

  • likely died of unrelated causes.

    可能死於無關的原因。

  • Ketchum claimed that Edgewood was probably the safest military location in the world

    凱徹姆聲稱,埃奇伍德可能是世界上最安全的軍事地點

  • to spend two months.

    來度過兩個月。

  • But for the soldiers staring into the wind tunnel as the unknown and potentially deadly

    但對於那些盯著風洞的阿兵哥來說,由於未知的、可能致命的

  • came towards them, they might have a different perspective.

    他們可能會有不同的看法。

  • For more on the deadliest weapons of war, check outWeapons Even the Military Made

    關於戰爭中最致命的武器的更多資訊,請查看《連軍隊都製造的武器》。

  • Illegal”, or tryWhy Life of a WWI Soldier in the Trenches SUCKEDfor an in-depth

    非法的",或嘗試 "為什麼一戰阿兵哥在戰壕中的生活很糟糕",以深入瞭解

  • look at the era of chemical warfare.

    看看化學戰的時代。

There is a facility in Maryland, mostly used for housing military members and civilian

在馬里蘭州有一個設施,主要用於安置軍事人員和平民。

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對美國士兵進行化學武器實驗 (Chemical Weapons Experiments on US Soldiers)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 15 日
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