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  • In space no one can hear you scream. It's  hard to think of a sci-fi movie where at  

    在太空中,沒有人能夠聽到你的尖叫。很難想出一部科幻電影,其中在

  • least one person doesn't end up dying in spaceYou've probably seen bodies instantly freeze,  

    至少有一個人最終不會死在太空中。 你可能已經看到屍體瞬間凍結了。

  • have an alien erupt out of their  chest, or even explode. However,  

    有一個外星人從他們的胸部噴出,甚至爆炸。然而。

  • this is not what actually happens to a body  that is exposed to the vacuum of space.  

    這並不是暴露在太空真空中的身體實際發生的情況。

  • And none of these movies ever discuss what  happens to the body after death. Let's use  

    而且這些電影都沒有討論過死後身體會發生什麼。讓我們用

  • science to find the truth about what actually  happens to your body if you die in space.

    科學,以找到關於如果你在太空中死亡,你的身體究竟會發生什麼的真相。

  • Eighteen people have died in space or preparing  to go into space since Yuri Gagarin first left  

    自尤里-加加林首次離開太空以來,已有18人死於太空或準備進入太空。

  • our planet's atmosphere on April 12, 1961. This  is actually a relatively low number considering  

    1961年4月12日,我們星球的大氣層。這實際上是一個相對較低的數字,因為

  • how hostile space is to the human body. But  as we plan to venture beyond our own planet,  

    空間對人體是多麼的不利。但是,當我們計劃在我們自己的星球之外冒險時。

  • and explore the solar system, death in space  is going to become more and more common.

    並探索太陽系,太空中的死亡將變得越來越普遍。

  • As of right now NASA's official statement of what  to do with a dead body if someone dies off planet  

    截至目前,美國宇航局的官方聲明是,如果有人在地球外死亡,該如何處理屍體?

  • is lacking in specifics. In fact, they say: “NASA  does not prepare contingency plans for all remote  

    是缺乏具體內容的。事實上,他們說"美國宇航局沒有為所有的遠程準備應急計劃

  • risks.” Basically they'll figure it out if it  ever happens. That being said, astronauts do run  

    風險。"基本上,如果有一天發生,他們會想辦法解決。話雖如此,太空人確實在運行

  • scenarios where they need to quarantine a body  from the rest of the crew during space flight.

    在太空飛行期間,他們需要將一具屍體與其他船員隔離的場景。

  • Before we dive into what would happen to a dead  body that was left to endlessly float through  

    在我們深入瞭解一具屍體會發生什麼事之前,讓它無休止地漂流在

  • outer space let's clear up some misconceptionsMovies and television shows are made to entertain.  

    外太空讓我們澄清一些誤解。 電影和電視節目是用來娛樂的。

  • This means the more dramatic, the betterespecially when someone is exposed to the  

    這意味著越有戲劇性越好,特別是當有人被暴露在

  • vacuum of space. So, let's look at the actual  science and see what would actually occur  

    空間的真空。是以,讓我們看一下實際的科學,看看實際會發生什麼

  • to someone's body in space. It is pretty  common in sci-fi to see someone instantly  

    到某人在太空中的身體。在科幻作品中,看到某人瞬間的情況相當普遍

  • freeze as soon as they are exposed  to space. Would this really happen?

    一旦它們暴露在太空中就會被凍結。這真的會發生嗎?

  • The answer is no. When you think about itspace actually doesn't have a temperature.  

    答案是否定的。當你想一想,空間實際上沒有溫度。

  • Temperature is caused by the amount of matter  in an area, and how quickly it is moving.  

    溫度是由一個地區的物質數量和它的運動速度造成的。

  • The faster atoms move, the more heat they  give off, the higher the temperature is.  

    原子移動得越快,它們發出的熱量就越多,溫度就越高。

  • If there is no matter, like in the vacuum of  space, there can be no temperature. There are  

    如果沒有物質,比如在太空的真空中,就不可能有溫度。有

  • a lot of other things that can kill you, but  you will not instantly turn into a popsicle.

    很多其他東西可以殺死你,但你不會立即變成冰棒。

  • Your body is around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit on  average. When exposed to space your body will  

    你的身體平均在98.6華氏度左右。當暴露在太空中時,你的身體會

  • still be 98.6 degrees Fahrenhite, however, you  will start to lose some of that heat eventually,  

    仍然是98.6華氏度,但是,你最終會開始失去一些熱量。

  • but it is not instantaneous. The reason the loss  of heat is relatively slow is because of the way  

    但它不是瞬間的。熱量損失相對緩慢的原因是,由於

  • heat is transferred. Normally differences between  two systemssuch as your body and the air outside  

    熱量被轉移。通常情況下,兩個系統之間的差異--如你的身體和外面的空氣

  • itallow heat to flow from where it's warmer to  where it's cooler. Since there is very little,  

    它--允許熱量從較熱的地方流向較冷的地方。由於很少有。

  • to no matter in outer space, this  transfer of heat can't happen. Therefore,  

    到外太空沒有任何物質,這種熱量的轉移不可能發生。是以。

  • your body does not instantly lose all of its  heat the moment your skin is exposed to space.

    你的身體不會在你的皮膚暴露在空間的那一刻立即失去所有的熱量。

  • However, heat can also be lost, or gainedthrough radiation, and since there is radiation  

    然而,熱量也可以通過輻射損失或獲得,由於存在輻射

  • coming from all stars as well as from the  creation of the universe during the Big Bang,  

    來自所有恆星以及宇宙大爆炸期間的創造。

  • the transfer of energy through radiation does  occur. For example, if you are directly in the  

    通過輻射的能量轉移確實發生了。例如,如果你直接在

  • path of sunlight the radiation from the sun  could actually make you slightly warmer for a  

    陽光的路徑,太陽的輻射實際上可以使你在一段時間內略微溫暖。

  • short time. If you are in the shadow of a planet  or other celestial object your body will radiate  

    短時間內。如果你在一顆行星或其他天體的陰影下,你的身體會放射出

  • heat away from you and into space. The transfer of  heat through radiation is slow, and therefore even  

    熱量離開你,進入空間。通過輻射傳遞熱量的速度很慢,是以即使是

  • if you are thrown into space without a spacesuityour body will not instantly lose all of its heat.

    如果你沒有穿太空服被扔進太空,你的身體不會立即失去所有的熱量。

  • Other space deaths in the cinema depict someone  exploding from extreme changes of pressure. Again,  

    電影中的其他太空死亡事件描述了某人因壓力的極端變化而爆炸。再一次。

  • this would not happen. There is definitely  a change in pressure between the interior of  

    這就不會發生。艙內的壓力肯定會有變化。

  • a ship and space, but that change in pressure  would not result in someone exploding. However,  

    一艘船和空間,但這種壓力的變化不會導致有人爆炸。然而。

  • the lack of pressure would definitely  have negative effects on a human body,  

    缺乏壓力肯定會對人體產生不利影響。

  • and would cause death after prolonged  periods of time, but not death by explosion.

    並會在長時間後導致死亡,但不會因爆炸而死亡。

  • Humans, and all life on the planet, evolved  under Earth's atmospheric pressure. When there  

    人類和地球上的所有生命都是在地球的大氣壓力下進化的。當有

  • is no pressure pushing on your body, there are  negative consequences. Without Earth's atmospheric  

    是沒有壓力推到你的身體上,有負面的後果。如果沒有地球的大氣層

  • pressure pushing against you, the air inside your  lungs, and in your veins, expands. The expansion  

    在壓力的作用下,你的肺部和靜脈中的空氣會膨脹。這種膨脹

  • does not have enough force to cause your body to  explode from the inside out, but it could rupture  

    沒有足夠的力量使你的身體從裡到外爆炸,但它可能會破裂。

  • your lungs unless it is immediately exhaledOftentimes in movies when the protagonist needs  

    你的肺部,除非它被立即呼出。 在電影中,當主角需要

  • to venture through space without a protective  suit they are told to exhale. This is actually  

    在沒有防護服的情況下在太空中冒險,他們被告知要呼氣。這實際上是

  • sound scientific advice to keep your lungs from  rupturing due to the sudden change in pressure.

    健全的科學建議,使你的肺部不會因為壓力的突然變化而破裂。

  • A pressure change can also cause the water in  your blood to convert from a liquid into a gas.  

    壓力變化也會導致你血液中的水從液體轉化為氣體。

  • This can cause air bubbles in the blood and  swelling of muscles and tissues, which can result  

    這可能導致血液中出現氣泡,肌肉和組織腫脹,這可能導致

  • in an embolism. An embolism is when bubbles in  the bloodstream block the flow of blood to vital  

    在一個栓塞中。栓塞是指血液中的氣泡阻礙了血液流向重要器官的過程。

  • organs such as the brain. This can certainly lead  to death, but cannot cause your body to explode.

    諸如大腦等器官。這當然可以導致死亡,但不能導致你的身體爆炸。

  • A final major concern about exposing your body to  the vacuum of space is that there is no oxygen,  

    將身體暴露在太空真空中的最後一個主要擔憂是,沒有氧氣。

  • which means death is inevitable if you do  not have a space suit on that provides you  

    這意味著如果你沒有穿上為你提供的太空服,死亡是不可避免的。

  • with this vital gas. When in the vacuum of space  oxygen literally diffuses out of the bloodstream  

    與這種重要的氣體。當在太空的真空中時,氧氣實際上從血液中擴散出來。

  • and is lost to the outside environment. This leads  to hypoxia, or oxygen deprivation. Within fifteen  

    並流失到外部環境。這導致了缺氧,或缺氧。在十五分鐘內

  • seconds of deoxygenated blood reaching the brain  you can go unconscious. Your body could survive  

    脫氧的血液到達大腦的幾秒鐘,你就會失去意識。你的身體可以存活

  • about a minute in an unconscious state from lack  of oxygen, but soon after that you'd be dead.

    在缺氧的情況下,大約有一分鐘的時間處於無意識狀態,但不久之後你就會死亡。

  • This brings us to the main question. What  happens to the body after someone dies  

    這給我們帶來了主要問題。人死後身體會發生什麼

  • in space? It is clear that the human body  cannot last long before death occurs, but  

    在太空中?很明顯,在死亡發生之前,人類的身體不可能持續太久,但

  • once you are dead what happens to your remains? We know that your body would not instantly freeze,  

    一旦你死了,你的遺體會怎麼樣? 我們知道,你的身體不會瞬間凍結。

  • but after a while when the heat has radiated  from your remains you would become a popsicle.  

    但一段時間後,當熱量從你的遺體中散發出來,你就會變成冰棒。

  • In terms of preservation of a body this actually  is a good thing. On Earth once a living thing  

    就保存身體而言,這實際上是一件好事。在地球上,一旦一個生物

  • dies it immediately begins to be broken down  by decomposers such as bacteria. However,  

    死亡,它立即開始被細菌等分解者分解。然而。

  • in space there is no oxygen or gasses of any kindand therefore, no decomposers can survive to break  

    在太空中,沒有氧氣或任何種類的氣體,是以,沒有任何分解者可以存活下來,以打破這種狀況。

  • you down. If your body is not near a source of  heat such as a star, the body will freeze and stay  

    你倒下了。如果你的身體不在熱源附近,如星星,身體就會被凍住並保持在

  • that way for eternity, or until you crash into  something and shatter into a million tiny pieces.

    就這樣永遠下去,或者直到你撞上什麼東西,碎成一百萬個小碎片。

  • On the other hand, if your dead, exposed, body  is close to a source of radiation such as a star,  

    另一方面,如果你的死亡、暴露的身體靠近一個輻射源,如恆星。

  • your remains could be cooked. If it is  an intense source of radiation you would  

    你的遺體可能會被煮熟。如果是強輻射源,你會

  • get a really nasty radiation burn. But  then again, you would already be dead,  

    得到一個非常討厭的輻射燒傷。但話說回來,你已經死了。

  • so it probably wouldn't bother you too much.

    所以它可能不會對你造成太大的困擾。

  • If you died in a spacesuit however things  would be very different. Say for example you  

    然而,如果你死在太空服裡,情況就會非常不同。比如說你

  • were struck by a micrometeor. If you were able  to patch the hole in the suit, but then died,  

    被一顆微流星擊中。如果你能夠修補衣服上的洞,但隨後死亡。

  • decomposition would actually start to  occur right then. Your exhaled air,  

    分解實際上會在那時開始發生。你呼出的空氣。

  • and any oxygen left in the suit, would allow  for decomposers to begin breaking you down.  

    和留在衣服裡的任何氧氣,將允許分解者開始分解你。

  • Also, since your body is contained within the  spacesuit it would take much longer for the heat  

    此外,由於你的身體被包含在宇航服內,它將需要更長的時間來獲得熱量。

  • to radiate from your body, which would also allow  decomposers to do their work more efficiently.

    以輻射你的身體,這也將使分解者更有效地完成他們的工作。

  • One main difference between decomposition in  a space suit versus decomposition on Earth,  

    太空服中的分解與地球上的分解的一個主要區別。

  • would be the source of the decomposers. On planet  Earth there are decomposers in the environment:  

    將是分解者的來源。在地球上,環境中存在著分解者。

  • like in the air, soil, water, etc. Howeverin space, the only decomposers are inside  

    如空氣、土壤、水等中。然而,在太空中,唯一的分解者在內部

  • your body. The bacteria that make up your  microbiome would literally decompose you  

    你的身體。構成你的微生物組的細菌會真正地分解你

  • from the inside out. To be fair, you aren't  using your body anymore if you're dead,  

    從裡到外。公平地說,如果你死了,你就不再使用你的身體了。

  • so why not let it serve as food for the  microorganisms living inside of you.

    所以為什麼不讓它作為生活在你體內的微生物的食物。

  • The bacteria inside you decompose your  body after you die on Earth as well,  

    你在地球上死後,你體內的細菌也會分解你的身體。

  • but there are outside decomposers available on  our planet that aren't in space. At some point,  

    但在我們的星球上有外部分解者可用,而不是在太空中。在某種程度上。

  • the bacteria would use up the remaining  oxygen in the space suit and then something  

    細菌會耗盡太空服中剩餘的氧氣,然後就會出現一些問題。

  • really incredible happens. The bacteria  move from aerobic respirationusing  

    真正不可思議的事情發生了。細菌從有氧呼吸--使用

  • oxygen to generate energy for life  processesto using anaerobic respiration.  

    氧氣為生命過程產生能量--使用無氧呼吸。

  • Anaerobic respiration does not require any oxygenOne form of anaerobic respiration is fermentation,  

    厭氧呼吸不需要任何氧氣。 厭氧呼吸的一種形式是發酵。

  • so the bacteria in your body would actually  break down your nutrients and create alcohol as  

    是以,你體內的細菌實際上會分解你的營養物質併產生酒精作為

  • a byproduct. You wouldn't be alive to enjoy  the alcohol, but it's still pretty cool.

    一個副產品。你不會活著享受酒精,但它仍然相當酷。

  • If there was a source of radiation from a star  like the sun, it would break down your body  

    如果有一個像太陽一樣的恆星的輻射源,它將分解你的身體

  • pretty quickly if you were directly in its pathThere is also a small amount of radiation from  

    如果你直接在它的路徑上,很快就會被發現。 也有少量的輻射來自

  • the remnants of the Big Bang throughout the entire  universe, but it is not very much. The background  

    在整個宇宙中,大爆炸的殘餘物,但它不是非常多。背景

  • radiation would also break down the space suit  eventuallyalthough this could take thousands  

    輻射最終也會破壞太空服--儘管這可能需要成千上萬的時間。

  • of yearsand at that point, any living things  such as bacteria would die with you in space.

    在那個時候,任何生物,如細菌,都會在太空中與你一起死亡。

  • Hypothetically, if you were close  enough to a source of radiation,  

    假設一下,如果你離輻射源足夠近的話。

  • and the space suit broke down while there were  gasses in it from the decomposition of your body,  

    和太空服分解,而其中有來自你的身體分解的氣體。

  • something really crazy would happen. The  processes of respiration and fermentation  

    會發生一些非常瘋狂的事情。呼吸作用和發酵的過程

  • create gasses such as carbon dioxide asbyproduct. This means the bacteria would  

    創造氣體,如二氧化碳作為副產品。這意味著這些細菌會

  • be filling the space suit with gas  and increasing the pressure within it  

    在太空服中注入氣體並增加其中的壓力

  • while breaking down your body. If the space suit  was suddenly compromised by a tear or radiation,  

    同時分解你的身體。如果太空服突然因撕裂或輻射而受到損害。

  • the result could be a small explosion. The space  suit would tear apart releasing all of the gasses  

    結果可能是小規模爆炸。太空服會撕裂,釋放出所有的氣體。

  • at once in a silent explosion; since sound  waves can't be created in the vacuum of space

    在一次無聲的爆炸中立即產生;因為在空間真空中不能產生聲波

  • Something that has come up recently as NASA  and other space agencies prepare to launch  

    最近,在美國宇航局和其他空間機構準備發射時,出現了這樣的事情

  • manned missions to Mars and beyond is what to  do with the body of an astronaut who has died  

    載人火星和更遠的地方的任務是如何處理已經死亡的太空人的屍體

  • on a mission. There is no set plan yet, but it  has been discussed because as humans venture  

    在一項任務中。目前還沒有既定的計劃,但已經討論過了,因為作為人類的風險

  • further and further from the protective shield  of Earth, accidents are bound to happen. People  

    離地球的保護罩越來越遠,事故必然會發生。人們

  • will die in space at some point, so what would  the other astronauts do with the body itself?

    將在某個時候死在太空中,那麼其他太空人將如何處理屍體本身?

  • On a space station or ship there is air for the  crew to breathe. This means that there is oxygen,  

    在空間站或飛船上,有供船員呼吸的空氣。這意味著有氧氣。

  • and therefore, decomposition of a dead body will  occur. The body needs to be sealed away somewhere  

    是以,屍體會發生分解。屍體需要被封存在某個地方

  • quickly because it will begin to smell. There is  also the problem of the body being a biohazard.  

    迅速,因為它將開始發臭。還有一個問題是,屍體是一種生物危險品。

  • A bunch of nasty pathogens can be passed on from  one human to another while handling a dead body,  

    在處理屍體時,一堆討厭的病原體可以從一個人傳給另一個人。

  • and the longer a corpse is allowed to  decompose, the worse things can get.

    而且允許屍體腐爛的時間越長,事情就會變得越糟糕。

  • There are a couple of contingency plans that  have been thought up by space agencies if an  

    有幾個應急計劃是由空間機構想出來的,如果有一個

  • astronaut dies in their spacesuit. It would make  the most sense to keep them in the spacesuit,  

    太空人死在他們的宇航服裡。讓他們留在宇航服中是最合理的。

  • and trap the gasses of the dead body withinThe suits themselves are self contained,  

    並將屍體的氣體困在裡面。 這套衣服本身是自帶的。

  • and nothing would be able to get in, or  more importantly out. Once the body is  

    而且沒有任何東西能夠進入,或者更重要的是能夠出來。一旦身體被

  • secured it would then be moved to one of the  colder parts of the spacecraft. This might  

    確保它隨後將被移到航天器的一個較冷的地方。這可能

  • be near one of the airlocks, but it should  definitely be away from the rest of the crew.

    靠近其中一個氣閘,但它肯定應該遠離其他船員。

  • Other options of what to do with a dead body  in space could be to send it back to Earth  

    如何處理太空中的屍體的其他選擇可能是將其送回地球

  • on a resupply ship. Or jettison the body and  let it burn up in the atmosphere of whatever  

    在一艘補給船上。或者拋棄屍體,讓它在任何國家的大氣層中燃燒起來。

  • the closest planet is. For example, both  Mars and Venus have atmospheres that could  

    最接近的行星是。例如,火星和金星都有大氣層,可以

  • be used as a means of cremating a body on  re-entry if Earth is too far away. However,  

    如果地球離得太遠,可以作為返回時火化屍體的一種手段。然而。

  • if the body needs to be preserved and  returned to a planet so that it can be buried,  

    如果屍體需要保存並返回到一個星球,以便能夠埋葬它。

  • there are ways to keep a body along for the  ride without keeping it inside the spaceship.

    有一些方法可以讓屍體在飛船中不受影響。

  • One method of dealing with a dead  body during a long space mission  

    在長期的太空任務中處理屍體的一種方法

  • is to mount it on the outside of the  spacecraft. If kept on the side of the  

    是將其安裝在航天器的外部。如果保持在飛船的側面

  • ship facing away from sunlight, the dead  body would eventually become freeze dried.  

    船隻朝向遠離陽光的地方,屍體最終會變成凍乾的。

  • Then the crew could choose from a few  different ways of disposing of it.

    然後船員們可以從幾種不同的處理方式中選擇。

  • Once the body is frozen it could be released  from the ship and sent on a trajectory to be  

    一旦屍體被凍結,它就可以從船上釋放出來,並被送上一個軌道,以便被送往目的地。

  • incinerated in a nearby star. Or the path chosen  might allow the corpse to float endlessly through  

    在附近的恆星中被焚燒。或者選擇的路徑可能允許屍體無休止地漂浮在

  • space. If the explorers don't want to litter  space with human debris they could wait until  

    空間。如果探險家們不想在太空中留下人類的殘骸,他們可以等到

  • the body is completely frozen and then  use a robotic arm to smash it into small,  

    屍體被完全凍結,然後用機械臂將其砸成小塊。

  • crystallized, pieces. This may seem gruesome, but  it would cause the body to break up into minuscule  

    結晶,碎片。這可能看起來很可怕,但它會導致身體分解成微小的

  • fragments, which would eventually burn up in  an atmosphere or be broken down by radiation.

    碎片,這些碎片最終會在大氣中燃燒或被輻射分解。

  • Humans are on the verge of venturing out of  near Earth orbit and heading to other planets  

    人類即將走出近地軌道,向其他星球進發

  • and beyond. It is a fact of life that everyone  dies, and as more and more people travel to space,  

    和超越。每個人都會死亡,這是一個事實,隨著越來越多的人到太空旅行。

  • this natural process will occur beyond  our planet. You won't explode if exposed  

    這個自然過程將發生在我們的星球之外。如果暴露在空氣中,你不會爆炸

  • to the vacuum of space, but you will  eventually freeze, leaving your body  

    到太空的真空,但你最終會被凍結,使你的身體

  • destined to float around the universe for  eternity, or until you crash into something.

    註定要在宇宙中永遠漂浮,或者直到你撞上什麼東西。

  • Now check outWhat Happens  to Your Body After You Die?”  

    現在看看 "你死後你的身體會發生什麼變化?"

  • Or watchWhat Happens To Your Body in a Coma?”

    或觀看 "你的身體在昏迷中會發生什麼?"

In space no one can hear you scream. It's  hard to think of a sci-fi movie where at  

在太空中,沒有人能夠聽到你的尖叫。很難想出一部科幻電影,其中在

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B1 中級 中文 太空 分解 身體 屍體 輻射 死亡

如果你在太空中死亡,你的身體到底會發生什麼? (What Really Happens to Your Body if You Die in Space)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 30 日
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