Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • May, 2022.

    2022年5月。

  • Russian tanks roll across eastern Europe on their way to clash with NATO forces.

    俄羅斯坦克在與北約部隊發生衝突的路上滾過東歐。

  • In the Pacific, China launches a brutal invasion of Taiwan, while saturating American military

    在太平洋地區,中國對臺灣發動了殘酷的入侵,同時使美國的軍事力量飽和。

  • forces in Japan and Guam with hundreds of long-range ballistic missiles.

    在日本和關島的部隊擁有數百枚遠程彈道導彈。

  • World War 3 has begun, and the US military is ready to respond with the most powerful

    第三次世界大戰已經開始,美國軍方已經準備好以最強大的方式來應對。

  • military to ever exist.

    軍隊存在過。

  • A few hundred tanks and two or so dozen ships make up its army and navy, but in the skies

    幾百輛坦克和二十幾艘船組成了它的陸軍和海軍,但在天空中

  • above the Pacific and Europe, ten thousand American strategic bombers rain GPS guided

    在太平洋和歐洲上空,一萬架美國戰略轟炸機下起了GPS導航的雨。

  • death down on massive enemy formations below them.

    巨大的敵人編隊在他們下面死亡。

  • This isn't the American military you know today, this is the American military as envisioned

    這不是你今天知道的美國軍隊,這是設想中的美國軍隊

  • by the Bomber Mafia.

    由炸彈人黑手黨。

  • In the years following World War I, one thing was clear: there had to be a better way to

    在第一次世界大戰後的幾年裡,有一件事是明確的:必須有一個更好的方法來解決這個問題。

  • fight war.

    打仗。

  • Nobody truly believed that the War to End All Wars would actually put a stop to human

    沒有人真正相信 "結束所有戰爭的戰爭 "會真正阻止人類的發展。

  • conflict, but some men in the United States Army Air Corps thought that perhaps, they

    衝突,但美國陸軍航空隊的一些人認為,也許,他們

  • could find a way to make war more humane... by paradoxically making it much more violent

    可以找到一種方法,使戰爭更加人性化......矛盾的是使其更加暴力。

  • and brutal.

    和殘酷的。

  • The Air Corps Tactical School hosted America's aviator officers, and was ground zero for

    空軍戰術學校接待了美國的飛行員軍官,是美國航空業發展的原點。

  • the development of new ways to use the fighter and bomber, two brand new tools of war birthed

    發展使用戰鬥機和轟炸機的新方法,這兩種全新的戰爭工具孕育而生。

  • from the first world war.

    從第一次世界大戰開始。

  • Up until the late 1920s, aircraft were seen as supplementary weapons of war, and good

    直到20世紀20年代末,飛機一直被看作是戰爭的補充武器,而好的

  • for little else but directly supporting ground troops.

    除了直接支持地面部隊,幾乎沒有其他用途。

  • However, one group of officers took serious issue with that viewpoint, and argued that

    然而,有一組官員對這種觀點提出了嚴重的異議,他們認為

  • the future of war was in the skies.

    戰爭的未來就在天空中。

  • Fighters and bombers wouldn't support ground troops- they'd make them almost obsolete.

    戰鬥機和轟炸機不會支持地面部隊--它們會使地面部隊幾乎被淘汰。

  • Rather than support ground forces directly, this group of upstart officers- which included

    這批新銳軍官並沒有直接支持地面部隊,而是包括了

  • the likes of the legendary Major General Curtis LeMay and Brigadier General Haywood Hansell-

    諸如具有傳奇色彩的柯蒂斯-勒梅少將和海伍德-漢塞爾准將--等。

  • argued that a sufficiently large bomber force could shut down a nation's ability to wage

    他認為,一支足夠大的轟炸機部隊可以關閉一個國家的作戰能力。

  • war.

    戰爭。

  • Bombers could reach targets that artillery couldn't hope to, and by flying high and fast

    轟炸機可以達到大炮無法企及的目標,而且通過高空快速飛行

  • could avoid much of the ground fire that would threaten them.

    可以避開將威脅到他們的大部分地面火力。

  • If a sufficiently large bomber could be developed, hundreds of tons of explosives could be delivered

    如果能研製出足夠大的轟炸機,就可以運送數百噸的炸藥

  • exactly to the places that would hurt the enemy most.

    準確地說是到了最能傷害敵人的地方。

  • The group quickly got the nickname of the 'bomber mafia', for the bitter and furious

    該組織很快就得到了 "轟炸機黑手黨 "的綽號,因為他們的行為非常痛苦和憤怒。

  • debates they would launch into with fellow Army and Navy leadership.

    他們將與陸軍和海軍的同僚上司展開辯論。

  • The bomber mafia called for a paradigm shift in air strategy, and introduced a doctrine

    轟炸機黑手黨要求改變空中戰略的模式,並提出了一個學說

  • of strategic bombing.

    的戰略轟炸。

  • Rather than use air power to strike at the enemy's rear or soften up enemy formations

    不使用空中力量來打擊敵人的後方或軟化敵人的編隊

  • prior to an attack, strategic bombing would focus on the use of precision air power to

    在攻擊之前,戰略轟炸將集中於使用精確的空中力量,以

  • strike deep inside enemy territory and destroy infrastructure needed to support a war effort.

    深入敵方領土進行打擊,摧毀支持戰爭努力所需的基礎設施。

  • If an enemy's factories were all destroyed, it mattered little how many tanks they currently

    如果敵人的工廠都被摧毀了,他們目前有多少輛坦克就不重要了。

  • had in their inventory, since losses would never be replaced.

    因為損失永遠不會被取代。

  • The bomber mafia also argued for a separation from the United States Army of all air forces,

    轟炸機黑手黨還主張將所有空軍從美國軍隊中分離出來。

  • and the creation of a separate and independent branch of the US military dedicated to air

    並在美國軍隊中建立了一個單獨的、獨立的部門,專門負責航空事務。

  • power.

    權力。

  • With military budgets extremely tight during the interwar years, neither the Navy or Army

    由於戰時的軍事預算極為緊張,海軍和陸軍都沒有

  • was willing to part with any of its budget in order to accommodate the creation of a

    願意放棄任何預算,以滿足建立一個 "新的國家 "的需要。

  • brand new branch, and thus American air forces remained as simply another arm of the United

    嶄新的分支,是以,美國空軍仍然只是美國的另一個部門。

  • States Army.

    美國陸軍。

  • This, the bomber mafia argued, severely hindered the development of new strategic doctrine

    轟炸機黑手黨認為,這嚴重阻礙了新戰略理論的發展

  • for the use of air power, as Army leadership predictably saw fighters and bombers as nothing

    因為陸軍領導層可以預見地認為,戰鬥機和轟炸機對使用空中力量來說不算什麼

  • more than another tool to support Army operations.

    而不是支持軍隊行動的另一個工具。

  • But the bomber mafia was actively trying to make Army operations all but obsolete.

    但是,轟炸機黑手黨正積極地試圖使陸軍的行動完全過時。

  • Despite being largely ignored by senior Army leadership, the bomber mafia began to grow

    儘管在很大程度上被陸軍高級領導層所忽視,但轟炸機黑手黨開始發展壯大

  • in influence as the Air Service Tactical School moved to Maxwell Field in Alabama.

    在空軍戰術學校遷往阿拉巴馬州的馬克斯韋爾機場的影響下。

  • Here, Army aviators could converse and theorize on the use of air power free of overwatch

    在這裡,陸軍飛行員們可以就空中力量的使用進行交流和理論探討,不受監視。

  • by their more traditionalist supervisors, and the doctrine of strategic bombing began

    他們更傳統的上司,而戰略轟炸的理論開始了

  • to take even more solid form.

    以採取更堅實的形式。

  • War was cruel, the bomber mafia reasoned, and thus any steps one could take to shorten

    轟炸機黑手黨的理由是,戰爭是殘酷的,是以人們可以採取任何措施來縮短

  • it were morally justified.

    它在道德上是合理的。

  • Even if those steps were incredibly brutal themselves.

    即使這些步驟本身是無比殘酷的。

  • Better to fight a short, bloody war, the one that dragged on for years and created exponentially

    最好是打一場短暫的、血腥的戰爭,那場戰爭拖了好幾年,創造了成倍增長的

  • more casualties.

    更多的傷亡。

  • Air power, with its ability to deliver hundreds of tons of bombs with whole formations of

    空中力量,有能力以整個編隊的方式投擲數百噸的炸彈。

  • planes, was very well suited for the task.

    飛機,非常適用於這項任務。

  • As World War II broke out, the bomber mafia was partially redeemed in the eyes of military

    隨著第二次世界大戰的爆發,轟炸機黑手黨在軍方眼中得到了部分救贖。

  • leadership thanks to the shock and devastation of the Pearl Harbor attack, carried out almost

    由於珍珠港襲擊事件的震驚和破壞,領導層幾乎是在 "一刀切 "的情況下進行的。

  • exclusively by aircraft.

    完全由飛機來完成。

  • The date that would live on infamy in US history would turn out to be a boon to the bomber

    這個將在美國曆史上名垂青史的日子將變成轟炸機的福音。

  • mafia, who finally had the ear of both government and the public.

    黑手黨,他們終於得到了政府和公眾的支持。

  • Yet the bomber mafia's aim was always to use overwhelming power to shorten the length,

    然而,轟炸機黑手黨的目的始終是利用壓倒性的力量來縮短長度。

  • and thus brutality, of a war, and early in the war they publicly condemned the massive

    在戰爭的早期,他們公開譴責了大規模的戰爭,並是以導致了戰爭的殘酷性。

  • civilian bombing of the British Royal Air Force as inhumane and cruel.

    英國皇家空軍對平民的轟炸是不人道的和殘酷的。

  • Just years later, one of the bomber mafia's own would be responsible for the greatest

    僅僅幾年後,炸彈人黑手黨中的一個人將對最嚴重的

  • loss of human life in a six hour time span- almost all of them civilian.

    在6個小時的時間內,有人喪生,幾乎都是平民。

  • The doctrine of strategic bombing slowly gained traction with the US Army Air Corps, but it

    戰略轟炸的理論在美國陸軍航空隊中慢慢得到了重視,但它

  • wasn't until the introduction of the B-29 Superfortress that the bomber mafia's doctrine

    直到B-29超級堡壘的問世,轟炸機黑手黨的理論才得以實現。

  • of strategic bombing was truly redeemed.

    轟炸機的戰略轟炸真正得到了救贖。

  • For a decade, the US's heavy bomber of choice was the B-17 Flying Fortress, a dependable

    十年來,美國選擇的重型轟炸機是B-17飛行堡壘,一種可靠的

  • bomber with a range of 2,000 miles (3219 km).

    轟炸機,航程為2000英里(3219公里)。

  • The B-29 extended that range to a whopping 3,250 miles (5,230 km), truly making it possible

    B-29將這一範圍擴大到高達3250英里(5230公里),真正使之成為可能

  • for the first time to hit targets deep in the enemy's heartland.

    第一次打擊深入敵方腹地的目標。

  • For comparison, a B-29 taking off from New York City would only be 200 miles short of

    作為比較,一架從紐約市起飛的B-29型飛機只差200英里就能到達紐約。

  • dropping bombs in London.

    在倫敦投擲炸彈。

  • It was the difference in payload however that truly made strategic bombing a viable war-winning

    然而,正是由於有效載荷的不同,才真正使戰略轟炸成為一種可行的戰爭贏家。

  • doctrine, at least in the eyes of the bomber mafia.

    教義,至少在轟炸機黑手黨的眼中是這樣。

  • While the B-17 could carry 4,500 lbs (2041 kg) of bombs, the B-29 could carry 20,000

    B-17可以攜帶4500磅(2041公斤)的炸彈,而B-29可以攜帶20000磅的炸彈。

  • lbs (9071 kg) of nazi-busting explosives.

    磅(9071公斤)的納粹破壞性炸藥。

  • This nearly quintupled the destructive power of a flight of American bombers.

    這幾乎使一架美國轟炸機的破壞力增加了五倍。

  • There was just one problem with the bomber's mafia vision of victory by strategic bombing-

    轟炸機的黑手黨通過戰略轟炸取得勝利的設想只有一個問題--

  • American planes couldn't hit the broad side of a barn.

    美國飛機連穀倉的寬邊都打不到。

  • To be fair, no planes really could.

    公平地說,沒有飛機真的可以。

  • In World War II there simply didn't exist the mechanical help needed to accurately measure

    在第二次世界大戰中,根本不存在準確測量的機械幫助。

  • velocity, wind speed, height, and distance to target in the dynamic environment of a

    在動態環境中的速度、風速、高度和與目標的距離。

  • plane making a bomb run.

    飛機正在進行轟炸。

  • A survey of attack run footage recorded by American bombers found that less than 20%

    對美國轟炸機記錄的攻擊運行錄像的調查發現,只有不到20%的

  • of bombs were actually hitting their targets.

    的炸彈實際擊中了他們的目標。

  • With such abysmal hit rates, strategic bombing would simply never work.

    在如此糟糕的命中率下,戰略轟炸根本不可能成功。

  • Steps were taken to increase the accuracy of US bomber attacks.

    為提高美國轟炸機攻擊的準確性採取了措施。

  • Major attacks were planned during daylight hours, which deprived bombers the cover of

    主要的攻擊計劃在白天進行,這使轟炸機失去了掩護。

  • darkness but allowed them to more accurately sight in on ground targets.

    黑暗中,但使他們能夠更準確地瞄準地面目標。

  • Then it was discovered that US bombers were further decreasing their accuracy because

    然後,人們發現美國轟炸機的準確度進一步下降,因為

  • the pilots would perform evasive maneuvers up until the last few seconds before lining

    飛行員會進行規避動作,直到最後幾秒鐘才會入軌。

  • up on their targets.

    在他們的目標上。

  • General Curtis LeMay famously ordered his men to cease all evasive maneuvers, explaining

    柯蒂斯-勒梅將軍曾命令他的部下停止一切規避動作,他解釋說

  • with the help of basic arithmetic that the odds of an enemy anti-aircraft shell and their

    在基本算術的幫助下,敵人防空炮彈的機率和他們的

  • airplane sharing the same point in space were approximately 1 in 386.

    分享空間中同一點的飛機約為1/386。

  • When his pilots became skeptical, LeMay simply said, “I'll fly the lead plane myself.”.

    當他的飛行員產生懷疑時,勒梅只是說:"我自己來駕駛領航飛機。"。

  • He did, and in the subsequent attack on German forces, not a single US bomber was lost.

    他做到了,在隨後對德軍的攻擊中,沒有損失一架美國轟炸機。

  • However, all measures taken so far barely helped improve bomber accuracy.

    然而,到目前為止所採取的所有措施幾乎沒有幫助提高轟炸機的準確性。

  • This now split the bomber mafia into two factions, one led by General LeMay, and the other by

    這現在將轟炸機黑手黨抽成兩派,一派由勒梅將軍上司,另一派由

  • General Haywood Hansell.

    海伍德-漢塞爾將軍。

  • Hansell stuck to the bomber mafia's original view that indiscriminate bombing of the civilian

    漢塞爾堅持轟炸機黑手黨最初的觀點,即對平民進行狂轟濫炸

  • population was immoral, and that victory could only be achieved by striking strictly strategic

    嚴格意義上的戰略打擊是不道德的,只有通過嚴格的戰略打擊才能取得勝利。

  • targets and limiting civilian casualties.

    攻擊目標並限制平民傷亡。

  • LeMay vocally disagreed, believing that given the lack of an ability to precisely strike

    勒梅大聲表示不同意,認為鑑於缺乏精確打擊的能力

  • targets, the enemy must instead be made to suffer as much as possible so the war could

    攻擊目標,而是必須讓敵人儘可能多地遭受痛苦,以便戰爭能夠

  • end as quickly as possible, thus limiting further suffering.

    儘快結束,從而限制進一步的痛苦。

  • Hansell placed his faith in the Norden bombsight, one of the most secretive weapons development

    漢塞爾把他的信心寄託在諾登原子彈瞄準器上,這是最隱祕的武器開發之一。

  • programs of the second world war.

    第二次世界大戰的方案。

  • The sight dramatically increased the accuracy of American bombers, promising to make strategic

    該瞄準器極大地提高了美國轟炸機的精度,有望使戰略

  • bombing truly viable for US forces.

    轟炸對美軍來說是真正可行的。

  • There was just one problem: the sight only worked in perfect weather and ideal conditions.

    只有一個問題:該瞄準器只在完美的天氣和理想的條件下工作。

  • Still, Hansell would get a chance to prove his doctrine of striking at only strategic

    儘管如此,漢塞爾仍有機會證明他的只在戰略上進行打擊的學說。

  • targets, as he was given command of bomber forces operating over Japan.

    由於他被授予在日本上空作戰的轟炸機部隊的指揮權,所以他的目標是日本。

  • Unfortunately, the raids under Hansell's command largely failed to cause more than minimal

    不幸的是,在漢塞爾的指揮下,突擊行動基本上沒有造成超過最低限度的損失。

  • damage to Japan's wartime industries, largely due to the abysmal accuracy.

    對日本戰時工業的損害,主要是由於糟糕的準確性。

  • The US wanted an end to the war, and so Hansell was replaced with LeMay.

    美國希望結束戰爭,是以漢塞爾被勒梅取代。

  • Immediately, LeMay ordered his bombers be fitted with a brand new invention by a Harvard

    隨即,勒梅下令在他的轟炸機上安裝一個全新的發明,由哈佛大學的一位教授負責。

  • chemistry lab: napalm.

    化學實驗室:凝固汽油彈。

  • Careful study of Asian cities had revealed to American planners that unlike with European

    對亞洲城市的仔細研究向美國規劃者揭示,與歐洲不同的是

  • cities, incendiary weapons, rather than traditional explosives, were the weapon of choice for

    在城市中,燃燒武器,而不是傳統的炸藥,是選擇的武器。

  • maximum destruction.

    最大的破壞。

  • This is because Asian cities were largely made of wood, with buildings tightly packed

    這是因為亞洲的城市主要是由木材製成的,建築物緊緊地擠在一起。

  • together and narrow streets.

    一起和狹窄的街道。

  • They lacked the firebreaks, wide roads, and open parks of European cities.

    他們缺乏歐洲城市的防火隔離帶、寬闊的道路和開放的公園。

  • In effect, they were the perfect tinderbox, ready for a match to be lit.

    實際上,他們是一個完美的火藥箱,隨時準備著被點燃的火柴。

  • LeMay began his firebombing campaign against Japan in 1944, to absolutely devastating effect.

    勒梅於1944年開始對日本進行火力轟炸,取得了絕對毀滅性的效果。

  • During the March 9th and 10th attack on Tokyo, an estimated 100,000 people died, leading

    在3月9日和10日對東京的攻擊中,估計有10萬人死亡,導致

  • the United States Strategic Bombing Survey to estimate that more civilians lost their

    據美國戰略轟炸調查報告估計,有更多的平民失去了生命。

  • lives in a 6-hour period during this attack than at any other six hour time period in

    在這次襲擊中,6小時內的生命數量比在其他任何6小時內的生命數量都要多。

  • the history of humanity

    人類歷史

  • LeMay burned down Japan's 10 largest cities almost completely to the ground, and yet the

    勒梅將日本的10個最大的城市幾乎完全燒燬,但

  • Japanese refused to surrender.

    日本人拒絕投降。

  • He then turned to Japan's 50 largest cities, and still Japan refused to surrender.

    然後他轉向日本50個最大的城市,而日本仍然拒絕投降。

  • In all, he'd end up turning to ash 66 Japanese cities, with Japan no closer to surrender.

    總的來說,他最終將66個日本城市化為灰燼,而日本離投降並不遙遠。

  • Ultimately it would be a combination of fear of Soviet invasion and occupation, and internal

    歸根結底,這將是對蘇聯入侵和佔領的恐懼,以及內部的恐懼。

  • politics, that would lead Japan to surrender, not the US's strategic bombing efforts.

    政治,這將導致日本投降,而不是美國的戰略轟炸努力。

  • By the end of the second world war, the bomber mafia's belief that the bomber could win a

    到第二次世界大戰結束時,轟炸機黑手黨相信,轟炸機可以贏得一場

  • war was objectively false, but the US would be hard-pressed to truly learn this lesson.

    戰爭在客觀上是錯誤的,但美國很難真正吸取這一教訓。

  • LeMay got his wish after World War II, and the United States Air Force was officially

    二戰結束後,勒梅如願以償,美國空軍正式成立了

  • established as an independent branch.

    作為一個獨立的分支機構成立。

  • Just in time for the Korean War.

    正好趕上朝鮮戰爭的到來。

  • With the US Air Force firmly under the influence of the bomber mafia, it was believed that

    由於美國空軍牢牢受到轟炸機黑手黨的影響,人們認為

  • strategic bombing could truly achieve victory.

    戰略轟炸可以真正取得勝利。

  • Yet as the Korean War dragged on, the Air Force ran out of targets to bomb- everything

    然而,隨著朝鮮戰爭的拖延,空軍已經沒有目標可以轟炸了--所有的東西都是如此。

  • worth spending tax payer money on bombing had already been bombed, and still the communist

    值得花納稅人的錢去轟炸的地方已經被轟炸過了,而共產黨人仍在

  • North Korean forces fought on.

    北朝鮮部隊繼續戰鬥。

  • This should have been a wake-up call to the US military, yet the bomber mafia's influence

    這本應是對美國軍方的一次警醒,然而,轟炸機黑手黨的影響力

  • continued to heavily affect US wartime planning.

    繼續嚴重影響美國的戰時計劃。

  • As the Cold War dragged on, US ground forces became absolutely dwarfed by Soviet forces,

    隨著冷戰的拖延,美國的地面部隊在蘇聯部隊面前變得絕對相形見絀。

  • though American air power dramatically outclassed that of the Soviets.

    儘管美國的空中力量大大超過了蘇聯的力量。

  • At one point the US Air Force operated an incredible 2,500 heavy bombers, while the

    美國空軍曾一度擁有令人難以置信的2500架重型轟炸機,而

  • Soviet Union only fielded a few hundred capable aircraft.

    蘇聯只出動了幾百架有能力的飛機。

  • It'd be in Vietnam however that the US would start to see the folly of the bomber mafia's

    然而,在越南,美國將開始看到轟炸機黑手黨的愚蠢行為。

  • long time focus on air power.

    長時間專注於空中力量。

  • While concerns with escalating the conflict into a war with the Soviet Union limited approved

    雖然對將衝突升級為與蘇聯的戰爭的擔憂限制了準許。

  • targets for American bombers, Operations Linebacker and Linebacker II did little to actually seriously

    美國轟炸機的目標,"林巴克 "和 "林巴克二號 "行動幾乎沒有任何實際的嚴重影響。

  • impair North Vietnam's ability to fight.

    損害北越的作戰能力。

  • After each massive bombing campaign North Vietnam would feign at a willingness to negotiate,

    每次大規模轟炸行動後,北越都會假裝願意談判。

  • but was in truth simply buying time for its ground forces to reorganize.

    但實際上只是在為其地面部隊的重組爭取時間。

  • Ultimately, all the firepower in the US bomber arsenal could do little to stop North Vietnam's

    最終,美國轟炸機武庫中的所有火力都無法阻止北越的發展。

  • victory over South Vietnam.

    對南越的勝利。

  • With the failure of strategic bombing in Vietnam, the bomber mafia's influence began to wane

    隨著戰略轟炸在越南的失敗,轟炸機黑手黨的影響力開始減弱

  • in the US Air Force.

    在美國空軍。

  • Today, strategic bombing is a critical component of America's wartime strategy, but the US

    今天,戰略轟炸是美國戰時戰略的一個重要組成部分,但美國

  • military no longer holds the illusion that wars can be won from the air- despite ironically

    軍隊不再抱有戰爭可以從空中獲勝的幻想--儘管具有諷刺意味的是

  • the US Air Force being today at a point technologically that it might theoretically be possible for

    美國空軍今天在技術上處於一個點上,理論上可能是

  • strategic bombing to win a war against a major industrialized power.

    戰略轟炸以贏得對一個主要工業化國家的戰爭。

  • The bomber mafia's biggest problem was simply being 75 years ahead of the times.

    轟炸機黑手黨最大的問題只是領先於時代75年。

  • The technology available to them made their doctrine of achieving victory through strategic

    他們所掌握的技術使他們通過戰略手段取得勝利的理論成為可能。

  • bombing impossible, as they lacked aircraft with the range, payloads, and more importantly

    轟炸是不可能的,因為他們缺乏具有航程、有效載荷的飛機,更重要的是

  • the accuracy needed.

    所需的準確性。

  • Still, their contributions to American military planning are today indispensable, and it's

    儘管如此,他們對美國軍事計劃的貢獻在今天仍然是不可或缺的,而且這也是

  • largely thanks to them that the US military leads the world in the development and employment

    主要是由於他們的努力,美國軍隊在發展和就業方面領先世界。

  • of smart weapons.

    的智能武器。

  • Most of the US weapon inventory is either precision guided, or can be readily converted

    美國的大部分武器庫存要麼是精確制導的,要麼是可以隨時轉換的。

  • into a smart bomb, while peer competitors such as Russia and China still field low numbers

    成智能炸彈,而俄羅斯和中國等同行競爭者仍在使用低數量的

  • of precision munitions.

    的精確彈藥。

  • This gives the United States military an incredible advantage, and helps make the bomber mafia's

    這使美國軍隊具有難以置信的優勢,並有助於使轟炸機黑手黨的

  • doctrine of victory through strategic bombing more possible than ever before.

    通過戰略轟炸取得勝利的理論比以前更有可能。

  • Now go watch MOAB- Mother of all Bombs, or click this other video instead!

    現在去看MOAB--所有炸彈之母,或者點擊這個其他的視頻來代替!

  • The Bomber Mafia, by Malcom Gladwell

    炸彈人黑手黨》,馬爾科姆-格拉德威爾著

May, 2022.

2022年5月。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 轟炸機 美國 戰爭 陸軍 空軍 部隊

轟炸機黑手黨如何通過使戰爭更致命來改變戰爭 (How the Bomber Mafia Changed Warfare by Making it Deadlier)

  • 1 0
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 24 日
影片單字