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  • It's summertime; the sun is shining, the waves are crashing on the beach, and you're laying out getting a nice tan.

    現在是夏天,陽光明媚,海浪在海灘上拍打,而你正在躺在外面晒太陽。

  • Everything is going great until you head inside and look in the mirror.

    一切都很順利,直到你走進去,看著鏡子裡的自己。

  • Your skin is bright red and you seem to be radiating heat.

    你的皮膚是鮮紅色的,你似乎在散發著熱量。

  • You got sunburned and the next few days are going to be really uncomfortable.

    你被晒傷了,接下來的幾天會非常不舒服。

  • But what is sunburn and why does it happen?

    但什麼是晒傷,為什麼會發生?

  • When we think of a burn the first thing that comes to mind is a thermal burn from a fire or stove.

    當我們想到燒傷時,首先想到的是火災的熱燒傷。或爐子。

  • This is when your body is exposed to extreme heat,

    這是你的身體暴露在極端高溫下的時候,雖然太陽絕對是一種

  • and although the sun is definitely a source of extreme heat, a sunburn is not a thermal burn.

    極端熱源,晒傷不是熱燒傷。

  • Sunburn itself is actually a radiation burn;

    晒傷本身實際上是一種輻射燒傷;特別是它是由紫外線引起的。

  • in particular it is caused by the ultraviolet radiation that comes from the sun.

    來自太陽的輻射。

  • Ultraviolet radiation is the wavelengths of energy slightly shorter than what we see as the color purple.

    紫外線輻射是指比我們看到的略短的能量波長的紫色。

  • When they strike your skin in high doses from the sun, they can cause radiation burns.

    當它們在陽光下大劑量地襲擊你的皮膚時,會引起輻射燒傷。

  • This is actually what causes your skin to turn red and uncomfortable when you spend too much time in the sun,

    這實際上是導致你的皮膚變紅和不舒服的原因,當你花了

  • not a thermal burn from the sun's heat.

    在陽光下時間過長,而不是被太陽的熱量灼傷。

  • There are of course ways to prevent sunburn as well as treat it to reduce the pain, heat, and swelling.

    當然也有預防晒傷的方法,以及治療晒傷以減少疼痛、熱量。和腫脹。

  • Some of these remedies you probably already know; others might not be so familiar.

    其中一些補救措施你可能已經知道;其他的可能不那麼熟悉。

  • But first let's look at what actually happens to your body when you get a sunburn.

    但首先讓我們看看,當你被晒傷時,你的身體究竟發生了什麼。

  • Hopefully you are watching this video before going out and spending the day in the sun.

    希望你在外出和在陽光下度過一天之前看完這段視頻。

  • We know that sunburn isn't caused by intense thermal heat because you can get a sunburn even when it's cold out.

    我們知道晒傷並不是由強烈的熱能引起的,因為你可以被晒傷即使外面很冷。

  • If you've ever spent the day skiing, snowboarding, or sledding on a cloudless winter day,

    如果你曾經在一個萬里無雲的冬日裡花時間滑雪、玩滑雪板或玩雪橇,你會發現

  • you've probably gotten a mild sunburn once or twice during the winter season.

    在冬季,你可能被輕微晒傷過一兩次。

  • This is because during all times of the year the sun is bombarding us with ultraviolet radiation.

    這是因為在一年的所有時間裡,太陽都在用紫外線轟擊我們。輻射。

  • The ozone layer of our atmosphere protects us from much of this radiation--

    我們大氣層中的臭氧層保護我們免受這種輻射的影響--如果沒有它的話

  • if it didn't we would all have been dead a long time ago--but some does still get through.

    我們都會在很久以前就死了--但有些人仍然會通過。

  • When the radiation comes in contact with your skin and other cells of your body

    當輻射接觸到你的皮膚和你身體的其他細胞時,它會導致

  • it causes chemical reactions to occur.

    發生化學反應。

  • What this means is the cells in your body start creating proteins and enzymes that are not necessarily needed at the time.

    這意味著你體內的細胞開始創造蛋白質和酶,這些蛋白質和酶是當時不一定需要。

  • The most common proteins being produced are the ones your body uses to repair and replenish damaged cells.

    正在產生的最常見的蛋白質是你的身體用來修復和補充的蛋白質受損的細胞。

  • This makes sense because the sun's radiation is literally destroying your body's cells.

    這是有道理的,因為太陽的輻射實際上是在破壞你身體的細胞。

  • This flood of proteins is one of the things that causes discomfort as they try to repair the damage the sun is causing.

    這種氾濫的蛋白質是造成不適的原因之一,因為它們試圖修復陽光造成的損害。

  • The next thing that happens when the radiation interacts with your body is that blood vessels dilate to increase the amount of blood flow.

    當輻射與你的身體相互作用時,接下來發生的事情是,血管擴張以增加血流的數量。

  • This is also a reaction your body undertakes to try and repair itself from the damage being done by the sun.

    這也是你的身體進行的一種反應,試圖從被損害中自我修復。由太陽完成。

  • It also allows immune cells to reach the skin and combat the biggest health threat caused

    它還能使免疫細胞到達皮膚,並對抗造成的最大健康威脅。

  • by the sun's radiation: cancer.

    受太陽輻射的影響:癌症。

  • It is the increased blood flow and immune response that causes the inflammation and

    正是血流的增加和免疫反應導致了發炎和

  • redness associated with sunburn.

    與晒傷有關的紅腫。

  • It takes a little while for your body to start mounting defenses against the sun's radiation,

    你的身體需要一段時間才能開始建立對太陽輻射的防禦措施。

  • which is why sunburn symptoms normally don't manifest until four to six hours after being

    這就是為什麼晒傷的症狀通常在被晒後四到六小時才表現出來。

  • burnt.

    燒燬。

  • Once your body is exposed to intense amounts of radiation from the sun it immediately tries

    一旦你的身體暴露在來自太陽的大量輻射中,它就會立即試圖

  • to protect itself, however, the repair proteins and immune system response need time to ramp

    然而,修復蛋白和免疫系統的反應需要時間來提高,以保護自己。

  • up production and disperse throughout the body.

    了生產並分散到整個身體。

  • So to put it bluntly: sunburn is the sun's radiation destroying the cells of your body.

    所以直截了當地說:晒傷是太陽的輻射破壞了你的身體細胞。

  • We know that the sunburn is caused by radiation and that it is the body reacting to this radiation

    我們知道,晒傷是由輻射引起的,是身體對這種輻射的反應。

  • that causes the symptoms of sunburn; but what is actually happening to your cells?

    導致晒傷的症狀;但實際上你的細胞發生了什麼?

  • And is it dangerous?

    那它有危險嗎?

  • The answers to these questions might surprise you.

    這些問題的答案可能會讓你吃驚。

  • When we think of a burn we think of an increase in temperature.

    當我們想到燒傷時,我們想到的是溫度的升高。

  • This actually is not the case within your body when you get sunburnt.

    當你被晒傷時,你的身體內實際上不是這樣的。

  • Even though you may feel like you are radiating heat, your internal temperature almost always

    即使你可能覺得自己在散發熱量,你的內部溫度幾乎總是

  • stays at its normal level at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

    保持在98.6華氏度的正常水準。

  • Irritation and dehydration may make you feel hotter, but your actual temperature does not

    刺激和脫水可能使你感覺更熱,但你的實際溫度並不高

  • increase because of sunburn.

    因為晒傷而增加。

  • However, the inflammation and biochemical responses your body goes through can cause

    然而,你的身體所經歷的發炎和生化反應會導致

  • a slight rise in temperature at the skin's surface, due to more blood and fluids being

    由於更多的血液和液體進入皮膚,皮膚表面的溫度略有上升。

  • brought to the sunburnt areas of the body to fix the damage that has been done.

    帶到身體的晒傷部位,以修復已經造成的損害。

  • The symptoms of sunburn are caused by the body trying to repair itself after being cooked

    晒傷的症狀是由身體在被煮後試圖自我修復造成的

  • by radiation, but what is the actual damage?

    被輻射,但實際的損害是什麼?

  • When your skin cells are bombarded by the ultraviolet radiation from the sun they begin

    當你的皮膚細胞受到來自太陽的紫外線輻射的轟擊時,它們開始

  • to cook, and the structures within the cells begin to denature.

    烹飪,細胞內的結構開始變性。

  • This means that proteins, lipids, and other molecules that make up your cells, and help

    這意味著,蛋白質、脂質和其他構成你的細胞的分子,並幫助你實現你的目標。

  • them carry out their life functions, begin to change shape or fall apart.

    他們執行其生命功能,開始改變形狀或崩潰。

  • When this happens the cell cannot perform the tasks necessary to stay alive and it dies.

    當這種情況發生時,細胞不能執行維持生命所需的任務,它就會死亡。

  • Now this isn't necessarily a problem as long as your body can replace the cells with

    現在這不一定是個問題,只要你的身體能夠用以下方法替換細胞

  • new ones.

    新的。

  • However, this does not always happen.

    然而,這並不總是發生。

  • Your cells are able to divide and replace themselves with new cells only a set number

    你的細胞能夠分裂並替換成新的細胞,只有固定的數量。

  • of times.

    的次數。

  • This is actually what causes some of the symptoms of aging since your cells stop generating

    這實際上是導致衰老的一些症狀的原因,因為你的細胞停止產生

  • new versions of themselves once they have reached the end of their replication life

    一旦它們的複製壽命結束,它們就會有新的版本。

  • cycle.

    循環。

  • But that is a topic for another video.

    但這是另一個視頻的主題。

  • The most dangerous thing radiation does to your cells is alter their DNA.

    輻射對你的細胞最危險的事情是改變它們的DNA。

  • The DNA in every one of your body cells is identical.

    你的每一個身體細胞中的DNA都是相同的。

  • It's what makes you you.

    這是使你成為你的原因。

  • However, changes in the DNA called mutations can cause some life threatening changes in

    然而,DNA中被稱為突變的變化可以導致一些威脅生命的變化,如

  • your body.

    你的身體。

  • When the radiation enters your cells, and interacts with your genetic material.

    當輻射進入你的細胞,並與你的遺傳物質相互作用。

  • it can literally rip the DNA apart.

    它可以真正地將DNA撕碎。

  • This will cause the cell to try and repair your DNA, but mistakes happen, and those mistakes

    這將導致細胞試圖修復你的DNA,但錯誤發生了,而這些錯誤

  • could have drastic consequences.

    可能會產生激烈的後果。

  • If the mutation occurs in the wrong place it can lead to that cell reproducing uncontrollably.

    如果突變發生在錯誤的地方,就會導致該細胞不受控制地繁殖。

  • Normally when a cell divides there is a code of DNA that tells the division to stop once

    通常情況下,當一個細胞分裂時,有一個DNA代碼,告訴分裂一旦停止,就會停止。

  • completed.

    已完成。

  • However, when this does not happen the cell will continue to divide and replicate itself

    然而,當這種情況沒有發生時,細胞將繼續進行分裂和自我複製。

  • over and over and over again.

    一遍又一遍,一遍又一遍。

  • We more commonly refer to this process as cancer.

    我們更常把這個過程稱為癌症。

  • Even when the sunburn heals, if just one cell has DNA that has been mutated to cause it

    即使晒傷痊癒,如果只有一個細胞的DNA發生了變異,導致

  • to reproduce uncontrollably, you could get cancer.

    來進行不受控制的繁殖,你可能會得癌症。

  • Your body does have ways of identifying and repairing damaged DNA, but if one really bad

    你的身體確實有識別和修復受損DNA的方法,但如果一個真正糟糕的

  • mistake is missed, and the cancerous cell begins to duplicate, your body can rarely

    錯過了這個錯誤,癌細胞開始複製,你的身體很少能夠

  • do anything about it.

    做任何事情。

  • The reason for this is because cancer is the uncontrolled division of your own cells.

    其原因是癌症是你自己的細胞不受控制的分裂。

  • Your immune system does not recognize cancer as a threat because it is not a foreign pathogen

    你的免疫系統不承認癌症是一種威脅,因為它不是外來病原體

  • that is harming your body, it is your own cells.

    傷害你的身體,是你自己的細胞。

  • This means that the immune system almost never identifies cancerous cells as harmful because

    這意味著免疫系統幾乎從未將癌細胞識別為有害,因為

  • it just thinks they are a normal part of your own body.

    它只是認為它們是你自己身體的一個正常部分。

  • And that is why cancer is so dangerous and hard to cure.

    這就是為什麼癌症是如此危險和難以治癒。

  • The most common form of cancer associated with sunburn is skin cancer, which can be

    與晒傷有關的最常見的癌症形式是皮膚癌,它可能是

  • removed by a doctor pretty easily.

    醫生很容易將其取出。

  • However, if the cancerous cells get into the bloodstream and are carried throughout your

    然而,如果癌細胞進入血液,並在你的整個身體裡傳播,你就會發現它的存在。

  • body via the circulatory system the consequences could be dire.

    通過循環系統進入身體,後果可能是可怕的。

  • That is why it is always important to take precautions when being out in the sun for

    這就是為什麼在外面晒太陽時總是要採取預防措施的原因。

  • long periods of time.

    長時間的。

  • But don't worry, we are here to help protect you from the sun's radiation.

    但是不要擔心,我們在這裡幫助你保護你免受太陽的輻射。

  • Let's start with preventative methods for protecting your body from sunburn.

    讓我們從保護身體免受晒傷的預防方法開始。

  • In terms of staying healthy it is alway better to prevent something harmful than to treat

    在保持健康方面,預防有害的東西總是比治療好。

  • it after the fact.

    它在事後。

  • We all know that when spending long periods of time out in the sun we should wear sunscreen.

    我們都知道,當長時間呆在陽光下時,我們應該塗抹防晒霜。

  • But did you know medical professionals recommend using sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher?

    但你知道醫學專家建議使用SPF值為30或更高的防晒霜嗎?

  • This is because a lower SPF provides little to no protection at all, and is not effective

    這是因為較低的SPF值幾乎沒有提供任何保護,而且沒有效果。

  • in preventing sunburn.

    在防止晒傷方面。

  • Medical professionals also recommend using water-resistant and broad-spectrum sunscreen

    醫學專家還建議使用防水和廣譜的防晒霜

  • as well to reduce the risk of it being washed off by water or sweat.

    也是為了減少被水或汗水沖掉的風險。

  • Also, something we take for granted is the power of shade to protect us from the harmful

    此外,我們認為理所當然的是陰涼的力量,以保護我們不受有害的環境影響。

  • UV rays of the sun.

    太陽的紫外線。

  • Wearing clothing that is thick enough that light does not pass through will provide protection

    穿著足夠厚的衣服,使光線無法穿過,將提供保護。

  • from the sun's radiation as well.

    也是來自太陽輻射的。

  • But what should you do if you get sunburn?

    但如果你被晒傷了,應該怎麼辦?

  • There are a lot of so-called remedies out there, but what do the professionals actually

    現在有很多所謂的補救措施,但專業人士實際上是怎麼做的呢?

  • recommend?

    推薦?

  • Most agree that there is no silver bullet that will cure all the pain and symptoms of

    大多數人同意,沒有銀彈可以治癒所有的疼痛和症狀。

  • sunburn once it occurs.

    一旦發生晒傷。

  • What they do agree on is that after your skin has been exposed to intense amounts of sunlight,

    他們確實同意的是,在你的皮膚被暴露在強烈的陽光下之後。

  • you should immediately begin treating it to reduce the effects of the sunburn.

    你應該立即開始治療,以減少晒傷的影響。

  • It is recommended that you take cool showers and gently pat yourself dry to avoid irritation.

    建議你洗涼水澡,並輕輕拍幹自己,以避免刺激。

  • Make sure to use moisturizer that contains aloe vera, and for more intense sunburns apply

    確保使用含有蘆薈成分的保溼劑,對於更強烈的晒傷,可使用

  • hydrocortisone.

    氫化可的松。

  • Both of these products reduce pain and irritation.

    這兩種產品都能減少疼痛和刺激。

  • Also, aspirin or ibuprofen may be used to help block pain receptors and reduce swelling

    此外,可使用阿司匹林或布洛芬來幫助阻斷疼痛受體並減輕腫脹。

  • of the burn.

    的燃燒。

  • A key thing to remember when you get a sunburn is to drink lots of water.

    當你被晒傷時,要記住的一個關鍵事項是多喝水。

  • When sunburnt you lose water as the liquid in your body is drawn to the skin's surface

    晒傷後,由於體內的液體被吸引到皮膚表面,你會失去水分。

  • to help with the repair process of the damaged cells.

    以幫助受損細胞的修復過程。

  • This means water is not circulating through the rest of the body at the levels it should.

    這意味著水在身體其他部位的循環沒有達到應有的水準。

  • When this happens it can lead to dehydration, which can cause all sorts of other problems

    當這種情況發生時,可能會導致脫水,這可能會引起各種其他問題

  • within your body.

    在你的身體內。

  • Sunburn is preventable, but we are all human, and bound to get too much sun at some point

    晒傷是可以預防的,但我們都是人,在某些時候必然會晒得太厲害。

  • in our lives.

    在我們的生活中。

  • Just remember that a sunburn is caused by radiation, and along with being uncomfortable,

    只要記住,晒傷是由輻射引起的,同時也是不舒服的。

  • it can be harmful or even deadly in some circumstances.

    在某些情況下,它可能是有害的,甚至是致命的。

  • When you get sunburn, radiation from the sun is literally destroying the cells that make

    當你被晒傷時,來自太陽的輻射實際上是在破壞使你的細胞。

  • up your body.

    了你的身體。

  • And although your body is really good at repairing itself, if the radiation causes a change in

    儘管你的身體確實善於自我修復,但如果輻射導致你的身體發生變化,那麼你的身體就會受到影響。

  • your DNA that is missed by your repair mechanisms it could lead to cancer.

    如果你的DNA被你的修復機制所遺漏,就可能導致癌症。

  • So do yourself a favor and put on sunscreen next time you plan to spend the day out in

    是以,請幫你自己一個忙,下次你計劃在外面度過一天時,塗上防晒霜。

  • the sun.

    太陽。

  • Now check outHow To Stop Any Pain In Minutes.”

    現在請看 "如何在幾分鐘內停止任何疼痛"。

  • Or watchHow Long Would We Have to Live if the Sun Went Out?”

    或觀看 "如果太陽熄滅,我們還能活多久?"

It's summertime; the sun is shining, the waves are crashing on the beach, and you're laying out getting a nice tan.

現在是夏天,陽光明媚,海浪在海灘上拍打,而你正在躺在外面晒太陽。

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當你被晒傷時,實際上會發生什麼 (What Actually Happens When You Get a Sunburn)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 07 日
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