字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Lucifer. 路西法。 Satan. 撒旦。 Ahriman. 阿利曼。 Darren Farley. 達倫-法利。 The devil wears many names, but just how did this being of ultimate evil come to be? 惡魔有很多名字，但這個終極邪惡的存在是如何形成的呢？ Throughout history and cultures, evil entities have always been blamed for various tragedies 縱觀歷史和文化，邪惡的實體總是被指責為各種悲劇的原因。 that befell humanity. 遭遇到的人類。 In ancient Greek mythology, there were various entities which could perform or inspire evil 在古希臘神話中，有各種實體可以執行或激發邪惡 deeds, but the Greek gods themselves were often so cruel and evil that there was little 但希臘諸神本身往往是如此殘酷和邪惡，以至於幾乎沒有什麼 need for a centralized evil figure. 需要一個集中的邪惡人物。 Hades may be the figure best representative of a traditional 'devil', but compared to 哈迪斯可能是傳統 "魔鬼 "的最佳代表人物，但與之相比 the shenanigans of the other gods, Hades often comes off as a choir boy. 在其他諸神的惡作劇中，哈迪斯經常表現得像個唱詩班的孩子。 Under the yoke of gods who were as capricious, petty, selfish, arrogant, and jealous as children, 在那些像孩子一樣任性、小氣、自私、傲慢和嫉妒的神明的枷鎖下。 the ancient Greeks could have been said to suffer under many devils. 古希臘人可以說是在許多魔鬼面前受苦。 Buddhism is one of the few non-Abrahamic religions that has a figure similar to what we most 佛教是少數幾個非亞伯拉罕宗教之一，它的形象與我們最 closely associate as 'the devil' in our modern culture. 在我們的現代文化中與 "魔鬼 "密切相關。 In Buddhism, the demon Mara directly opposes the Buddha's quest for enlightenment. 在佛教中，惡魔瑪拉直接反對佛祖對開悟的追求。 In one version of events, he sends his three daughters, Attraction, Aversion, and Delusion, 在事件的一個版本中，他派出了他的三個女兒：吸引力、厭惡和妄想。 to strip in front of the meditating Buddah, in order to tempt him away from his studies. 在打坐的佛祖面前脫衣服，以誘惑他離開他的研究。 Buddah however swept them away from his presence, ignoring the temptation and continuing to 然而，Buddah將他們從他的面前掃地出門，無視誘惑，繼續前進。 pursue his personal enlightenment. 追求他的個人啟蒙。 Mara is the guardian of passion, and uses his powers of lust, hesitation, and fear in 瑪拉是激情的守護者，並利用他的慾望、猶豫和恐懼的力量在 order to lead would-be Buddhists astray and off the path. 以此來引導潛在的佛教徒誤入歧途，偏離道路。 If you've ever felt yourself afraid of doing the right thing, hesitating to act when you 如果你曾經感到自己害怕做正確的事情，在你的行為上猶豫不決時 know you should, or cheating on a significant other with another person, then you've felt 知道你應該這樣做，或者與另一個人欺騙重要的另一半，那麼你已經感到 the powerful pull of Mara in your own life. 在你自己的生活中，馬拉的強大拉力。 Unlike the traditional Abrahamic devil however, Mara does eventually repent of his sins and 然而，與傳統的亞伯拉罕魔鬼不同的是，馬拉最終確實為自己的罪孽懺悔了，並且 convert to Buddhism. 皈依佛門。 This occurs when the Buddhist monk Upagupta journeys to the ancient Indian kingdom of 這發生在佛教僧侶烏帕古塔前往古印度王國的時候。 Mathura to preach the path of enlightenment. 馬圖拉，宣揚啟蒙之道。 Finding great success amongst the population, Mara's palace began to tremble, and he was 在民眾中發現了巨大的成功，馬拉的宮殿開始顫抖，而他被 quick to take his revenge, attacking the Dharma- or the Buddhist teachings directly. 迅速進行報復，直接攻擊達摩--或佛教教義。 In order to seek out the source of the disturbance, Upagupta slipped into a meditative trance, 為了尋找干擾的來源，烏帕古普塔陷入了冥想的恍惚之中。 known as samadhi. 被稱為三昧耶。 With the monk helpless before him, Mara slipped a fine jade necklace over his neck, an attempt 僧侶們在他面前束手無策，馬拉將一條精美的玉石項鍊套在他的脖子上，試圖 to tempt the monk with vanity. 以虛榮心來誘惑僧侶。 Upagupta then gathered three corpses- that of a man, a dog, and a snake- and transformed 隨後，烏帕古塔收集了三具屍體--一個人、一條狗和一條蛇--並將其轉化為 them into a beautiful garland. 它們變成了一個美麗的花環。 Approaching Mara, the monk offered him the beautiful garland as a thank you token for 僧侶們走近馬拉，向他獻上了美麗的花環，作為對他的感謝信。 the jade necklace. 玉石項鍊。 Reveling in his destruction of the monk's piety with his gift of precious jade, Mara 馬拉對他用貴重的玉石禮物破壞和尚的虔誠感到高興。 proudly extended his neck and received the garland, only to have it instantly transform 驕傲地伸出脖子，接過花環，只見花環瞬間就變成了 back into the three rotting corpses. 回到那三具腐爛的屍體中。 Angered and disgusted, Mara fled to the heavens, seeking anyone who could help him remove the 憤怒和厭惡之餘，馬拉逃到天上，尋找任何能幫助他清除的人。 rotting corpses from around his neck. 從他的脖子上取下腐爛的屍體。 In desperation, he approached Brahma himself- one of the principal deities of Buddhism- 在絕望中，他找到了梵天本人--佛教的主要神靈之一。 and begged him to remove the necklace. 並懇求他摘下項鍊。 Brahma suggested that Mara return to earth and beg for the forgiveness of the monk who 梵天建議馬拉回到人間，並乞求那個和尚的原諒。 had cursed him. 詛咒了他。 Mara thus returned to Upagupta and threw himself at the monk's feet. 瑪拉就這樣回到了烏帕古塔身邊，撲到了和尚的腳下。 Upagupta asked if he would turn from his evil ways and cease to attack the Dharma, to which 烏帕古塔問他是否會改邪歸正，不再攻擊佛法，對此他說 Mara eagerly agreed, and then began to repent for his many sins. 馬拉急切地同意了，然後開始為他的許多罪孽懺悔。 Thus, Mara was converted from his evil ways to the path of enlightenment. 是以，馬拉從他的惡行中皈依到了啟蒙之路。 In early Hindu beliefs, there is no one figure, or group of figures, responsible for evil. 在早期的印度教信仰中，沒有一個人物或一群人物對邪惡負責。 Rather, evil simply exists in the world as part of the natural cycle of life. 相反，邪惡只是作為生命的自然循環的一部分存在於世界上。 As the Hindu faith evolved however, blame for evil was assigned to demons. 然而，隨著印度教信仰的發展，邪惡的責任被歸於惡魔。 Both demons and gods made a choice to speak either truth or untruth, with the gods choosing 惡魔和眾神都做出了選擇，要麼說真話，要麼說假話，眾神選擇了 to speak only truth and the demons choosing to speak only untruth. 只說真話，而魔鬼只選擇說不真話。 While we may be best familiar with the concept of the devil due to abrahamic religions, the 雖然我們可能最熟悉的是亞伯拉罕宗教中的魔鬼概念，但在《聖經》和《聖經》中都有關於魔鬼的描述。 devil as a singular entity of ultimate evil, is believed to actually be the influence of 魔鬼作為一個終極邪惡的單一實體，被認為實際上是由 "上帝 "的影響。 Zoroastrianism on early Judaism. 瑣羅亞斯德教對早期猶太教的影響。 In Zoroastrianism, good and evil are not part of the same coin, but rather are two completely 在瑣羅亞斯德教中，善和惡不是同一個硬幣的一部分，而是兩個完全不同的概念。 opposite and separate forces that are forever in conflict with each other. 相互對立和獨立的力量，永遠在相互衝突。 The force of good is called Ahura Mazda, and the force of evil, or “destructive spirit”, 善的力量被稱為阿胡拉-馬茲達，而惡的力量，或 "破壞性的精神"。 is known as Angra Mainyu, or Ahriman. 被稱為Angra Mainyu，或Ahriman。 Neither of these two forces is all-powerful, meaning one cannot outright control or defeat 這兩種力量都不是全能的，也就是說，一個人無法徹底控制或擊敗 the other. 另一個。 But, good and evil are also not equals- good is free of the bonds of time and space, while 但是，善與惡也是不平等的--善是不受時間和空間的束縛的，而 evil is constrained by both time and space. 邪惡受到時間和空間的限制。 Thus, when the world ends and time and space are dissolved, evil will die along with the 是以，當世界末日，時間和空間被消解時，邪惡將與之一起死亡。 old word, leaving only good to reign forever. 舊話重提，只留下美好的東西，讓它永遠統治。 This concept of two separate, powerful entities vying for the fate of the world, is believed 這種兩個獨立的、強大的實體爭奪世界命運的概念，被認為是 to have influenced early Judaism, prompting belief in a devil who was powerful- yet not 影響了早期的猶太教，促使人們相信有一個強大的魔鬼--但不是 as powerful as God himself who would ultimately win and rule supreme. 像上帝一樣強大的人，最終將贏得勝利，統治天下。 In early Judaism though, there was no belief in an actual devil. 但在早期的猶太教中，並不相信有真正的魔鬼。 Yahweh rules supreme, and for a long time, Satan in Judaism was not so much an individual, 耶和華的統治是至高無上的，在很長一段時間內，猶太教中的撒旦並不是那麼個人。 as he was a natural inclination by people to do wrong. 因為他是人們做錯事的一種自然傾向。 Translated as “opponent” or “adversary”, Satan was the sinful impulse or general forces 譯為 "對手 "或 "敵手"，撒旦是罪惡的衝動或總體力量 that prevent human beings from doing good. 阻止人類行善。 There was no central figure who commanded these forces, and no tempter that played on 沒有一個指揮這些力量的中心人物，也沒有一個誘惑者玩弄於股掌之間。 human frailty to lure people into evil. 人類的弱點，引誘人們進入邪惡。 A battle with Satan in Judaism is a battle with yourself, and your proclivity to be lustful, 在猶太教中，與撒旦的戰鬥是與你自己和你的好色傾向的戰鬥。 selfish, lazy, etc. 自私、懶惰，等等。 Sometimes though the name Satan is used to reference an accusatory or prosecutorial figure, 雖然有時撒旦這個名字被用來指代一個指控或起訴的人物。 who is actually also on God's side- not opposed to him. 他實際上也是站在上帝一邊，而不是與他對立。 Typically this is an angel which is allowed to act in a way that is adversarial to God's 一般來說，這是一個被允許以對抗上帝的方式行事的天使。 people, in order to help them rid themselves of moral weaknesses or strengthen their character 以幫助他們擺脫道德上的弱點或加強他們的性格 and faith. 和信仰。 Perhaps the best known example of this is in the book of Job. 這方面最著名的例子也許是在《約伯記》中。 Job is one of the wealthiest men in the land of Uz, where he lives with his large family 約伯是烏茲地區最富有的人之一，他和他的大家庭住在那裡。 and many flocks. 和許多羊群。 Described as a righteous man, who strives to do good and avoid doing evil, Job is blessed 約伯被描述為一個正直的人，他努力做好事，避免做壞事，他被祝福了 with a large family and much wealth. 有一個大的家庭和許多財富。 However, Satan approaches God one day and God boasts to Satan about how good and faithful 然而，有一天，撒旦找到了上帝，上帝向撒旦誇口說，他是多麼的好，多麼的忠心。 his servant Job is. 他的僕人約伯是。 Satan however points out that it's easy to be good and faithful when you're living such 然而，撒旦指出，當你生活在這樣的環境中時，很容易變得善良和忠心。 a good life, so he challenges God- take away Job's fortunes, and he'll surely curse your 一個好的生活，所以他挑戰上帝--奪走約伯的財富，他一定會詛咒你。 name. 名稱。 With that, God grants Satan power over Job's life- yet forbids him from actually killing 就這樣，上帝授予撒旦控制約伯生命的權力--但卻禁止他實際殺人。 Job. 工作。 In just one day, Satan kills all of Job's livestock, ten of his children, and all of 僅僅在一天之內，撒旦就殺死了約伯的所有牲畜，他的十個孩子，以及所有的 his servants. 他的僕人。 Job is not just financially destitute, but has lost nearly all of his family. 約伯不僅在經濟上一貧如洗，而且幾乎失去了他所有的家人。 He shaves his head and tears his clothes in mourning, and then settles into the dust of 他剃了頭，撕了衣服，以示哀悼，然後安頓下來。 his home where he lays as three of his friends visit him and try to find the source of his 在他的家中，他躺在那裡，他的三個朋友去看他，並試圖找到他的來源。 damnations- confident that it must be some secret sin in Job's life that brought this 詛咒--確信一定是約伯生命中的某些祕密的罪孽帶來了這種 catastrophe down on him. 災難降臨到他身上。 During the course of his ordeal, Job defends his character against his friends and rebukes 在他的磨難過程中，約伯為他的性格辯護，反對他的朋友，並斥責說 his wife, who suggests that he curse God and die. 他的妻子建議他詛咒上帝而死。 As Job refuses to blame God for his misfortune, Satan strikes him with all manner of illnesses, 由於約伯拒絕將他的不幸歸咎於上帝，撒旦用各種疾病來打擊他。 further adding to his misery. 進一步增加了他的痛苦。 While Job expresses frustration with God, he still refuses to blame God for his woes- pointing out that God had up until then, given him a long, happy life, so he had the right 他指出，在那之前，上帝給了他一個漫長而幸福的生活，所以他有權利 to take it away. 來把它帶走。 Job's friends continue to harass him, all of them confident in their self-righteousness 約伯的朋友們繼續騷擾他，他們都對自己的自以為是充滿信心 that Job clearly must have been harboring some secret sin, or this evil wouldn't have 約伯顯然一定是隱藏著某種祕密的罪過，否則這種邪惡就不會 befallen him. 他的遭遇。 At last, God appears before the group as a whirling tempest, and with a series of rhetorical 最後，上帝以漩渦般的風暴出現在這群人面前，並以一系列的修辭手法 questions shows the frustrated Job and group just how little they understand creation or 這些問題向沮喪的約伯和小組表明，他們對創造和發展有多麼不瞭解。 the nature of God. 神的本質。 In an act of humility, Job admits his limited knowledge, which pleases God- though God remains 在謙卑的行為中，約伯承認他的知識有限，這使上帝感到高興--儘管上帝仍然是 upset with Job's friends who had for days tried to pressure Job into admitting his suffering 對約伯的朋友們感到不滿，他們多日來一直試圖迫使約伯承認自己的痛苦。 was his own fault. 是他自己的錯。 Job however asks God to forgive his friends, which pleases God once more, and God forgives 然而，約伯請求上帝原諒他的朋友，這讓上帝再次感到高興，上帝也原諒了 the friends while restoring to Job twice as much wealth as he had before, along with new 在為約伯恢復兩倍於他以前的財富的同時，還為他恢復了新的 children and an extremely long, happy life. 孩子們和極長的幸福生活。 While Christians have turned the Satan of the Book of Job into an individual entity 雖然基督徒將《約伯記》中的撒旦變成了一個獨立的實體 diametrically opposed to God, the ancient Jews understood the Satan of Job as merely 與上帝截然相反，古代猶太人把約伯的撒旦理解為僅僅是 an actor in God's heavenly court. 在上帝的天庭中扮演一個演員。 Furthermore, while scriptural literalists will believe the Book of Job to be a real 此外，雖然文字學家認為《約伯記》是一部真正的 story, it's widely acknowledged that the story was clearly a poetic exploration of deep theological 但人們普遍認為，這個故事顯然是對深層神學的詩意探索。 questions. 問題。 In Islam, itself an offshoot of Judaism, God created Adam- the first human- and then ordered 在伊斯蘭教（本身是猶太教的分支）中，上帝創造了亞當--第一個人類，然後命令 all of the anglels to prostrate themselves before Adam, signifying that man with his 所有的角鬥士都在亞當面前跪下，表示人與他的 free will and ability to choose, was the superior being. 有自由意志和選擇能力的人，才是高級的存在。 All of the angels prostrated themselves except for one- Iblis, or Shaitan- who out of pride, 所有的天使都跪下了，除了一個伊比利斯，即沙坦--他出於驕傲。 claimed that he was superior to a mere mortal. 聲稱他比一個普通的凡人更優越。 For his pride, God cast Iblis out of heaven and into hell, but not before granting Iblis 由於伊比利斯的驕傲，真主把他從天堂趕到了地獄，但在給予伊比利斯 his request that he be allowed to lead mortals astray. 他請求允許他將凡人引入歧途。 Knowing that temptation would challenge and strengthen his people, God gave Iblis permission 上帝知道誘惑會挑戰和加強他的人民，所以允許伊比利斯 to attempt to sway humans to evil. 試圖動搖人類走向邪惡。 Both good and evil are created by God in Islam, as Iblis was after all God's own creation. 在伊斯蘭教中，善和惡都是由真主創造的，因為伊比利斯畢竟是真主自己創造的。 God's will however is always good, even when it doesn't seem like it- thus evil in the 然而，上帝的旨意總是好的，即使它看起來並不像--是以在《聖經》中的邪惡。 world is simply part of God's plan. 世界只是上帝計劃的一部分。 An argument could be made that the Holocaust couldn't have possibly been anything but mindless 可以說，大屠殺不可能是無意識的。 evil, until one considers the resolute determination by modern nations today to never again repeat 直到人們考慮到今天現代國家決意不再重蹈覆轍 such a horrific atrocity. 這樣一個可怕的暴行。 In this example, the evil of the Holocaust was still God's will, as it created a future 在這個例子中，大屠殺的邪惡仍然是上帝的旨意，因為它創造了一個未來。 good that the victims of the Holocaust may not have seen, but which would potentially 大屠殺的受害者可能沒有看到的好東西，但這些東西有可能是 save many more future lives. 拯救更多未來的生命。 In Islam, there is a strong emphasis on resisting evil, believing it to always be a test from 在伊斯蘭教中，非常強調抵制邪惡，認為邪惡總是來自於對我們的考驗。 God. 上帝。 When a believer is the victim of evil, it is their chance to prove that they trust God, 當信徒成為邪惡的受害者時，這是他們證明自己信任上帝的機會。 even if they cannot see the benefit or meaning to their suffering. 即使他們看不出他們的痛苦有什麼好處或意義。 Islam's Iblis differs from Christianity not only in origin, but also in purpose and power. 伊斯蘭教的伊比利斯不僅在起源上與基督教不同，而且在目的和力量上也不同。 While Christians believe that Satan rebelled against God directly, in Islam Iblis rebelled 基督徒認為撒旦直接反叛了上帝，而在伊斯蘭教中，伊比利斯反叛了 against humanity. 危害人類。 Also, Iblis plays a much lesser role than Satan does in Christianity, where he is the 此外，伊比利斯的作用比基督教中的撒旦要小得多，在基督教中他是 architect of all evil. 所有邪惡的建築師。 Instead, Iblis is reduced to a tempter, not capable of anything more than merely whispering 相反，伊比利斯淪為一個誘惑者，除了竊竊私語之外，沒有任何其他能力 temptations into the ears of believers and unbelievers alike. 誘惑進入信徒和非信徒的耳中。 Finally, we get to the best known version of the devil in modern culture- the Christian 最後，我們來到了現代文化中最著名的魔鬼版本--基督教的魔鬼。 Satan. 撒旦。 In Christianity, Satan is evil incarnate, and at perpetual odds against God. 在基督教中，撒旦是邪惡的化身，與上帝永遠不和。 Because he's unable to hurt God directly, he instead targets what God loves most- humanity. 因為他無法直接傷害上帝，所以他的目標是上帝最愛的東西--人類。 Thus, he attempts to lead humans astray, or bring about great calamities and evil. 是以，他試圖將人類引入歧途，或帶來巨大的災難和邪惡。 While you've likely heard of the term Lucifer used to describe the devil, the truth is that 雖然你可能聽說過用來描述魔鬼的路西法一詞，但事實是 this is a misunderstanding of the use of the term in Isaiah 14:12. 這是對《以賽亞書》14:12中該詞用法的誤解。 Meaning 'bringer of light', the name Lucifer is believed by many to be Satan's angelic 路西法的意思是 "帶來光明的人"，許多人認為它是撒旦的天使。 name, before his fall, but is in fact a reference to a Babylonian King. 名，在他倒臺之前，但實際上是指一個巴比倫的國王。 Most of what we know about the Christian devil comes from the Book of Revelation, apocalyptic 我們對基督教魔鬼的瞭解大多來自《啟示錄》，即世界末日論。 writings that are believed to be heavenly revelations to mankind on the behind the scene 被認為是上天對人類的幕後啟示的著作 workings of heaven and hell, as well as what the end of days will entail. 天堂和地獄的運作，以及末日會帶來什麼。 Here, we learn of a war that breaks out in heaven, though the motives are rather vague 在這裡，我們瞭解到一場在天堂爆發的戰爭，儘管動機相當模糊 and unclear. 和不清楚。 Many reasons have been attributed to this war, with most accepting that it was Satan's 這場戰爭有許多原因，大多數人接受的是，這是撒旦的 pride which led him to convince a third of the angelic host to try and overthrow God. 驕傲導致他說服了三分之一的天使試圖推翻上帝。 Interestingly, though many Christians accept that a third of the angels followed Satan's 有趣的是，儘管許多基督徒接受三分之一的天使跟隨撒旦的 lead, this is only because of a reference to a third of the stars being cast down by 鉛，這只是因為提到了三分之一的星辰被投下了 a great dragon a few verses before the mention of a heavenly war. 在提到天國戰爭的前幾節，有一條大龍。 There is no reason to believe that a third of the angelic host joined Satan in rebelling 沒有理由相信有三分之一的天使加入了撒旦的叛亂。 against God. 反對上帝。 For all we know it could've been Satan and two of his best friends, or Satan and 99% 據我們所知，這可能是撒旦和他的兩個最好的朋友，或者撒旦和99%的人。 of the angels. 的天使。 All we know is that the archangel Michael and his own angels triumphed over Satan's 我們所知道的是，天使長米迦勒和他自己的天使戰勝了撒旦的 forces and cast them out of Heaven. 並將他們趕出天堂。 Satan is also believed to be the serpent that tempted Eve, as well as the accuser who brought 撒旦也被認為是誘惑夏娃的蛇，也是給夏娃帶來麻煩的指控者。 Job low- but again, there is no specific reason to believe, even within the Old Testament 約伯低，但同樣，沒有具體的理由相信，即使在舊約中也沒有。 texts themselves, that this is true. 文本本身，這是真的。 Satan has merely been appropriated by Christians to replace all instances of evil, testing, 撒旦只是被基督徒挪用來取代所有邪惡的實例，測試。 or tribulation in scripture, despite playing a shockingly small role in all of the text. 或經文中的磨難，儘管在所有文本中扮演的角色小得令人震驚。 What is agreed upon in Christianity however is that today, Satan is prince of the earth. 然而，在基督教中達成共識的是，今天，撒旦是地球的王子。 This is a reference to the inherent wickedness of earthly ways- or our basic, selfish impulses. 這是指世俗方式固有的邪惡，或我們基本的、自私的衝動。 Satan is allowed dominion over the earth so that we can strive against him and overcome 允許撒旦統治地球，以便我們能夠與他鬥爭並戰勝他。 our own evil natures, and thus be made more righteous like God. 我們自己的邪惡本性，從而使我們像上帝一樣更加公義。 When the end of the world comes, Satan will rule over the earth for a set period, and 當世界末日到來時，撒旦將在一段固定的時間內統治地球，並且 lead mankind's armies against God- only to be defeated and cast into the lake of fire 帶領人類的軍隊對抗上帝--只能被打敗並被扔進火湖。 as punishment. 作為懲罰。 Then, a second earth will be created, free of the imperfections and evil of this one, 然後，第二個地球將被創造，沒有這個地球的不完美和邪惡。 for the faithful to enjoy for eternity. 為信徒們帶來了永恆的享受。 Now go watch 50 facts about the devil you didn't know, or click this other video instead! 現在去看關於魔鬼的50個你不知道的事實，或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!