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  • You're a soldier in the trenches of the Western Front in the Great War.

    你是大戰中西線戰壕中的一名阿兵哥。

  • You and your unit are keeping your eyes peeled for any sign of enemy soldiers, but you seem

    你和你的部隊正密切關注著任何敵方阿兵哥的跡象,但你似乎

  • to be clear to advance.

    以明確推進。

  • Suddenly, there's a sound of a bang - but it's not the familiar sound of bullets.

    突然,傳來一聲巨響--但這不是熟悉的子彈聲。

  • It's different, and before you can react you see the trench filling with smoke.

    這是不一樣的,在你反應過來之前,你看到戰壕裡充滿了煙霧。

  • But this isn't a simple visual hazard to make your advance more difficult.

    但這並不是一個簡單的視覺危險,讓你的前進更加困難。

  • It's a deadly weapon - and this gas may turn your trench into a tomb.

    這是一種致命的武器--而這種氣體可能會把你的戰壕變成墳墓。

  • How did it come to this?

    怎麼會變成這樣呢?

  • For ages, war was simple - the armies would charge at each other, and the side with more

    古往今來,戰爭都很簡單--軍隊互相沖鋒,擁有更多的

  • manpower or tactical skill would win on the battlefield.

    人力或戰術技巧將在戰場上獲勝。

  • Sure, there were X-factors - like large animal mounts, familiar terrain, or even a wooden

    當然,有一些X因素--如大型動物坐騎,熟悉的地形,甚至是木製的

  • horse disguising the enemy soldiers - but for the most part, armies knew what to expect

    偽裝敵方阿兵哥的馬匹--但在大多數情況下,軍隊知道該如何應對

  • when it came to war.

    當涉及到戰爭的時候。

  • That changed in the 16th and 17th centuries as gunpowder became more widely available,

    這種情況在16和17世紀發生了變化,因為火藥變得更加廣泛。

  • and suddenly wars were more likely to be determined by the quality of one's weapons.

    突然間,戰爭更有可能由一個人的武器品質來決定。

  • Killing from a distance became easier, and a well-armed platoon could take a weaker army

    遠距離的殺戮變得更加容易,一個裝備精良的排可以拿下一支較弱的軍隊

  • by surprise and end the battle quickly.

    出其不意,迅速結束戰鬥。

  • The arms race was on - and it was about to turn deadly.

    軍備競賽開始了--而且即將變成致命的。

  • Chemical weapons weren't a new idea, but until the 19th century they were rudimentary

    化學武器並不是一個新的想法,但直到19世紀,它們都是簡陋的

  • at best.

    充其量不過如此。

  • Evidence of a battle site in the Syrian desert found evidence of chemical residue and sulfur

    敘利亞沙漠中的一處戰鬥遺址發現化學殘留物和硫磺的證據

  • crystals indicating that toxic sulfur dioxide may have been used as a trap for Roman soldiers

    晶體表明,有毒的二氧化硫可能被用作羅馬阿兵哥的陷阱

  • invading the fortress.

    入侵要塞。

  • The combination of pitch and sulfur would be lit, and create a cloud that would quickly

    瀝青和硫磺的組合將被點燃,併產生一個雲,很快就會

  • knock out the invading army.

    淘汰入侵的軍隊。

  • But the industrial age would change everything.

    但工業時代將改變一切。

  • Small and large wars broke out around the world in the 19th century, and many nations

    19世紀,世界各地爆發了大大小小的戰爭,許多國家

  • were seeking an edge, sensing that something larger was right around the corner.

    他們正在尋求一種優勢,感覺到更大的東西就在拐角處。

  • Many scientists, encouraged by their military leadership, began developing ways to mass-produce

    許多科學家在其軍事領導層的鼓勵下,開始開發大規模生產的方法。

  • deadly weapons that could asphyxiate or poison their enemies.

    可以使敵人窒息或中毒的致命武器。

  • The reaction was swift - and the world was horrified.

    反應是迅速的--全世界都感到震驚。

  • While international law was still in its early phases and it was long before the United Nations

    當國際法仍處於早期階段,並且在聯合國之前很長時間裡

  • existed, a large group of national leaders met in The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and

    存在,一大批國家領導人於1899年在荷蘭海牙舉行會議,並且

  • 1907 to outline laws that would govern warfare.

    1907年,概述了指導戰爭的法律。

  • Among other decisions, they outlawed the use of poison or poisoned weapons in combat.

    在其他決定中,他們宣佈在戰鬥中使用毒藥或帶毒武器為非法。

  • A third conference was scheduled for 1914.

    第三次會議定於1914年舉行。

  • It would never happen.

    這永遠不會發生。

  • Tensions in Europe had been rising for a while, but they would explode in 1914 when Gavrilo

    歐洲的緊張局勢已經持續了一段時間,但它們將在1914年爆發,當時加夫裡洛?

  • Princip, a radical nationalist from Serbia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian

    來自塞爾維亞的激進民族主義者普林西普暗殺了奧匈帝國的繼承人。

  • throne.

    寶座。

  • A war broke out between the two nations, quickly joined by Germany, and it soon swept across

    兩國之間爆發了戰爭,德國也迅速加入,戰爭很快席捲了整個中國。

  • the continent.

    大陸。

  • Great Britain, France, and Russia led one side, while Germany and Austria-Hungary led

    大不列顛、法國和俄國上司一方,而德國和奧匈帝國上司另一方。

  • the other, and the United States was eventually brought into the conflict several years in

    另一個,而美國最終在數年後被帶入衝突。

  • by a series of sea attacks and diplomatic controversies.

    通過一系列的海上襲擊和外交爭議。

  • It would be one of the largest and bloodiest wars in history, killing over twenty million

    這將是歷史上規模最大、最血腥的戰爭之一,殺害了超過兩千萬人

  • people total and leading to the mobilization of seventy million soldiers.

    人的總數,並導致七千萬阿兵哥的動員。

  • It would come to be known asthe war to end all wars.”

    它將被稱為 "結束所有戰爭的戰爭"。

  • It would also be the war that led to the most significant use of chemical weapons in history.

    這也將是一場導致歷史上最重要的化學武器使用的戰爭。

  • The use of gas weapons in the war began quickly, only months after war broke out, but the first

    毒氣武器在戰爭中的使用開始得很快,戰爭爆發後僅幾個月,但第一批

  • ones used were anything but deadly.

    所用的是任何東西,但都是致命的。

  • France was the first country to experiment with gas, but their choice of tear gas didn't

    法國是第一個嘗試使用瓦斯的國家,但他們選擇的催淚瓦斯並沒有

  • have the impact they wanted.

    有他們想要的影響。

  • The ethyl bromoacetate grenades dispersed quickly in the open air and were little more

    溴乙酸乙酯手榴彈在空曠的空氣中迅速散開,幾乎沒有什麼作用。

  • than an annoyance to the German soldiers.

    對德國阿兵哥來說,這不過是一種煩擾。

  • When the Germans tried their own chemical irritants months later, the results were the

    幾個月後,當德國人嘗試他們自己的化學刺激物時,結果是這樣的

  • same - and the British troops were far more worried about the bullets.

    一樣--而英軍更擔心的是子彈。

  • These basic weapons weren't considered a violation of any treaties.

    這些基本武器並沒有被認為違反了任何條約。

  • But that was about to change.

    但這種情況即將改變。

  • It was 1915 when Germany deployed their next chemical weapon - a massive quantity of tear

    1915年,德國部署了他們的下一個化學武器--大量的催淚劑。

  • gas made from xylyl bromide.

    溴化茜草製成的氣體。

  • It targeted Russian troops near Warsaw, but they hadn't accounted for one thing - it

    它的目標是華沙附近的俄羅斯軍隊,但他們沒有考慮到一件事--它

  • was the dead of winter, and the gas didn't vaporize.

    當時正值冬日,氣體沒有蒸發。

  • It froze, and had no impact on the troops.

    它凍結了,對部隊沒有影響。

  • The use of tear gas became a dead end in the war, and the Germans turned their attention

    催淚瓦斯的使用在戰爭中成了一個死衚衕,德國人把注意力轉向了

  • to other - more deadly - chemicals.

    對其他--更致命的--化學品。

  • It wouldn't be long before they found lethal success.

    不久之後,他們就會找到致命的成功。

  • Chlorine has long been a dangerous gas, albeit one with a lot of uses.

    長期以來,氯氣一直是一種危險的氣體,儘管它有很多用途。

  • It's used in keeping pools clean among other jobs, but every container on it comes with

    在其他工作中,它被用於保持游泳池的清潔,但它的每個容器都帶有

  • a host of warnings - it's a dangerous irritant that can cause damage to the eyes, throat,

    一系列的警告--它是一種危險的刺激物,可以對眼睛、喉嚨造成傷害。

  • and lungs if it makes contact.

    和肺部,如果它能接觸到。

  • When turned into a gas, it can even cause respiratory distress and asphyxiation if it's

    當它變成氣體時,如果是在空氣中,它甚至會引起呼吸困難和窒息。

  • concentrated enough.

    足夠集中。

  • German companies produced chlorine as a by-product of creating industrial dyes, and they were

    德國公司生產的氯氣是製造工業染料的副產品,而他們是

  • soon put to work weaponizing it for the German army.

    很快就投入到為德國軍隊製造武器的工作中。

  • It wasn't long before the first successful chemical attack of WW1 would take place.

    沒過多久,一戰中第一次成功的化學襲擊就發生了。

  • Although historians differ on the date, what is known is that Major Karl von Zigler observed

    雖然歷史學家對日期有不同的看法,但已知的是,卡爾-馮-齊格勒少校觀察到

  • a chlorine gas attack on British troops, and it was a world of difference between that

    對英軍進行氯氣攻擊,這與英軍的氯氣攻擊有天壤之別。

  • and the earlier tear gas attacks.

    以及早些時候的催淚瓦斯襲擊事件。

  • This gas was potent, and it reportedly killed 140 English officers.

    這種氣體的效力很強,據說它殺死了140名英國軍官。

  • While von Zigler was reporting a great success, even he was shocked at what he saw - referring

    雖然馮-齊格勒在報告中說取得了巨大的成功,但連他自己都對所看到的情況感到震驚--指的是

  • to it as a horrible weapon.

    把它作為一種可怕的武器。

  • No one is sure why this gas was so deadly, but some suspect it may have been a hybrid

    沒有人確定這種氣體為何如此致命,但有人懷疑它可能是一種混合氣體。

  • of Chlorine and another gas.

    氯氣和另一種氣體。

  • The arsenal of chemical weapons would soon expand terribly.

    化學武器庫很快就會可怕地擴大。

  • By April 22nd, 1915, chlorine gas was a regular weapon of the German troops.

    到1915年4月22日,氯氣已成為德國軍隊的常規武器。

  • The next brutal attack came when 168 tons of the gas was turned into a massive cloud

    下一次殘酷的攻擊是在168噸氣體被變成巨大的雲層時發生的。

  • targeting French Colonial troops from Martinique and Algeria.

    針對馬提尼克島和阿爾及利亞的法國殖民部隊。

  • As the gigantic greyish-green cloud floated towards the soldiers, they panicked, abandoning

    當巨大的灰綠色雲層向阿兵哥們飄來時,他們驚慌失措,放棄了

  • their posts and creating a massive gap in the Allied line.

    他們的崗位,並在盟軍的防線上製造了一個巨大的缺口。

  • There was only one problem - the German troops were hesitant to advance into it as well.

    只有一個問題--德國軍隊也在猶豫是否要推進到這裡。

  • And that was the double-edged sword of chemical warfare - it didn't recognize your military

    而這就是化學戰的雙刃劍--它不承認你的軍隊

  • colors.

    顏色。

  • It killed everyone equally.

    它平等地殺死了所有人。

  • Chemical weapons were starting to define the war - and the other armies began to respond.

    化學武器開始定義戰爭--而其他軍隊也開始做出反應。

  • The first step was the nations opposing Germany issuing a formal condemnation of the attacks,

    第一步是反對德國的國家對襲擊事件發表正式譴責。

  • claiming they violated international law.

    聲稱他們違反了國際法。

  • But Germany had a unique defense - the treaties only banned the use of chemical weapons in

    但是,德國有一個獨特的辯護理由--條約只禁止在以下情況下使用化學武器

  • shells or other weapons, but there was nothing regulating their use as a gas.

    炮彈或其他武器,但沒有任何規定將其作為一種氣體使用。

  • The Germans continued deploying gas regularly, including in a massive attack in Russia that

    德國人繼續定期部署毒氣,包括在俄羅斯的一次大規模攻擊中。

  • led to over a thousand fatalities.

    導致了一千多人死亡。

  • This led to Russia opening its own division to study the mass delivery of chemical weapons.

    這導致俄羅斯開設了自己的部門來研究化學武器的大規模投放。

  • But was there a way to neutralize this new deadly weapon?

    但是否有辦法化解這種新的致命武器?

  • It soon became clear that the ones who were overcome by poison gas were the ones who tried

    很快就明白了,那些被毒氣征服的人就是那些試圖

  • to escape.

    來逃避。

  • Moving made the effects of the gas worse, and the higher they stood, the less they were

    移動使氣體的影響更加嚴重,他們站得越高,就越不容易被發現。

  • affected.

    受到影響。

  • The gas was denser near the ground, and it didn't take much to minimize the effects.

    氣體在地面附近的密度較高,不需要太多,就能將影響降到最低。

  • Chlorine gas was a potent irritant but not hard to defend against.

    氯氣是一種強烈的刺激物,但不難抵禦。

  • Because it was visible as it approached, troops were taught to find high ground, cover their

    由於它在接近時是可見的,部隊被教導要找到高地,掩蓋他們的

  • mouth and nose, and protect their eyes.

    口和鼻,並保護他們的眼睛。

  • It was even found that using urine to wet the cloth might be more effective since the

    人們甚至發現,用尿液來打溼布可能更有效,因為

  • compound urea reacted with chlorine and weakened it.

    化合物尿素與氯發生反應,削弱了氯的作用。

  • Effective, if not appealing.

    有效,如果不吸引人的話。

  • But poison gas wouldn't stay on the German side - and it wouldn't remain as easy to

    但是,毒氣不會停留在德國一側--而且也不會像以前那樣容易被發現。

  • neutralize.

    中和。

  • When German forces refused to stop deploying the weapons in violation of the treaties,

    當德國軍隊拒絕停止部署違反條約的武器時。

  • the British quickly started developing their own Chlorine gas.

    英國人迅速開始開發他們自己的氯氣。

  • Their initial attempt at deploying it was foiled by the win, even blowing it back on

    他們最初的部署嘗試被勝利挫敗了,甚至把它吹回了上

  • them at times, and the flannel gas masks they used to protect themselves weren't effective.

    他們有時也會出現這種情況,而他們用來保護自己的法蘭絨防毒面具並不有效。

  • The Germans were then able to shoot at the unused cylinders of chlorine, releasing it

    然後,德國人能夠向未使用的氯氣瓶射擊,釋放出氯氣。

  • against the British.

    反對英國人。

  • Chlorine was the first to be deployed, but it wouldn't be the most deadly.

    氯氣是第一個被部署的,但它不會是最致命的。

  • It was 1915 when French chemists introduced phosgene to the world.

    那是1915年,法國化學家向世界介紹了光氣。

  • This was created in 1812 by synthesizing carbon monoxide and chlorine with sunlight, and it

    這是在1812年通過用太陽光合成一氧化碳和氯氣而產生的。

  • had a few advantages over chlorine gas.

    與氯氣相比,有一些優勢。

  • For one thing, it had a less distinct smell - described somewhat like moldy hay.

    首先,它有一種不太明顯的氣味--被描述為有點像發黴的乾草。

  • Second, it was actively poisonous.

    第二,它是主動有毒的。

  • Its effects aren't apparent like chlorine, and its poison levels are lower than many

    它的影響不像氯氣那樣明顯,而且它的毒害程度比很多人都低。

  • deadly gases - but it can cause people to develop a pulmonary edema, resulting in a

    致命的氣體--但它能使人發生肺水腫,導致

  • potentially fatal reaction hours after the facts.

    潛在的致命反應是在事實發生後數小時。

  • When combined with chlorine gas, it became a deadly weapon.

    當與氯氣結合時,它成為一種致命的武器。

  • It would soon be produced by all of Germany, France, the UK, and the United States.

    它很快就會被所有的德國、法國、英國和美國生產。

  • But it was 1917 when the deadliest gas would enter the fray.

    但當最致命的氣體進入戰場時,已是1917年。

  • It was known as mustard gas, but it was anything but a tasty topping for hot dogs.

    它被稱為芥末氣,但它卻不是熱狗的美味配料。

  • A sulfur-based compound, it had a yellowish-brown tinge and its odor resembles mustard and horseradish.

    它是一種硫基化合物,具有黃褐色的色調,其氣味類似於芥末和辣根。

  • Unlike chlorine, it was deployed in a fine mist rather than a gas, and its effects were

    與氯氣不同的是,它是以細密的霧氣而不是氣體的形式部署的,其效果是

  • horrible.

    可怕的是。

  • While it could be fatal in high enough levels, for those who were exposed the pain would

    雖然它在足夠高的水準上可能是致命的,但對於那些被暴露的人來說,痛苦會

  • be extreme.

    是極端的。

  • Their skin would blister, their eyes would become painful and hard to open, and it would

    他們的皮膚會起水泡,他們的眼睛會變得疼痛,難以睜開,而且會

  • cause uncontrolled vomiting.

    引起不受控制的嘔吐。

  • If it settled in the lungs, it would attack the bronchial tubes and cause internal bleeding.

    如果它在肺部定居,它將攻擊支氣管並導致內部出血。

  • For those who were injured fatally, they could linger for weeks in agonizing pain.

    對於那些受了致命傷的人來說,他們可能在痛苦中徘徊數週。

  • But like all chemical weapons, it had its drawbacks.

    但與所有化學武器一樣,它也有缺點。

  • Mustard gas would settle to the ground as an oily liquid, but it didn't disperse quickly,

    芥子氣會以油性液體的形式沉降到地面上,但它並沒有迅速散去。

  • and an army that used it would then have to advance into the same area they had gassed.

    而使用這種方法的軍隊就必須向他們用過毒氣的同一地區推進。

  • Mustard gas was so potent that the German army chose to saturate the area they attacked

    芥子氣的威力如此之大,以至於德軍選擇在他們進攻的地區進行飽和。

  • with it rather than mount a conventional attack, letting the enemy forces retreat rather than

    用它而不是發動常規攻擊,讓敵軍撤退而不是

  • moving on them.

    在他們身上移動。

  • It wouldn't be long before the allied forces took on this deadly new weapon as well.

    過不了多久,盟軍也會採用這種致命的新武器。

  • The United States even started developing a deadlier gas named Lewisite - but it wasn't

    美國甚至開始開發一種名為劉易斯特的更致命的氣體--但它並不是

  • deployed in the First World War because hostilities came to an end in November 1918.

    由於敵對行動在1918年11月結束,是以在第一次世界大戰中部署了這些部隊。

  • And when both sides looked at what these new weapons had done, they were horrified.

    而當雙方看到這些新武器所做的事情時,他們都感到驚恐。

  • In total, these poison gases and chemical weapons had claimed a total of 1.3 million

    這些毒氣和化學武器總共造成130萬人死亡。

  • casualties.

    傷亡情況。

  • But by the end of the war, armies were using protective gear to minimize its effects, and

    但到了戰爭結束時,軍隊開始使用防護裝備,以儘量減少其影響,並且

  • it had become more of a brutal accent to the fighting than a game-changing weapon.

    它已經成為戰鬥中的一個殘酷的點綴,而不是改變遊戲規則的武器。

  • While the hostilities between world powers were over, these same world powers started

    當世界大國之間的敵對行動結束後,這些世界大國開始了

  • using chemical weapons in various colonial conflicts - where the opposing armies usually

    在各種殖民衝突中使用化學武器--在這些衝突中,敵對的軍隊通常會

  • didn't have the resources to defend themselves.

    沒有資源來保護自己。

  • This horrified the public when details got out, and momentum started to build against

    當細節曝光後,這讓公眾感到震驚,並開始形成反對的勢頭。

  • poison gas once again.

    再次出現毒氣。

  • But would it stick?

    但它會堅持嗎?

  • In 1925, most of the First World War nations had signed the Geneva Protocol, an expanded

    1925年,大多數第一次世界大戰的國家都簽署了《日內瓦議定書》,這是一份擴大的《日內瓦議定書》。

  • ban on all poison weapons that closed the loophole that allowed the use of poison gas

    禁止所有毒氣武器,堵塞允許使用毒氣的漏洞

  • clouds.

    雲。

  • It also included all liquids, materials, or devices that were equivalent to the gases.

    它還包括與氣體相當的所有液體、材料或裝置。

  • However, some nations - including the United States - did not officially sign it until

    然而,一些國家--包括美國--直到2009年才正式簽署該公約。

  • the 1970s.

    20世紀70年代。

  • It seemed like the mass use of chemical weapons was over.

    似乎大規模使用化學武器的情況已經結束。

  • But it would soon be seriously tested.

    但它很快就會受到嚴重的考驗。

  • It would only be a few decades before war enveloped the world again - this one even

    僅僅過了幾十年,戰爭就再次籠罩了世界--這一次甚至是

  • bigger and deadlier.

    更大、更致命。

  • The nations, many of whom had been involved in both global conflicts, quickly stockpiled

    這些國家中的許多人都曾參與過這兩場全球衝突,他們迅速儲存了

  • chemical weapons, but there were only isolated uses in China and Ethiopia, and an accidental

    化學武器,但只是在中國和衣索匹亞有個別的使用,還有一次意外的

  • mustard gas bombing of Warsaw in 1942.

    1942年對華沙的芥子氣轟炸。

  • While mustard gas in particular was stockpiled, it's likely every nation was waiting for

    雖然特別是芥子氣被儲存起來,但很可能每個國家都在等待著

  • someone else to use it first - but few did, and the arms race of chemical weapons didn't

    但很少有人這樣做,而化學武器的軍備競賽並沒有發生。

  • get out of control again.

    再次失去控制。

  • It seemed like the horrible poison gas wars of the First World War had put this terrible

    似乎是第一次世界大戰中可怕的毒氣戰爭把這種可怕的

  • weapon on the shelf.

    架子上的武器。

  • Of course, that didn't mean a far deadlier arms race wasn't about to begin

    當然,這並不意味著一場更致命的軍備競賽不會開始......

  • For more on that terrible weapon, check out “50 Facts About Nuclear Weapons You Didn't

    關於這種可怕的武器的更多資訊,請查看《關於核武器的50個事實,你不知道》。

  • Know”, or watch this video instead.

    知道",或者觀看這個視頻。

You're a soldier in the trenches of the Western Front in the Great War.

你是大戰中西線戰壕中的一名阿兵哥。

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B2 中高級 中文 武器 氣體 致命 化學 戰爭 軍隊

第一次世界大戰中的毒氣 - 大規模毀滅性武器 (Poison Gas in World War 1 - Weapons of Mass Destruction)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 17 日
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