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  • Cyanide can be incredibly deadly at very small doses.

    氰化物在非常小的劑量下就會有令人難以置信的致命性。

  • This is why it has been used throughout history as a poison in warfare, genocide, and murder.

    這就是為什麼歷史上它被用作戰爭、種族滅絕和謀殺的毒藥。

  • Cyanide is a naturally occurring chemical found in some foods.

    氰化物是一種天然存在的化學物質,存在於一些食物中。

  • In fact, at some point in your life, you almost certainly have ingested cyanide.

    事實上,在你生命中的某個時刻,你幾乎肯定已經攝入了氰化物。

  • So why aren't you dead?

    那麼你為什麼沒有死呢?

  • Let's find out.

    讓我們拭目以待。

  • In nature cyanide is most commonly found in the seeds of plants.

    在自然界中,氰化物最常出現在植物的種子中。

  • Some of the more common foods that have cyanide in them are: cassava, lima beans, and almonds.

    一些比較常見的含有氰化物的食物是:木薯、利馬豆和杏仁。

  • You have probably eaten at least one of these foodsif not all of themso why aren't

    你可能至少吃過這些食物中的一種--如果不是全部--那麼為什麼不

  • you dead, or at least incredibly sick?

    你死了,或者至少是病得很重?

  • The answer has to do with the amount of cyanide in each of the plants.

    答案與每個工廠中的氰化物數量有關。

  • However, even relatively small doses can be harmful in some cases.

    然而,在某些情況下,即使是相對較小的劑量也可能是有害的。

  • Cyanide can be found as a colorless gas such as hydrogen cyanide, or in crystalline form

    氰化物可以以無色氣體的形式存在,如氰化氫,或以結晶的形式存在。

  • like sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide.

    如氰化鈉或氰化鉀。

  • Regardless of whether cyanide is a gas or solid, it is still deady.

    無論氰化物是氣體還是固體,它仍然是一種邪惡的東西。

  • However, when cyanide is in its gaseous state it is faster acting due to it having direct

    然而,當氰化物處於氣態時,它的作用速度更快,因為它有直接的能量來源。

  • access to your cardiovascular system.

    進入你的心血管系統。

  • People have died from breathing in cyanide, consuming the poison, and even from it leaching

    人們因吸入氰化物、食用這種毒物,甚至因其浸出而死亡。

  • through their skin and into the bloodstream.

    通過他們的皮膚並進入血液。

  • People who work in industrial factories, or jobs that require them to be in close proximity

    在工業工廠工作的人,或需要近距離接觸的工作

  • to the poison, are obviously more susceptible to dying from cyanide.

    對這種毒藥,顯然更容易死於氰化物。

  • However, even if you live in the countryside away from any factories, you could still be

    然而,即使你住在遠離任何工廠的鄉下,你仍然可能是

  • at risk.

    處於危險之中。

  • The most common source of cyanide poisoning for people outside of industrial factories

    工業工廠以外的人最常見的氰化物中毒來源

  • that use the chemical is from smoking cigarettes.

    使用這種化學品的人來自吸菸。

  • Cigarettes contain trace amounts of cyanide, however, when someone lights up a cigarette

    香菸中含有微量的氰化物,然而,當有人點燃香菸時

  • they are releasing the poison into the air.

    他們正在向空氣中釋放毒物。

  • So if someone is chain smoking, maybe stay a few steps away to reduce your own exposure

    是以,如果有人連環吸菸,也許要離他幾步遠,以減少你自己的接觸。

  • to the poison they are exhaling.

    到他們正在呼出的毒藥。

  • It is important to note again that cyanide in its gaseous state is more deadly than in

    需要再次指出的是,氣態的氰化物比氣態的氰化物更致命。

  • its solid form.

    其固體形式。

  • However, since the gas is relatively light, it tends to rise and disperse quickly.

    然而,由於氣體相對較輕,它往往會迅速上升和消散。

  • So how does cyanide kill you?

    那麼氰化物是如何殺死你的呢?

  • To understand this question you'll have to think back to your high school biology

    要理解這個問題,你必須回想一下你的高中生物課

  • class.

    類。

  • If you remember nothing else from the class you probably remember the mitochondria is

    如果你在課堂上不記得別的,你可能記得線粒體是

  • thepowerhouse of the cell.”

    "細胞的動力源"。

  • Cyanide disrupts your mitochondrial powerhouses and causes you to die from lack of energy.

    氰化物破壞了你的線粒體動力室,導致你因缺乏能量而死亡。

  • At a basic level your mitochondria takes the sugar from the food you eat and the oxygen

    在一個基本水準上,你的線粒體從你吃的食物中獲取糖和氧氣。

  • from the air you breathe, and reassembles them into energy, carbon dioxide, and water.

    從你所呼吸的空氣中提取,並將它們重新組合成能量、二氧化碳和水。

  • This is called cellular respiration.

    這被稱為細胞呼吸。

  • The most important part of this process is the production of energy.

    這個過程中最重要的部分是能量的產生。

  • Without it you literally cannot survive.

    沒有它,你簡直無法生存。

  • When cyanide enters the body it diffuses into the cells and starts connecting itself to

    當氰化物進入人體時,它擴散到細胞中,並開始將自己連接到

  • the proteins in the mitochondria that strip the electrons from oxygen molecules to make

    線粒體中的蛋白質從氧分子中提取電子以製造出

  • energy.

    能源。

  • Once the cyanide is bound to the protein, your mitochondria can no longer function as

    一旦氰化物與蛋白質結合,你的線粒體就不能再作為

  • it should.

    它應該。

  • You can think of it as the cyanide becoming an inhibitor for the mitochondria.

    你可以把它看作是氰化物成為線粒體的抑制劑。

  • The cyanide keeps the mitochondria from being able to take the electrons off the oxygen

    氰化物使線粒體無法從氧氣中獲取電子。

  • molecules and using them to produce the energy your cells and body needs to function.

    分子,並利用它們來產生你的細胞和身體運作所需的能量。

  • It should come as no surprise that organs that use a lot of energysuch as the heart

    毫不奇怪,使用大量能量的器官--如心臟

  • and brainare affected first by cyanide.

    和大腦首先受到氰化物的影響。

  • Your heart cells require a lot of energy to continuously pump the blood around your body.

    你的心臟細胞需要大量的能量來持續泵送你身體周圍的血液。

  • Your brain and nerve cells require massive amounts of energy to control all life functions

    你的大腦和神經細胞需要大量的能量來控制所有的生命功能

  • happening within you.

    發生在你體內的。

  • Regardless of which cell the cyanide gets into, the result is the same.

    無論氰化物進入哪個細胞,其結果都是一樣的。

  • The poison will shut down the energy making process of the mitochondria, and cause the

    這種毒藥將關閉線粒體的能量製造過程,並導致

  • cell to die due to lack of energy.

    細胞因缺乏能量而死亡。

  • Once enough critical cells in the body die this way the end result is always the same.

    一旦身體中足夠多的關鍵細胞以這種方式死亡,最終結果總是一樣的。

  • The person dies.

    這個人死了。

  • So, how much cyanide is enough to kill you?

    那麼,多少氰化物才足以殺死你?

  • There are a few factors that determine the amount, but it is never very much, since cyanide

    有一些因素決定了這一數量,但它永遠不會非常多,因為氰化物

  • is incredibly toxic.

    是令人難以置信的毒性。

  • As mentioned before, inhaling cyanide is much more dangerous than ingesting it through food

    如前所述,吸入氰化物比通過食物攝入氰化物要危險得多。

  • or water.

    或水。

  • And although touching cyanide poses less of a risk, even skin contact with the poison

    儘管接觸氰化物帶來的風險較小,但即使是皮膚接觸到這種毒物

  • can kill you.

    可以殺死你。

  • As a very rough estimate around half a gram of ingested cyanide is enough to kill a 160

    根據非常粗略的估計,大約半克攝入的氰化物就足以殺死160人。

  • pound adult.

    斤的成人。

  • Obviously depending on the person the lethal dosage could be a little more or a little

    顯然,根據不同的人,致命的劑量可能是多一點或少一點。

  • less, but either way this is not a lot of cyanide when compared to the size of an adult

    少,但無論如何,與一個成年人的大小相比,這不是一個很大的氰化物。

  • human.

    人。

  • If a lethal dose is inhaled or ingested, the poison immediately starts shutting down the

    如果吸入或攝取了致命的劑量,這種毒藥會立即開始關閉。

  • energy generators of the body, and death occurs within minutes or even seconds.

    身體的能量發生器,並在幾分鐘甚至幾秒鐘內發生死亡。

  • As would be expected when energy production in the body stops, the symptoms of cyanide

    正如預期的那樣,當體內的能量生產停止時,氰化物的症狀是

  • poisoning include: dizziness, headaches, nausea, and weakness.

    中毒包括:頭暈、頭痛、噁心和虛弱。

  • Eventually these symptoms develop into loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, slow

    最終,這些症狀發展為失去知覺、低血壓、緩慢的

  • heart rate, and respiratory failure.

    心率,和呼吸衰竭。

  • At this point the next step is death.

    在這一點上,下一步是死亡。

  • However, if caught early enough some people do survive cyanide poisoning.

    然而,如果發現得足夠早,一些人確實能從氰化物中毒中倖存下來。

  • Unfortunately, the lasting side effects of the poison can be the development of Parkinson's

    不幸的是,這種毒藥的持久副作用可能是發展成帕金森症。

  • disease, loss of muscle control, blindness, and other neurological disorders.

    疾病、肌肉失去控制、失明和其他神經系統疾病。

  • Basically if poisoned by cyanide, the end result is never pleasant.

    基本上如果中了氰化物的毒,最終的結果絕不會令人愉快。

  • You may be wondering what to do in the precious moments after you realize you've been poisoned

    你可能想知道,在你意識到自己被毒害後的寶貴時刻,該怎麼做?

  • by cyanide.

    通過氰化物。

  • What steps can you take to save your life?

    你可以採取什麼措施來拯救你的生命?

  • The first thing to do is get out of whatever area the source of the cyanide is coming from.

    首先要做的是離開氰化物來源的任何區域。

  • Now if you have ingested the cyanide, or some nefarious assassin has poisoned you, this

    現在,如果你攝入了氰化物,或者一些邪惡的刺客給你下毒,這

  • is impossible to do.

    是不可能做到的。

  • But if you notice you're being exposed to cyanide, you need to immediately leave the

    但是,如果你發現你正在接觸氰化物,你需要立即離開這裡。

  • area.

    地區。

  • In its gaseous form cyanide rises, so if you are in a room you should get as close to the

    氣態的氰化物會上升,所以如果你在一個房間裡,你應該儘量靠近

  • floor as possible and leave any enclosed space that might have cyanide in the air.

    儘量離開地面,離開任何可能有氰化物的封閉空間。

  • Once out of the immediate area you need to get naked.

    一旦離開附近地區,你需要脫光衣服。

  • That's right, you should remove all clothing that could have been contaminated by the cyanide

    這是正確的,你應該去除所有可能被氰化物汙染的衣服

  • because it could still enter your body through your skin.

    因為它仍然可能通過你的皮膚進入你的身體。

  • Once the clothing has been removed it should be disposed of using safety equipment.

    一旦衣服被脫下,應使用安全設備進行處理。

  • After you have left the area containing cyanide, and removed your clothing, you should wash

    在你離開含有氰化物的區域,並脫去衣服後,你應該清洗

  • every part of your body thoroughly with soap and water.

    用肥皂和水徹底清洗身體的每個部分。

  • If you believe you've ingested the cyanide you need to stop it from being absorbed by

    如果你認為你已經攝入了氰化物,你需要通過以下方式阻止它被吸收

  • your gastrointestinal tract as soon as possible.

    你的胃腸道盡快。

  • Medical personnel will most likely give you activated charcoal, which will bind to the

    醫務人員很可能會給你活性炭,這將與你的身體結合。

  • cyanide and slow the absorption process.

    氰化物並減緩吸收過程。

  • Once all immediate danger is taken care of you'll be given a cyanide antidote.

    一旦所有的直接危險被處理掉,你會得到氰化物解毒劑。

  • This will most likely contain amyl nitrite, sodium nitrate, and sodium thiosulfate.

    這很可能包含亞硝酸戊酯、硝酸鈉和硫代硫酸鈉。

  • All of these chemicals have a stronger attraction for cyanide than the binding site of oxygen

    所有這些化學品對氰化物的吸引力都比氧的結合點強。

  • in the mitochondria.

    在線粒體中。

  • Therefore, they bind to the cyanide before it can attach itself to the oxygen binding

    是以,它們在氰化物與氧結合之前就與之結合了。

  • protein that your mitochondria use to generate energy.

    蛋白質,你的線粒體用來產生能量。

  • Another chemical that is used to neutralize the cyanide is cobalt.

    另一種用於中和氰化物的化學品是鈷。

  • Once the cyanide is bound to one of these antidote chemicals it is excreted from the

    一旦氰化物與這些解毒化學品之一結合,它就會被排出體外。

  • body in your urine.

    在你的尿液中的身體。

  • So it's clear that death by cyanide would be a bad way to go.

    所以很明顯,死於氰化物是一個糟糕的方式。

  • Cyanide has been used throughout history to kill enemies and commit atrocities.

    氰化物在歷史上一直被用來殺死敵人和實施暴行。

  • The use of cyanide as a weapon dates all the way back to the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.

    氰化物作為武器的使用可以一直追溯到1870年的普法戰爭。

  • Napoleon III had his troops dip their bayonets in cyanide, so that when it pierced the skin

    拿破崙三世讓他的部隊將刺刀浸泡在氰化物中,這樣,當刺刀刺入皮膚時

  • of an enemy they would be poisoned.

    他們會被毒死。

  • Cyanide was even used as a poison as far back as the Roman Empire.

    氰化物甚至早在羅馬帝國時就被用作毒藥。

  • Emperor Nero would give his enemies cherry laurel water that contained cyanide.

    尼祿皇帝會給他的敵人喝含有氰化物的櫻桃月桂水。

  • Cyanide was used in both world wars as well.

    兩次世界大戰中也都使用了氰化物。

  • In World War I it was used by French and Austrian troops as poison gas during trench warfare.

    在第一次世界大戰中,法國和奧地利軍隊在塹壕戰中把它作為毒氣使用。

  • In World War II Nazi Germany used cyanide in their concentration camps.

    在第二次世界大戰中,納粹德國在其集中營中使用氰化物。

  • The deadly gas was known as Zyklon B and killed millions of people during the war.

    這種致命的氣體被稱為Zyklon B,在戰爭期間殺死了數百萬人。

  • There are also reports of cyanide being used in the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980's where

    還有報告稱,在20世紀80年代的兩伊戰爭中也使用了氰化物。

  • hydrogen cyanide gas was used to kill Kurdish people in Northern Iraq.

    氰化氫氣體被用來殺害伊拉克北部的庫爾德人。

  • Cyanide has been used by all sorts of deranged people for committing atrocities.

    氰化物已被各種瘋狂的人用於實施暴行。

  • In 1978 Reverend Jim Jones convinced over 900 people to drink punch laced with cyanide

    1978年,吉姆-瓊斯牧師說服900多人喝下摻有氰化物的潘趣酒。

  • in what became known as the Jonestown Massacre.

    在後來被稱為 "瓊斯鎮大屠殺 "的事件中。

  • The leader of the cult died by a gunshot wound to the head instead of from the poison, but

    邪教領袖死於頭部的槍傷,而不是死於毒藥,但

  • the cyanide was just as deadly as the bullet.

    氰化物和子彈一樣致命。

  • Cyanide is also an ongoing threat that has been employed by terrorist organizations to

    氰化物也是一種持續的威脅,恐怖組織曾利用它來

  • wreak havoc around the world.

    在世界範圍內造成嚴重破壞。

  • In 1982 a series of deaths due to cyanide poisoning occurred in Chicago.

    1982年,芝加哥發生了一系列因氰化物中毒而死亡的事件。

  • Someone had tampered with Tylenol bottles and replaced the medication in the capsules

    有人篡改了泰諾的瓶子,替換了膠囊中的藥物。

  • with potassium cyanide.

    用氰化鉀。

  • Seven people died from the cyanide laced capsules during The Chicago Tylenol Murders.

    在芝加哥泰諾謀殺案中,有7人死於帶氰化物的膠囊。

  • The authorities never charged or convicted a suspect in the poisonings.

    當局從未對中毒事件的嫌疑人提出指控或定罪。

  • Another example of cyanide related terrorism happened following the sarin gas attack by

    另一個與氰化物有關的恐怖主義的例子發生在沙林毒氣攻擊之後,由

  • Aum Shinrikyo in the Japanese subway system in 1995.

    1995年,奧姆真理教在日本地鐵系統中。

  • The organization planned on committing another act of terrorism using cyanide this time.

    該組織計劃這次使用氰化物實施另一次恐怖主義行為。

  • They placed an agent containing cyanide in the bathrooms of the subway system.

    他們在地鐵系統的衛生間裡放置了一種含有氰化物的藥劑。

  • It was estimated that if released there would have been enough cyanide gas to kill 10,000

    據估計,如果釋放,氰化物氣體足以殺死10,000人。

  • people.

    人。

  • Clearly cyanide is deadly and has been used for terrible purposes.

    顯然,氰化物是致命的,並被用於可怕的目的。

  • But this brings us back to the fact that it is naturally occurring in foods that we eat.

    但這又使我們回到了一個事實,即它是自然存在於我們所吃的食物中。

  • Most people know that almonds contain the poison, yet we don't hear about cyanide

    大多數人都知道杏仁含有毒物,但我們卻沒有聽到氰化物的消息

  • related deaths due to almond consumption.

    由於食用杏仁而導致的相關死亡。

  • So how many almonds do you have to eat before they become poisonous?

    那麼,你要吃多少個杏仁才會中毒?

  • The answer might be less than you think.

    答案可能比你想象的要少。

  • There are two main varieties of almonds.

    杏仁有兩個主要品種。

  • There are sweet almonds, which most of us enjoy eating, and bitter almonds, which are

    有甜杏仁,我們大多數人都喜歡吃,還有苦杏仁,它們是

  • not consumed as often.

    不經常消費。

  • A 160 pound person would need to eat around 50 ounces of sweet almonds in order to be

    一個160磅的人需要吃大約50盎司的甜杏仁才能

  • killed by the amount of cyanide that is contained within each one.

    被每一個人所含的氰化物量所殺死。

  • This means someone would have to consume just over 1,100 almonds in a single sitting in

    這意味著一個人必須一次性吃下1100多顆杏仁,才有可能實現。

  • order to ingest enough cyanide to kill them.

    為了攝取足夠的氰化物來殺死他們。

  • The person would also have to refrain from urinating during this time so that the cyanide

    在這段時間內,該人還必須避免排尿,以便使氰化物

  • would stay in their system.

    將留在他們的系統中。

  • Therefore, death by cyanide from eating sweet almonds is very unlikely.

    是以,因吃甜杏仁而死於氰化物的可能性非常小。

  • But what about bitter almonds?

    但是苦杏仁呢?

  • This is where things become a little more surprising.

    這就是事情變得有點令人驚訝的地方。

  • Bitter almonds contain about 50 times more cyanide than sweet almonds.

    苦杏仁的氰化物含量約為甜杏仁的50倍。

  • This means that around 50 bitter almonds would contain enough cyanide to kill you.

    這意味著大約50個苦杏仁所含的氰化物足以殺死你。

  • Bitter almonds are not eaten often, because as their name suggests, they are bitter.

    苦杏仁不常吃,因為正如其名稱所示,它們是苦的。

  • But if someone had a craving for them, and ate 50 kernels of the cyanide-containing nut,

    但是,如果有人對它們產生了渴望,並吃了50粒含氰化物的堅果。

  • it is likely they would die from cyanide poisoning.

    他們很可能會因氰化物中毒而死亡。

  • Cyanide is a deadly chemical.

    氰化物是一種致命的化學品。

  • It is dangerous because it is highly toxic in small amounts.

    它是危險的,因為它在少量的情況下有劇毒。

  • It is practically odorless when in its gaseous form, and can also poison you from being ingested

    它在氣態時幾乎沒有氣味,而且攝入後也能使人中毒。

  • or through your skin.

    或通過你的皮膚。

  • Cyanide disrupts the energy making process done by the mitochondria in your cells.

    氰化物破壞了你細胞中線粒體所做的能量製造過程。

  • This causes you to die from a lack of energy that is needed by your vital organs.

    這導致你因缺乏重要器官所需的能量而死亡。

  • Just make sure next time you eat a bag of almonds that they are sweet instead of bitter.

    只要確保下次你吃一袋杏仁時,它們是甜的而不是苦的。

  • Now check outMost Deadly Elements On Earth.”

    現在看看 "地球上最致命的元素"。

  • Or watchWeapons Even The Military Made Illegal.”

    或觀看 "連軍隊都認為是非法的武器"。

Cyanide can be incredibly deadly at very small doses.

氰化物在非常小的劑量下就會有令人難以置信的致命性。

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B2 中高級 中文 能量 細胞 中毒 杏仁 毒藥 殺死

氰化物中毒究竟是如何發生的? (How Does Cyanide Poisoning Actually Work)

  • 17 2
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 25 日
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