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  • Destroyed by socialism! Savaged by a dictator that  doomed the poor! Drowned in their own dependence  

    被社會主義摧毀了!被一個獨裁者蹂躪,註定了窮人的命運!淹沒在他們自己的依賴中

  • on oil! We're sure by now you've heardlot of reasons why Venezuela is in crisis,  

    在石油方面!我們相信現在你已經聽到了很多關於委內瑞拉陷入危機的原因。

  • and noticed the reasons tend to differ based on  the speaker's political orientation. In fact, the  

    並注意到原因往往因說話人的政治取向而不同。事實上,

  • current terrible situation in Venezuela has a lot  of complex causes. Pinning them down can be hard  

    委內瑞拉目前的可怕局勢有很多複雜的原因。將它們歸納起來可能很困難

  • because people use the crisis to support their own  political agenda on both sides. So, we sent our  

    因為雙方都有人利用危機來支持自己的政治議程。是以,我們將我們的

  • most non-partisan researchers into the mix to find  out...what actually went wrong with Venezuela?

    大多數無黨派研究人員加入其中,以找出......委內瑞拉到底出了什麼問題?

  • If you had told South Americans 50 years ago that  one of the most unstable and poverty-stricken  

    如果你在50年前告訴南美人,最不穩定和最貧窮的國家之一

  • nations on the continent in the early 21st century  would be Venezuela, they would have laughed. Why?

    在21世紀初大陸上的國家將是委內瑞拉,他們會笑的。為什麼呢?

  • Since the country overthrew its military  dictatorship in 1958, Venezuela had been one  

    自從該國在1958年推翻軍事獨裁統治以來,委內瑞拉一直是一個

  • of the wealthiest countries in Latin Americathanks in part to its large oil reserves.

    拉丁美洲最富有的國家之一,部分原因是其大量的石油儲備。

  • Forget Saudi Arabia and Texas...Venezuela actually  has the largest oil deposits in the world;  

    忘記沙特阿拉伯和德克薩斯吧......委內瑞拉實際上擁有世界上最大的石油礦藏。

  • as of 2016, about 18.2% of the  world's entire oil reserves.

    截至2016年,約佔世界全部石油儲備的18.2%。

  • Leaning on its oil industry and exports, Venezuela  became richer and richer during the 1960s,  

    靠著石油工業和出口,委內瑞拉在60年代變得越來越富有。

  • and insanely wealthy during the 1970s, when an  OPEC embargo against the US and other countries  

    在20世紀70年代,當歐佩克對美國和其他國家實施禁運時,歐佩克瘋狂地富裕起來。

  • caused the price of oil to quadruple  in a ridiculously short time span.

    導致石油價格在極短的時間內翻了四倍。

  • But because of its resource wealth, Venezuela  fell into what some economists term theresource  

    但由於其資源豐富,委內瑞拉陷入了一些經濟學家所稱的 "資源"。

  • curse”, orDutch disease”. Basically, the country  failed to diversify its economy or its exports,  

    詛咒",或 "荷蘭病"。基本上,該國未能使其經濟或其出口多樣化。

  • making it incredibly reliant on oilInstead of further developing its  

    使其對石油的依賴性令人難以置信。 而不是進一步發展其

  • agriculture or other manufacturing and industries,  

    農業或其他製造業和工業。

  • the country imported most of what it needed  and used its oil money to pay for it.

    該國需要的大部分東西都是進口的,並使用其石油資金來支付。

  • Unfortunately, here's what happens when  a country concentrates all its efforts,  

    不幸的是,當一個國家集中所有精力時,會發生這樣的情況。

  • infrastructure, and manpower onresource-dependent industry; that nation's  

    基礎設施和人力依賴資源的行業;該國家的

  • entire economy and future becomes dependent  on the price, and demand for, that resource.

    整個經濟和未來都取決於該資源的價格和需求。

  • This became a problem for Venezuela way before  Hugo Chavez's government ever touched the country.

    在烏戈-查韋斯的政府接觸到委內瑞拉之前,這就已經成為該國的一個問題。

  • In the 1970s, economic and energy crises around  the world severely decreased the demand for oil,  

    在20世紀70年代,世界各地的經濟和能源危機嚴重地減少了對石油的需求。

  • at a time when oil prices were at a peakfurther discouraging oil demand. This caused a)  

    在油價處於高峰期的時候,進一步抑制了石油需求。這造成了)

  • people to exchange their block-long Cadillacs  for compacts and b) the 1980s oil glut.

    人們把他們的長款凱迪拉克換成了緊湊型車,還有,20世紀80年代的石油過剩。

  • In 1980, the world price of oil had peaked at  around $35 per barrel - $110 per barrel in 2020  

    1980年,世界石油價格曾在每桶35美元左右達到峰值--2020年為每桶110美元

  • dollars. By 1986, that price would fall to below  10 dollars per barrel - about $24 in 2020 prices.

    美元。到1986年,這一價格將下降到每桶10美元以下--按2020年的價格計算約為24美元。

  • That meant Venezuela's oil went  from making them live like royalty  

    這意味著委內瑞拉的石油從讓他們像皇室一樣生活到了現在

  • to a relatively worthless product  in the span of just a few years.  

    在短短几年的時間裡就變成了一個相對沒有價值的產品。

  • It signaled the beginning of the  end for Venezuela's prosperity.

    這標誌著委內瑞拉繁榮的開始。

  • With no money left in its reserves and no  projected profits coming in for a while,  

    儲備金中沒有錢了,而且暫時沒有預計的利潤進賬。

  • the Venezuelan government  found itself deeply in debt.  

    委內瑞拉政府發現自己深陷債務。

  • $33 billion worth of it, to  be exact. What could it do?

    確切地說,價值330億美元。它能做什麼?

  • Well, what it did was turn to the  IMF. Which, as many other countries  

    那麼,它所做的是求助於國際貨幣基金組織。正如許多其他國家一樣

  • who have pursued the same tactic foundended up hurting more than it helped.

    追求同樣策略的人發現,最終傷害多於幫助。

  • The IMF, especially at the peak of neoliberal  economic ideology in the Reagan era,  

    國際貨幣基金組織,特別是在里根時代的新自由主義經濟意識形態的高峰期。

  • had pretty much one prescription  for every country's economic woes:  

    對於每個國家的經濟困境,他幾乎都有一個處方。

  • deregulate, cut welfare, and privatize everything.

    放松管制,削減福利,並將一切私有化。

  • If any country wanted an IMF loan,  

    如果任何國家想要國際貨幣基金組織的貸款。

  • it would have to follow its rulesAnd that's what Venezuela did.

    它將不得不遵循其規則。 而這正是委內瑞拉所做的。

  • The government removed price controls on  gas, transportation, and other utilities,  

    政府取消了對天然氣、交通和其他公用事業的價格控制。

  • and slashed social programs to the bare minimumif that. The Venezuelan people reacted...poorly.

    並將社會項目削減到最低限度,如果是這樣的話。委內瑞拉人民的反應...很糟糕。

  • As just one example, when the government slashed  gas subsidies, the fare for buses rose 30% almost  

    僅舉一例,當政府削減汽油補貼時,公共汽車的票價幾乎上升了30%。

  • overnight. Daily life in Venezuela in general  suddenly became much more difficult and expensive.

    一夜之間。一般來說,委內瑞拉的日常生活突然變得更加困難和昂貴。

  • Further aggravating the population  was a loss of trust in their elected  

    使民眾進一步惡化的是,他們對自己的當選者失去了信任。

  • leadership. As Francisco Rodriguez, a  Venezuelan college student at the time  

    上司。正如當時委內瑞拉的一名大學生弗朗西斯科-羅德里格斯所言

  • who is currently Chief Economist  with Torino Economics said,  

    他目前是都靈經濟公司的首席經濟學家,他說。

  • You either had to tell voters what you were  going to do and face the prospect of losing the  

    "你要麼告訴選民你要做什麼,要麼面對失去的前景。

  • election, or not tell them what you were going  to do and then do it once you gained power.”

    選舉,或者不告訴他們你要做什麼,然後在你獲得權力後再去做。"

  • Politicians lying about their intentions  and then delivering brutal austerity  

    政客們對他們的意圖撒謊,然後提供殘酷的緊縮政策

  • measures to the people caused a lot of  anger. So people took to the streets.

    對人民的措施引起了很多人的憤怒。是以,人們走上了街頭。

  • Riots and clashes broke out in 1989,  starting in Guarenas on February 27,  

    1989年爆發了暴亂和衝突,2月27日在瓜雷納斯開始。

  • and spreading to the capital  of Caracas and the surrounding  

    並蔓延到首都加拉加斯和周圍地區。

  • country. This period of protests and  looting was known as theCaracazo”.

    國家。這段時間的抗議和搶劫被稱為 "卡拉卡索"。

  • With the trust between people  and government already frayed,  

    在人民和政府之間的信任已經破裂的情況下。

  • the brutal police crackdown of the riots broke  whatever thread was binding the population  

    警察對騷亂的殘酷鎮壓打破了約束民眾的任何線索

  • and the authority of the state togetherHundreds of Venezuelans - some sources  

    和國家的權威在一起。 數以百計的委內瑞拉人--一些消息來源

  • estimate the number could be up to thousandsdied at the hands of police and military forces.

    據估計,死於警察和軍隊手中的人數可能高達數千。

  • The government, continuing its proud  tradition of mounting the worst possible  

    政府繼續保持其引以為豪的傳統,將最糟糕的事情做出來。

  • response to every crisis, decided that  to appease people and boost the economy,  

    對每一次危機的反應,決定安撫人民和促進經濟。

  • they would artificially inflate the  value of the Venezuelan bolivar.

    他們將人為地抬高委內瑞拉玻利瓦爾的價值。

  • With this financial move, imported  goods would be significantly cheaper,  

    有了這一金融舉措,進口商品將大大便宜。

  • which leaders hoped would boost their support.

    領導人希望這將促進他們的支持。

  • What happened instead is that Venezuela's rich  got a nice little bubble in which to protect  

    相反,發生的情況是,委內瑞拉的富人得到了一個很好的小保麗龍,在其中保護自己的利益。

  • themselves from the ongoing economic  fallout, and everyone else got pissed.

    他們自己從持續的經濟後果中獲益,而其他人都被激怒了。

  • The bolivar being artificially high led  to a phenomenon called capital flight:  

    玻利瓦爾被人為地抬高導致了一種叫做資本外逃的現象。

  • the rich bought up US dollars and set up foreign  bank accounts for their money. This meant their  

    富人買了美元,併為他們的錢建立了外國銀行賬戶。這意味著他們的

  • wealth was now protected from the fluctuating  inflation rates and ongoing economic crisis  

    財富現在受到保護,不受波動的通貨膨脹率和持續的經濟危機的影響。

  • back home. It also meant their wealth was...no  longer in Venezuela, or serving it in any way.

    回到家裡。這也意味著他們的財富......不再在委內瑞拉,或以任何方式為其服務。

  • To top it off, the cheapness of imported goods  further stifled domestic industry and growth,  

    最重要的是,進口商品的廉價性進一步扼殺了國內工業和增長。

  • as domestic businesses couldn't competeIn an economy that exceedingly relied on  

    因為國內企業無法競爭。 在一個極度依賴的經濟中

  • oil and hadn't diversified its economy this  exacerbated a very real existing problem.

    如果沒有石油,沒有實現經濟多元化,這就加劇了一個非常現實的現有問題。

  • Deepening the resentment of the Venezuelan  people was the rampant corruption within  

    加深委內瑞拉人民怨恨的是其內部猖獗的腐敗。

  • Venezuelan politics. As Michael Shifter, president  of the Inter-American Dialogue think tank put it,  

    委內瑞拉的政治。正如美洲對話智庫主席Michael Shifter所說。

  • corruption taintedeverything, everybodyThe system was that they would take  

    腐敗玷汙了 "一切,所有人。 該系統是,他們將採取

  • off the top of these huge profitsThey would not distribute that to  

    從這些鉅額利潤中提取。 他們不會把這些錢分給

  • public funds and public spendingbut would be used for private use.”

    公共資金和公共開支,但會被用於私人用途"。

  • This rapidly worsening political and financial  situation defined Venezuela through the 1990s.  

    這種迅速惡化的政治和財政狀況決定了委內瑞拉在90年代的發展。

  • Even when the economy stabilized a bittoo much had already been destroyed;  

    即使經濟稍微穩定下來,也已經有太多的東西被破壞了。

  • the country's inequality was immeasurably  worse than in earlier decades, and the  

    國家的不平等現象比前幾十年嚴重得多,而

  • middle class and poor were even poorerwithout many prospects for improvement.

    中產階級和窮人更加貧窮,沒有多少改善的前景。

  • Enter Hugo Chávez. A former lieutenant  colonel in the military, Chávez was not an  

    進入烏戈-查韋斯。查韋斯曾是軍方的一名中校,他並不是一個有經驗的人。

  • unknown entity in Venezuelan politics. In factVenezuelans had caught wind of him a whole six  

    在委內瑞拉政治中不為人知的實體。事實上,委內瑞拉人在整整六年前就已經知道了他的存在。

  • years earlier, when he tried to overthrow  the government in a failed coup attempt.

    幾年前,他在一次失敗的政變中試圖推翻政府。

  • This time, he realized that he could tap into  the anger and resentment of the Venezuelan  

    這一次,他意識到,他可以利用委內瑞拉人的憤怒和怨恨。

  • poor and working-class to legitimately rise to  power. And so in 1998, this third-party outsider  

    窮人和工人階級的合法上臺。於是在1998年,這個第三方的外來者

  • candidate was surprisingly elected  to the highest office in the land.

    候選人出人意料地當選為該國的最高職位。

  • Using leftist rhetoric and policies, Chávez  proceeded to go on a massive spending spree  

    查韋斯利用左派的言論和政策,著手進行了大規模的開支。

  • on social programs. To do this, he  had to use the country's oil profits;  

    在社會項目上。為了做到這一點,他不得不使用國家的石油利潤。

  • thereby indirectly creating an  even bigger dependence on oil  

    從而間接造成對石油的更大依賴

  • for Venezuela - sensing a theme yet? Goodbecause Venezuela's leaders sure didn't.

    為委內瑞拉--感覺到一個主題了嗎?很好,因為委內瑞拉的領導人肯定沒有。

  • So even though there was a fair  amount of cronyism and ineptitude  

    是以,即使有相當多的裙帶關係和無能

  • in Chávez's administration, his  policies did, in the short-term,  

    在查韋斯的政府中,他的政策在短期內確實如此。

  • benefit the poor - poverty was cut by 20% between  2002 and 2008. And the people loved him for it.

    惠及窮人--2002年至2008年間,貧困人口減少了20%。而人民也是以愛戴他。

  • The problems started showing slowly. First off,  

    問題開始慢慢顯現。首先是。

  • though Chávez created a public economy  that absolutely depended on the oil sector,  

    儘管查韋斯創造了一個絕對依賴石油部門的公共經濟。

  • he didn't spend money upgrading or even  maintaining oil facilities, leading to an  

    他沒有花錢升級或甚至維護石油設施,導致了

  • eventual decline in production. Why? Well, he  knew nothing about oil, and refused to learn.  

    最終產量下降。為什麼?嗯,他對石油一無所知,而且拒絕學習。

  • When your whole country's economy is based  on oil that decision seems...ill-advised.

    當你的整個國家的經濟都基於石油時,這個決定似乎......不明智。

  • Former Petroleos de Venezuela board member Pedro  Burelli gave a blunt assessment of Chávez's  

    前委內瑞拉石油公司董事會成員佩德羅-佈雷利(Pedro Burelli)對查韋斯的工作進行了直截了當的評估。

  • shortcomings: “he was ignorant about everything  to do with oil, everything to do with geology,  

    缺點。"他對與石油有關的一切都一無所知,對與地質學有關的一切都一無所知。

  • engineering, the economics of oil. His  was a completely encyclopedic ignorance.”

    工程,石油的經濟。他是一個完全的百科全書式的無知。"

  • That seems to be the closest oil executives can  get to calling someone an idiot in the media.

    這似乎是石油高管們最接近於在媒體上稱某人為白痴的做法。

  • Second, as pretty much every Venezuelan leader had  before him, he failed to diversify the economy.  

    第二,正如之前幾乎所有的委內瑞拉領導人一樣,他沒有實現經濟的多樣化。

  • A country cannot depend on only one resource  or industry for its entire survival,  

    一個國家不能只依賴一種資源或產業來維持其全部生存。

  • a lesson that Venezuelan leaders  apparently kept forgetting.

    委內瑞拉領導人顯然一直忘記了這一教訓。

  • Then again, the US still thinks that  trickle-down economics will work after  

    話又說回來,美國仍然認為涓滴經濟會在之後發揮作用

  • fifty years of being proven wrong on  that front, so who are we to judge?

    50年來在這方面被證明是錯誤的,所以我們有什麼資格去評判?

  • Third, as usually happens when charismatic  leaders with autocratic tendencies enjoy broad  

    第三,正如通常發生在具有專制傾向的魅力型領導人享有廣泛的

  • popular support, Chávez decided he had supreme  power and could start doing whatever he wanted.

    在民眾的支持下,查韋斯決定自己擁有最高權力,可以開始為所欲為。

  • He started seizing private wealth, especially from  individuals and companies who didn't support him,  

    他開始攫取私人財富,特別是不支持他的個人和公司的財富。

  • put friends and supporters in positions  of power - regardless of their expertise  

    把朋友和支持者放在權力的位置上--不管他們的專業知識如何

  • or ability - and expanded the  military's powers and control.

    或能力--並擴大軍隊的權力和控制。

  • On June 2, 2010, looking around at his country  and apparently deciding things weren't falling  

    2010年6月2日,他環顧自己的國家,顯然認為事情並不順利。

  • apart fast enough, Chávez made one last horrible  financial move. Noticing a drop in the global  

    分開的速度不夠快,查韋斯做了最後一個可怕的金融行動。注意到在全球範圍內出現的下降

  • price of oil and noticing the shortages it was  starting to cause in the Venezuelan economy,  

    談到石油價格,並注意到它開始在委內瑞拉經濟中造成的短缺。

  • Chávez declared aneconomic war”  against private companies and the rich.

    查韋斯宣佈了一場針對私營公司和富人的 "經濟戰爭"。

  • He devalued the bolivar to  attempt to slow capital flight  

    他使玻利瓦爾貶值,試圖減緩資本外逃

  • and close the budget deficit. What actually  happened, as many economists had predicted  

    並關閉預算赤字。實際發生的情況,正如許多經濟學家所預測的那樣

  • and Chávez had refused to hearwas massive hyperinflation.

    而查韋斯拒絕聽,是大規模的惡性通貨膨脹。

  • Consumer prices skyrocketed, shortages  affected the whole economy, and poverty  

    消費者價格暴漲,短缺影響了整個經濟,而貧困

  • gripped the nation even more tightly. Rampant  inflation made the bolivar essentially worthless.  

    更加緊緊地抓住了這個國家。猖獗的通貨膨脹使玻利瓦爾基本上一文不值。

  • People in Venezuela, previously one of the  wealthiest nations in Latin America, had to  

    委內瑞拉以前是拉丁美洲最富有的國家之一,人們不得不

  • resort to using a barter economy and often went  hungry. Remember that most of Venezuela's food was  

    訴諸於使用以物易物的經濟,並且經常捱餓。請記住,委內瑞拉的大部分食物是

  • imported; and that import system collapsedexacerbated by eventual sanctions on the country.

    進口;而這個進口系統崩潰了,最終對該國的制裁加劇了這一情況。

  • Before he could reap what he sowed, Chávez ducked  any consequences by dying of cancer in 2013,  

    在播種之前,查韋斯在2013年死於癌症,躲避了任何後果。

  • leaving a disaster in his wake.

    在他身後留下了一場災難。

  • Nicolas Maduro, his successorstepped into his place...and  

    他的繼任者尼古拉斯-馬杜羅走上了他的位置......而且

  • proceeded to obliterate whatever  was left of the country.

    著手抹去這個國家剩下的一切。

  • With oil prices continuing to drop and rampant  corruption and economic mismanagement in the  

    隨著油價的持續下跌,腐敗猖獗和經濟管理不善的現象在中國蔓延。

  • country, the Venezuelan economy entered freefallMaduro, sensing the population's unrest,  

    在委內瑞拉,委內瑞拉經濟進入自由落體狀態。 馬杜羅感覺到了民眾的不安。

  • started to act more and more like a dictatorHe ruled by decree, arrested opposition leaders  

    他開始越來越像一個獨裁者。 他通過法令進行統治,逮捕反對派領導人

  • and journalists, shut down sites critical of  him, and promoted the theory that his political  

    和記者,關閉責備他的網站,並宣傳他的政治理論。

  • opponents were behind an international economic  conspiracy to wreck Venezuela. We can't make  

    反對者是破壞委內瑞拉的國際經濟陰謀的幕後策劃者。我們不能讓

  • a joke here because all of this is sounding  more and more common in our world nowadays.

    在這裡開個玩笑,因為所有這些在我們的世界裡聽起來越來越普遍。

  • By 2016, inflation in  Venezuela was at around 800%,  

    到2016年,委內瑞拉的通貨膨脹率在800%左右。

  • the highest in its history. A study  done that same year found that 75%  

    是其歷史上最高的。同年進行的一項研究發現,75%的

  • of Venezuela's population had experienced  “involuntary weight lossdue to famine. Violence  

    由於饑荒,委內瑞拉的人口經歷了 "非自願的體重減輕"。暴力事件

  • was rampant throughout the country due to peoplesdesperation and brutal authoritarian crackdowns.

    由於人民的絕望和殘暴的專制鎮壓,全國各地都很猖獗。

  • With society in chaos and  poverty at an all-time high,  

    隨著社會陷入混亂,貧困達到歷史最高點。

  • outside observers assumed Maduro would lose  the next election of May 2018 in a landslide.  

    外部觀察員認為馬杜羅將在2018年5月的下一次選舉中以壓倒性優勢敗北。

  • Shockingly...or...what's the right  word...suspiciously!...he won.

    令人震驚的是......或者......怎麼說呢......可疑!......他贏了。

  • This was even more confusing since  the first time Maduro was elected,  

    自馬杜羅第一次當選以來,這就更加令人困惑。

  • he won by just 1.6 percentage pointsHow did he manage to get re-elected  

    他僅以1.6個百分點的優勢獲勝。 他是如何做到連任的呢?

  • after presiding over one of the most  disastrous eras in Venezuelan history?

    在主持了委內瑞拉歷史上最災難性的時代之一之後?

  • Well, because, as the US mission to the United  Nations tweeted right after Madurowon”,  

    嗯,因為,正如美國駐聯合國代表團在馬杜羅 "獲勝 "後立即發推文所說的那樣。

  • theso-called 'election' in  Venezuela is an insult to democracy”.

    "委內瑞拉的所謂'選舉'是對民主的一種侮辱"。

  • Maduro banned opposition  parties from participating,  

    馬杜羅禁止反對黨參加。

  • jailed opponents, and his party intimidated  voters across the country. It's easy to win  

    囚禁反對者,他的政黨恐嚇全國各地的選民。勝利很容易

  • a race when all the other candidates are in  prison. At this point it should be mentioned  

    當所有其他候選人都在監獄裡的時候,比賽。在這一點上,應該提到

  • that Venezuelan security forces have been found  guilty of thousands of extrajudicial killings  

    委內瑞拉安全部隊被認定犯有數千起法外處決的罪行。

  • by international bodies. The Venezuelan  people lived, and live, in hunger and terror.

    由國際機構。委內瑞拉人民過去和現在都生活在飢餓和恐怖之中。

  • Over forty countries around the  world pressured Maduro to abdicate,  

    世界上有四十多個國家向馬杜羅施壓,要求他退位。

  • but he would not heed the calldoubling down on his conspiracy theories  

    但他並不聽從呼籲,而是加倍強調他的陰謀論。

  • about how the world was out to get VenezuelaIn 2019, the National Assembly, one of the few  

    關於世界是如何得到委內瑞拉的。 2019年,國民議會是為數不多的

  • political bodies left to check presidential power  in Venezuela, declared the 2018 elections invalid.  

    留給委內瑞拉檢查總統權力的政治機構,宣佈2018年的選舉無效。

  • They declared the president of the National  Assembly, Juan Guaidó, as acting president.

    他們宣佈國民議會主席胡安-瓜伊多為代理總統。

  • Though Guaidó enjoys support  from countries around the world,  

    儘管瓜伊多得到了世界各國的支持。

  • and from many people within the country, it is  not enough to put him in power in Venezuela.

    以及來自國內許多人的意見,都不足以讓他在委內瑞拉上臺。

  • As you can see, Venezuela's collapse was caused  by many factors. It started from the country's  

    正如你所看到的,委內瑞拉的崩潰是由許多因素造成的。它開始於該國的

  • extreme dependence on oil - theresource  curse”. Political and economic mismanagement,  

    對石油的極端依賴--"資源的詛咒"。政治和經濟管理不善。

  • a failure to diversify the economy,  

    未能使經濟多樣化。

  • coupled with corruption and plummeting oil  prices worsened the situation immensely.

    再加上腐敗和石油價格暴跌,使情況大大惡化。

  • Then the arrival of charismatic strongmen  appealing to a trodden-down population,  

    然後,有魅力的強人到來,吸引了被壓迫的民眾。

  • passing unsustainable policies while  completely mismanaging their economies,  

    通過不可持續的政策,同時完全錯誤地管理其經濟。

  • without proper knowledge of their own  industries, suppressing journalists,  

    對自己的行業沒有正確的認識,壓制記者。

  • opposition, and all checks on powerdecimated Venezuelan society entirely.

    反對派,以及所有對權力的制衡,使委內瑞拉社會完全消亡。

  • At the end of the day, no matter what the  reasons for Venezuela's current situation,  

    說到底,無論委內瑞拉目前的情況是什麼原因造成的。

  • the price is paid by the people. Most Venezuelans  go to bed hungry every night. Those who could  

    代價是由人民支付的。大多數委內瑞拉人每天晚上都要餓著肚子睡覺。那些能夠

  • leave the country have left, and those left  behind barely have access to food, medicine,  

    離開這個國家的人已經離開,留下的人幾乎無法獲得食物和藥品。

  • and other essentials. This is why it's always  important to remember, while arguing about  

    和其他基本要素。這就是為什麼在爭論的同時,始終要記住

  • politics and economics, that the results of  these policies have real effects on real people.

    在政治和經濟方面,這些政策的結果對真實的人有真實的影響。

  • What do you think of why Venezuela  finds itself in its current crisis?  

    你怎麼看委內瑞拉為什麼會陷入目前的危機?

  • Comment below! In the meantime, check out a more  fun, distracting video here, or right over there!

    請在下面評論!同時,請在此查看更多有趣的、分散注意力的視頻,或者就在那裡!

Destroyed by socialism! Savaged by a dictator that  doomed the poor! Drowned in their own dependence  

被社會主義摧毀了!被一個獨裁者蹂躪,註定了窮人的命運!淹沒在他們自己的依賴中

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委內瑞拉實際上出了什麼問題 (What Actually Went Wrong With Venezuela)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 14 日
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