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  • Rome, 1556.

    羅馬,1556年。

  • Pomponio Algerio died about 15 minutes after he'd been placed in a vat of boiling oil.

    龐波尼奧-阿爾傑里奧在被放入沸騰的油桶後約15分鐘死亡。

  • All he'd said to get himself in trouble was, “No Christian should restrict himself

    他為了給自己找麻煩,只說了一句話:"沒有一個基督徒應該限制自己

  • to any particular Church.”

    對任何特定的教會"。

  • In the same year over in England, a blind woman named Joan Waste was lowered over a

    同年,在英國,一位名叫瓊-沃斯特的盲人婦女被放倒在一個小山坡上。

  • fire, which engulfed her when the rope snapped.

    當繩子斷裂時,火苗吞噬了她。

  • She'd had the audacity to say bread was always just bread and wine always wine, and

    她大言不慚地說,麵包永遠只是麵包,酒永遠是酒,而且

  • never the body and blood of Christ.

    絕不是基督的身體和血。

  • That same year, also in England, John Hullier went to die in the flames, as were John Forman,

    同年,也是在英國,約翰-胡利爾和約翰-福爾曼一樣,都在火焰中死去。

  • and Bartholomew Green.

    和巴塞洛繆-格林。

  • Green was burned along with a priest, three tradesmen, and two women.

    格林與一名牧師、三名商人和兩名婦女一起被燒死。

  • What did these people all have in common?

    這些人都有什麼共同點?

  • The answer is they were accused of being heretics.

    答案是他們被指控為異端。

  • Another thing they had in common is prior to their death they were very likely all asked

    他們的另一個共同點是,在他們死前,他們很可能都被問到了

  • the same thing, or thereabouts.

    同樣的事情,或大約如此。

  • The question was, “Do you recant?”

    問題是:"你是否反悔?"

  • They may have been asked that question with a devilish-looking fork strapped to them,

    他們可能被問到這個問題時,身上綁著一個看起來像魔鬼的叉子。

  • and that's what we'll look into today.

    這就是我們今天要研究的內容。

  • Before we get to the contraption, you need to know one thing.

    在我們討論這個裝置之前,你需要知道一件事。

  • Many, many people just in Europe were tortured and executed after being accused of heresy.

    僅僅在歐洲,就有許多人在被指控為異端後遭到酷刑和處決。

  • With that in mind, the punishments were certainly diverse over the centuries.

    考慮到這一點,幾個世紀以來,懲罰措施當然是多種多樣的。

  • In fact, if you look at the Spanish Inquisition alone, it's really hard to find an agreement

    事實上,如果你僅看一下西班牙宗教裁判所,真的很難找到一個協議

  • regarding how many people were executed for not believing in the established faith of

    關於有多少人因為不相信既定的信仰而被處決的問題。

  • the Catholic Church.

    天主教會。

  • You might hear 3,000, or you might hear 30,000.

    你可能會聽到3,000,也可能會聽到30,000。

  • Some scholars would have you think it was in the millions from the 13th to the 19th

    一些學者會讓你認為,從13日到19日,它是數以百萬計的。

  • century.

    世紀。

  • The people we mentioned were executed for their belief in Protestantism, but a death

    我們提到的這些人是因信仰新教而被處決的,但一個死

  • sentence for heresy happened many times prior to the Reformation.

    在宗教改革之前,因異端而被判刑的情況多次發生。

  • For instance, the Italian mathematician and astrologist named Cecco d'Ascoli was burned

    例如,名為Cecco d'Ascoli的意大利數學家和占星家被燒死。

  • in 1327 for writing a horoscope of Jesus Christ, among other things that annoyed the church.

    1327年,因為寫了一本耶穌基督的星座圖,以及其他一些惹惱了教會的事情。

  • Then you had the witch hunts, which happened all across Europe and beyond.

    然後你有獵巫行動,這發生在整個歐洲和其他地方。

  • Many witches were tortured into a confession, and possibly some of them were forced to wear

    許多女巫被折磨得供認不諱,可能有些女巫還被迫穿上了

  • a Heretic's fork.

    一個異教徒的叉子。

  • It didn't matter which branch of Christianity they had upset.

    他們對基督教的哪個分支不滿並不重要。

  • In fact, some academics now write that both churches tried to prove how much better they

    事實上,一些學者現在寫道,兩個教會都試圖證明他們有多好

  • were than the other at weeding out witches.

    在清除女巫方面,他們比其他國家更有經驗。

  • If you look at Germany, which was witchhunt central for a long time, just in the Southwest

    如果你看一下德國,它在很長一段時間裡是獵巫中心,就在西南地區

  • of the country from 1561 to 1670 there were about 480 separate witch trials.

    從1561年到1670年,全國大約有480起獨立的女巫審判。

  • The Protestants killed 702 people accused of being witches and the Catholics executed

    新教徒殺死了702名被指控為女巫的人,而天主教徒則被處決。

  • 2,527, according to one historian anyway.

    2,527,根據一位歷史學家的說法。

  • So, as for who might have worn the device over the centuries, well, take your pick.

    是以,至於幾個世紀以來誰可能佩戴過這個裝置,好吧,你選吧。

  • It could have been a Catholic, a Protestant, a Muslim, a Jew, someone accused of having

    這可能是一個天主教徒,一個新教徒,一個穆斯林,一個猶太人,一個被指責為具有

  • funny ideas as to how the universe worked, or it could have been some innocent person

    關於宇宙如何運作的有趣想法,或者它可能是一些無辜的人

  • whose neighbor said they saw them flying on a broomstick.

    其鄰居說他們看到他們騎著掃帚飛行。

  • Let's stick with the Catholic Church for now.

    讓我們暫時堅持使用天主教會。

  • A lot has been said about the brutality of the inquisitions, and no one in their right

    關於審訊的殘酷性,人們已經說了很多,沒有人在他們的權利範圍內

  • mind is going to argue any different.

    心裡會有任何不同的爭論。

  • But some people will say that the number of executions has been exaggerated and others

    但有些人會說,被處決的人數被誇大了,還有人說

  • might say extreme torture wasn't as common as one might think.

    可以說,極端的酷刑並不像人們想象的那樣普遍。

  • Take for instance the historian Agostino Borromeo.

    以歷史學家阿戈斯蒂諾-博羅梅奧為例。

  • In 2004, he released a book which stated that out of the 125,000 people who faced a tribunal

    2004年,他發表了一本書,其中指出,在面臨法庭的125,000人中

  • in Spain for suspected heresy, only one percent of them were actually executed.

    在西班牙,因被懷疑是異端而被處決的人,只有百分之一被實際處決。

  • He also wrote that alleged heretics were given the chance to recant their belief, but in

    他還寫道,被指控的異端分子有機會撤回他們的信仰,但在

  • many cases that happened during a period of torture.

    許多案件發生在酷刑期間。

  • This was regulated torture, supposed to last no more than 15 minutes and in the presence

    這是有規定的酷刑,應該不超過15分鐘,而且是在以下情況下進行的

  • of a doctor.

    的醫生。

  • Let's now imagine someone was in this position, being asked to admit they had committed heretical

    讓我們現在想象一下,有人處於這種境地,被要求承認他們犯了異端邪說

  • acts or held heretical beliefs.

    行為或持有異端信仰。

  • Maybe they didn't immediately do that, even after 15 minutes of torture.

    也許他們沒有立即這樣做,即使經過15分鐘的折磨。

  • In some cases, they might have been sent back to their cell to think about things.

    在某些情況下,他們可能被送回牢房思考問題。

  • This is where the Heretics Fork comes in, or at least that's what some writers have

    這就是異端叉的來歷,至少有些作家是這樣認為的

  • said.

    說。

  • We'll get to the issue of historical validity soon.

    我們很快就會談到歷史有效性的問題。

  • It consisted of a leather collar that was wrapped around a person's neck.

    它包括一個纏繞在人的脖子上的皮項圈。

  • On the collar were the words, “I renounce.”

    領子上寫著:"我放棄"。

  • Two sharp two-pronged forks were attached to the collar.

    衣領上掛著兩把鋒利的雙頭叉子。

  • One of them pointed against the jaw and the other against the sternum.

    其中一個指著下巴,另一個指著胸骨。

  • This would feel very unpleasant, and any sudden movement could result in the neck being pierced.

    這將使人感到非常不愉快,任何突然的動作都可能導致脖子被刺穿。

  • The person would be unable to eat or sleep, all the time being forced to look upwards.

    這個人將無法進食或睡覺,一直被迫往上看。

  • This of course was part of the deal, since upwards was where heaven was.

    這當然是交易的一部分,因為向上是天堂的所在。

  • You can only imagine what a few hours attached to one of those things would have felt like,

    你只能想象在這些東西上附著幾個小時會是什麼感覺。

  • possibly bad enough to make someone admit they put demonic curses on cats.

    可能壞到讓人承認他們對貓下了惡魔般的詛咒。

  • The question is, were any alleged witches or others accused of heresy ever tortured

    問題是,是否有任何所謂的女巫或其他被指控為異端的人受到過酷刑?

  • in this way?

    以這種方式?

  • We found plenty of sources that said indeed they were.

    我們找到了很多消息來源,說他們確實如此。

  • Some websites said it was the go-to torture during interrogations, and others said the

    一些網站說這是審訊過程中最常用的酷刑,還有一些網站說

  • condemned would wear the device after they had been found guilty as well.

    譴責的人在被認定有罪後也會佩戴該裝置。

  • This was a way to keep them quiet prior to their date with the stake.

    這是在他們與木樁約會之前讓他們保持安靜的一種方式。

  • Nonetheless, unlike many other forms of torture that happened throughout the centuries, recorded

    然而,與幾個世紀以來發生的許多其他形式的酷刑不同,有記錄的

  • instances of the Heretic's Fork are hard to come by.

    異端之叉的例子很難找到。

  • This is problematic for us at the Infographics Show.

    這對我們資訊圖表展來說是個問題。

  • If they were used as often as has been made out, someone would have written about it.

    如果它們像人們所說的那樣經常被使用,就會有人寫出這樣的文章。

  • You see, the church kept records of the people it accused of heresy.

    你看,教會對它指控的異端的人都有記錄。

  • There were rules, too.

    也有一些規則。

  • Torture was used to get a confession, but when that person stood up in court, they had

    酷刑是用來獲取口供的,但當這個人在法庭上站起來時,他們有

  • to admit their guilt again, this time while not being tortured.

    再次承認他們的罪行,這次是在沒有受到酷刑的情況下。

  • It sounds like a rigged game, but the need for a second confession while not in pain

    這聽起來像是一個被操縱的遊戲,但在沒有痛苦的情況下需要第二次懺悔

  • was seen as being progressive.

    被認為是進步的。

  • There was another rule, which stated torture should only be used one time when trying to

    還有一條規則,規定酷刑只能在嘗試時使用一次。

  • get a confession.

    得到懺悔。

  • The inquisitors got around this bysuspending” a torture session and then starting it again

    審問者通過 "暫停 "酷刑,然後再次開始,來解決這個問題。

  • the next day.

    第二天。

  • If a Heretic's Fork was ever worn, it would have been in between these sessions.

    如果曾經佩戴過異教徒的叉子,那應該是在這些會議之間。

  • We just can't find any instances of this happening.

    我們只是找不到任何發生這種情況的實例。

  • If you go to Amsterdam and visit theMuseum of Medieval Torture Instrumentsyou can

    如果你去阿姆斯特丹,參觀 "中世紀酷刑工具博物館",你可以

  • see a Heretic's Fork and read about how it was once used, but if one ever actually

    看到一個異教徒的叉子,並讀到關於它曾經如何被使用的資訊,但如果有人真的

  • was, is still debatable.

    是,仍然值得商榷。

  • You can also go online and buy a “Blacksmith hand forged Heretics Forkbut rather than

    你也可以在網上購買 "鐵匠手工鍛造的異端叉",但與其說是

  • being used to torture someone in 1556, they were knocked up in someone's garage in 2016.

    在1556年被用來折磨某人,2016年在某人的車庫裡被打掉了。

  • Remember that not all horrifying instruments of torture you'll find in museums were used,

    請記住,並不是所有你在博物館裡發現的可怕的酷刑工具都被使用過。

  • with the Iron Maiden arguably being the most famous of fictional torture devices.

    鐵娘子可以說是最著名的虛構酷刑裝置。

  • We think it's the same with all the Heretic's Forks you'll find in the world today; they

    我們認為這與當今世界上所有的異端叉子是一樣的;他們

  • are likely works of fiction.

    很可能是虛構的作品。

  • You can find plenty of websites that say something like this, “Historians who have studied

    你可以在很多網站上找到這樣的說法:"研究過的歷史學家們

  • the contraption today believe that it was the sleep deprivation that would cause anyone

    今天,人們相信,正是由於睡眠不足,才會導致任何人

  • to confess to any sort of crime.”

    來承認任何形式的犯罪。"

  • Still, those websites don't point to the source of this information.

    不過,這些網站還是沒有指出這些資訊的來源。

  • We found other websites that told us this device wascommonly usedduring the

    我們發現其他網站告訴我們,這種設備是 "普遍使用的",在

  • inquisitions, but we guess not so commonly used that any of the websites can point to

    審訊,但我們猜測不是那麼常用,以至於任何一個網站都可以指向

  • a reliable historical resource.

    一個可靠的歷史資源。

  • We are not saying they definitely weren't used, just that we can't find the hard evidence.

    我們並不是說它們肯定沒有被使用,只是我們找不到確鑿的證據。

  • Still, when you consider there's ample evidence that people in the past were stretched on

    然而,當你考慮到有充分的證據表明,過去的人被拉長在

  • racks, boiled alive, broken on wheels, mutilated, crushed, pulled apart by the limbs, it doesn't

    架子上,被活活煮死,在輪子上被打碎,被肢解,被碾碎,被拉開的四肢,它不

  • take a stretch of the imagination to think that someone accused of heresy once wore a

    想到一個被指控為異端的人曾經穿戴過

  • spiked collar.

    帶刺的領子。

Rome, 1556.

羅馬,1556年。

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異端分子的叉子--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰 (Heretics Fork - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 19 日
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