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  • Adolf Hitler.

    阿道夫-希特勒。

  • One of the worst human beings ever to walk the earth.

    有史以來在地球上行走的最糟糕的人之一。

  • The very existence of a man like Hitler raises a lot of questions about the nature of good

    像希特勒這樣的人的存在本身就提出了很多關於善的本質的問題

  • and evil.

    和邪惡。

  • One of the biggest ones being: Are monsters like Hitler born evil, or has something in

    其中一個最大的問題是。像希特勒這樣的怪物是天生的邪惡,還是有什麼東西在他們身上?

  • their life made them that way?

    他們的生活使他們成為那樣的人?

  • That's why we're going back to where it all started, and taking a look at Hitler before

    這就是為什麼我們要回到一切開始的地方,看看希特勒之前的情況

  • he became the Fuhrer.

    他成為元首。

  • Before he even joined the Nazi Party in the first place.

    甚至在他一開始加入納粹黨之前。

  • Did something happen to this man in his youth that made him the monster he turned out to

    這個人在年輕時是否發生了什麼事,使他變成了怪物?

  • be?

    是嗎?

  • Let's take a look and find out.

    讓我們來看看並找出答案。

  • It probably doesn't come as a surprise that Hitler's father was a terrible guy.

    希特勒的父親是一個可怕的人,這可能並不令人驚訝。

  • Alois Hitler Sr. was born Alois Schicklgruber in 1837 in the small Austrian town of Strones.

    老阿洛伊斯-希特勒於1837年出生在奧地利小城斯特羅內斯的阿洛伊斯-施克爾格魯伯。

  • He was an illegitimate child of a 42-year-old unmarried catholic peasant known as Maria

    他是一個42歲的未婚天主教農民的私生子,被稱為瑪麗亞

  • Shicklgruber, which carried a fair bit of social stigma at the time.

    Shicklgruber,這在當時帶有相當多的社會汙名。

  • He wasn't even given a proper surname on his baptismal certificate, the priest just

    在他的洗禮證書上甚至沒有給他一個合適的姓氏,牧師只是

  • wroteIllegitimateinstead.

    寫的是 "非法",而不是 "合法"。

  • This was likely a major source of insecurity for young Alois.

    這可能是年輕的阿洛伊斯不安全感的一個主要來源。

  • When Alois was five, his mother married a local miller by the name of Johann Georg Hiedler.

    阿洛伊斯五歲時,他的母親嫁給了當地一個名叫約翰-喬治-希德勒的磨坊主。

  • It's strongly believed that Johann could have actually been Alois' biological father,

    人們強烈認為約翰可能真的是阿洛伊斯的生父。

  • but nobody can ever really know for certain.

    但沒有人能夠真正確定。

  • Some have speculated that a Jewish man named Leopold Frankenburger was actually Alois'

    有人推測,一個名叫利奧波德-弗蘭肯伯格的猶太人實際上是阿洛伊斯的

  • real biological father, but there isn't any hard evidence for this whatsoever.

    真正的生父,但沒有任何確鑿的證據證明這一點。

  • It likely just came into popular belief because the idea of Hitler, history's most famous

    這很可能只是因為希特勒這個歷史上最著名的人的想法而進入了大眾的信仰。

  • antisemite, having a Jewish grandfather seemed darkly ironic, but this assumption really

    反猶太主義者,有一個猶太人的祖父似乎是暗暗的諷刺,但這個假設真的是

  • doesn't line up with the facts.

    與事實不符。

  • Four years after the marriage, Maria passed away, and Alois was sent away to live with

    婚後四年,瑪麗亞去世了,阿洛伊斯被送去與其他家庭成員一起生活。

  • his new uncle, Johann Nepomunk Hielder, with whom he trained to become a cobbler.

    他的新叔叔約翰-內波蒙克-希爾德(Johann Nepomunk Hielder),他在他那裡接受培訓,成為一名鞋匠。

  • But that wasn't the path that Alois ended up taking in life.

    但這並不是阿洛伊斯最終走上的人生道路。

  • Instead, he became a civil servant, and joined the semi-military profession of being a customs

    相反,他成為一名公務員,並加入了半軍事化的海關職業。

  • official.

    官方。

  • This led to him bouncing around Austria for a number of years, and in 1877, he decided

    這導致他在奧地利輾轉多年,1877年,他決定

  • to right the biggest perceived wrong of his life and legitimize himself.

    糾正他一生中最大的認知錯誤並使自己合法化。

  • With permission from his Church, he asked to change his surname from Schicklgruber to

    在教會的允許下,他要求將自己的姓氏從Schicklgruber改為

  • that of his legal father, Johann Georg Hiedler.

    他的合法父親約翰-喬治-希德勒的名字。

  • For reasons lost to time, the official who filled in Alois' papers wrote his name as

    由於失去了時間的原因,為阿洛伊斯填寫文件的官員將他的名字寫成了

  • Alois Hitlerrather thanAlois Hiedler.”

    "阿洛伊斯-希特勒 "而不是 "阿洛伊斯-希德勒"。

  • It's crazy to think that, if Alois had never gotten his name changed, we may all have been

    想到這一點很瘋狂,如果阿洛伊斯沒有改名,我們可能都已經被

  • looking back in fear at the dreaded Adolf Schicklgruber.

    恐懼地回望著可怕的阿道夫-施克爾格魯伯。

  • Doesn't quite have the same scary ring to it, does it?

    它不太具有相同的可怕性,不是嗎?

  • So, who was Hitler's mother?

    那麼,誰是希特勒的母親?

  • She was actually the third wife of Alois.

    她實際上是阿洛伊斯的第三任妻子。

  • His first wife was the wealthy Anna Glasl-Hörer.

    他的第一任妻子是富有的安娜-格拉斯爾-霍爾。

  • But, much like his future son, Alois was a bad guy, and would have affairs frequently,

    但是,和他未來的兒子一樣,阿洛伊斯是個壞人,而且會經常有外遇。

  • often cheating on her with girls as young as 19 when he was 43.

    在他43歲時,經常與年僅19歲的女孩偷情。

  • He next married one of his mistresses, Franziska "Fanni" Matzelsberger, after Anna died, and

    在安娜去世後,他又與他的一個情婦弗朗西斯卡-"範妮"-馬策爾斯貝格結婚,並且

  • had two children with her.

    與她有兩個孩子。

  • However, he would soon leave her too for his housekeeper: young Klaralzl.

    然而,他很快也會為了他的管家:年輕的克拉拉-波爾茲爾而離開她。

  • But there was one problem: Depending on the truth of Alois' parentage, Klara may have

    但有一個問題:根據阿洛伊斯的父母親的真相,克拉拉可能已經

  • also been his first cousin, or even his niece.

    也是他的大表哥,甚至是他的侄女。

  • Yes, that's right, Hitler could have been the product of cousin incest.

    是的,沒錯,希特勒可能是表兄妹亂倫的產物。

  • And things would only get stranger from there, as Alois and Klara started having children

    而事情只會越來越奇怪,因為阿洛伊斯和克拉拉開始有了孩子。

  • together.

    一起。

  • They had six in total, Hitler included, but the grand majority of them died in their infancy.

    他們總共有六個人,包括希特勒,但絕大多數都在嬰兒期就死了。

  • Gustav, Otto, and Ida died of Diptheria the year before Hitler was born, and another one

    古斯塔夫、奧托和伊達在希特勒出生的前一年死於白喉,另一個是

  • of his brothers, Edmund, would die of Measles in 1900.

    他的兄弟中的埃德蒙將在1900年死於麻疹。

  • The only surviving children of Alois and Klara were Adolf and his younger sister, Paula.

    阿洛伊斯和克拉拉唯一倖存的孩子是阿道夫和他的妹妹寶拉。

  • Adolf was born on April 20th of 1889, in the small Austrian town of Braunau am Inn, close

    阿道夫於1889年4月20日出生在奧地利小鎮布勞瑙(Braunau am Inn)。

  • to the German border.

    到德國邊境。

  • He lived with his mother and father, his biological siblings, Paula and Edmund, and his two half-siblings

    他與他的母親和父親、他的親生兄弟姐妹保拉和埃德蒙以及他的兩個同父異母的兄弟姐妹一起生活。

  • from his father's second marriage, Angela and Alois Jr.

    來自他父親第二次婚姻的安吉拉和小阿洛伊斯。

  • While he was close with his mother, conflict with his father and his inability to adapt

    雖然他與母親關係密切,但與父親的衝突以及他無法適應

  • to school gave young Adolf a troubled childhood.

    上學的經歷給了小阿道夫一個麻煩的童年。

  • Alois Hitler Sr. was a profoundly cold and cruel man to his immediate family.

    老阿洛伊斯-希特勒對他的直系親屬是一個極度冷酷和殘忍的人。

  • He was controlling, distant, and would beat his wife and children at the drop of a hat.

    他控制慾強,與人疏遠,一不小心就會打他的妻子和孩子。

  • Some even recounted that he'd make a show of beating the family dog until it wet itself

    有些人甚至說,他把家裡的狗打得渾身溼透。

  • on the carpet.

    在地毯上。

  • Adolf was a confident and free-spirited young man, so he received the worst of his father's

    阿道夫是一個自信而自由的年輕人,所以他受到了他父親最壞的影響。

  • physical abuse in their frequent fights.

    在他們頻繁的爭吵中進行身體虐待。

  • They also moved around a lot during Hitler's youth, as Alois Sr. retired from his job as

    在希特勒的青年時期,他們也經常搬家,因為老阿洛伊斯從他的工作崗位上退休了。

  • a customs official and decided to move to the Austrian town of Hafeld to farm bees.

    他是一名海關官員,並決定搬到奧地利的哈菲爾德鎮去養殖蜜蜂。

  • The move made things even worse for Adolf and Alois Sr.'s relationship.

    此舉使阿道夫和老阿洛伊斯的關係更加惡化。

  • Adolf was enrolled in a strict, state-funded elementary school, and found himself at odds

    阿道夫在一所嚴格的、由國家資助的小學就讀,他發現自己在這方面有分歧。

  • with the establishment's rules and regulations.

    與該機構的規則和條例。

  • This led to further violence from Alois, who wanted his son to take a similar career path

    這導致了阿洛伊斯的進一步暴力,他希望他的兒子走類似的職業道路

  • to himself.

    對自己說。

  • While Klara tried to defend her son from his father's wrath, she often ended up on the

    當克拉拉試圖保護她的兒子免受他父親的憤怒之苦時,她卻常常落得個被人欺負的下場。

  • receiving end instead.

    代替接收端。

  • It was a truly toxic home life.

    那是一種真正有毒的家庭生活。

  • When the bee business failed, the Hitlers continued to move around over the next few

    當蜜蜂生意失敗後,希特勒夫婦在接下來的幾年裡繼續四處奔波。

  • years.

    年。

  • Hitler, now eight years old, started to take an interest in art and performance.

    現年8歲的希特勒開始對藝術和表演產生興趣。

  • He began painting watercolors, and even taking singing lessons from his school choir.

    他開始畫水彩畫,甚至從學校的合唱團學習唱歌。

  • However, his life would take a major hit when his brother Edmund died in 1900.

    然而,當他的兄弟埃德蒙在1900年去世時,他的生活將受到重大打擊。

  • This tragedy shook young Adolf, changing him from a confident, outgoing child to a withdrawn

    這場悲劇震撼了年輕的阿道夫,使他從一個自信、外向的孩子變成了一個孤僻的人。

  • oddball who regularly got into fights with teachers and, of course, his father.

    他是個怪人,經常和老師打架,當然還有他的父親。

  • By this point, the seeds of hatred and nationalism were already growing within young Adolf.

    至此,仇恨和民族主義的種子已經在年輕的阿道夫體內滋生。

  • A frightening but important thing to remember is that Hitler's views, while obviously

    一個可怕但重要的事情是,要記住,希特勒的觀點,雖然明顯地

  • scary and extreme to us in the modern day, had its roots in extremely common sentiments

    對現代的我們來說是可怕和極端的,其根源在於極其普遍的情緒

  • for pre-World War One Austria and Germany.

    一戰前的奧地利和德國。

  • Hitler and his friends, despite being Austrian, were loyal to the German cause, hated growing

    希特勒和他的朋友們儘管是奧地利人,但他們忠於德國的事業,憎恨日益增長的

  • ethnic diversity in Austria, and would even greet each other withHeil!”

    奧地利的民族多樣性,甚至會用 "Heil "來問候對方。

  • It's likely that many of the adults in his life expressed similarly hateful views, including

    很可能他生活中的許多成年人也表達了類似的仇恨觀點,包括

  • his father and school teachers, making it seem extremely normal to believe such things

    他的父親和學校的老師,讓人覺得相信這種事情是極其正常的。

  • to a growing Hitler.

    對一個不斷增長的希特勒。

  • His school performance only got worse as the years went on.

    隨著時間的推移,他的學習成績只會越來越差。

  • Alois wanted Adolf to work at the customs office, and even took him on a tour of one

    阿洛伊斯希望阿道夫在海關工作,甚至帶他參觀了一個海關。

  • in his early teen years.

    在他十幾歲的時候。

  • Hitler felt that this was the moment the differences between him and his father became truly irreconcilable.

    希特勒覺得,這是他和他父親之間的分歧真正變得不可調和的時刻。

  • He knew by now that he wanted to attend a classical school and develop his painting

    他現在已經知道,他想上一所古典學校,發展他的繪畫。

  • skills to become a professional artist, but his father instead forced him to attend a

    技巧,以成為一名職業藝術家,但他的父親卻強迫他去參加一個

  • technical school.

    技術學校。

  • Hitler would later recount in Mein Kampf that he did badly in this school on purpose, hoping

    希特勒後來在《我的奮鬥》中回憶說,他是故意在這所學校表現不好,希望

  • that when his father saw how terrible his performance was, he'd allow him to pursue

    當他的父親看到他的表現有多麼糟糕時,他就會允許他繼續下去。

  • his dream.

    他的夢想。

  • This was the first of many grave miscalculations in Hitler's life.

    這是希特勒一生中許多嚴重誤判中的第一次。

  • But in the end, one event did allow Hitler to drop out of school: The sudden and unexpected

    但最後,有一件事確實讓希特勒輟學了。突如其來的

  • death of Alois Sr. in 1903, likely due to a pleural effusion.

    老阿洛伊斯於1903年去世,很可能是由於胸腔積液。

  • He was out drinking at a local inn when he suddenly collapsed and died shortly after.

    他在當地一家旅店喝酒時突然暈倒,不久後死亡。

  • When the 14 year old Hitler saw his father's corpse, he supposedly began to weep uncontrollably.

    當14歲的希特勒看到他父親的屍體時,據說他開始無法控制地哭泣。

  • He and his father may have constantly been at each other's throats, but losing another

    他和他的父親可能一直在彼此的喉嚨裡,但失去另一個人

  • family member was just too much.

    家庭成員實在是太多了。

  • His school performance deteriorated further, until his mother eventually pulled him out

    他的學習成績進一步惡化,直到他的母親最終把他拉出來。

  • of school entirely.

    完全離開學校。

  • After a year to put himself back together, under the doting care of his mother, Hitler

    在母親的悉心照料下,希特勒經過一年時間重新振作起來。

  • returned to school with improved grades and performance.

    回到學校後,成績和表現都有所提高。

  • He was never a particularly good student, but he was able to pass his exit exams with

    他從來都不是一個特別好的學生,但他能夠通過畢業考試,而且是以

  • two different attempts.

    兩次不同的嘗試。

  • He left school with no intentions to continue pursuing a technical career.

    他離開學校時沒有打算繼續從事技術職業。

  • With his controlling father dead, and his mother being far more supportive of her son

    他控制慾強的父親去世了,而他的母親則更支持她的兒子

  • following his dreams, he set off to Cosmopolitan Vienna to develop his artistic skills and

    為了追尋自己的夢想,他去了維也納大都會,發展自己的藝術技能,並開始了自己的創作。

  • hopefully join the Academy of Fine Arts.

    希望能加入美術學院。

  • But by now, we all know how that turned out for the aspiring artist.

    但到現在,我們都知道這個有抱負的藝術家的結果是什麼。

  • Hitler was rejected twice by the Academy, finding his artistic abilities subpar.

    希特勒曾兩次被學院拒絕,認為他的藝術能力不合格。

  • Because Hitler specialised in drawingфs and buildings, they suggested instead that he

    因為希特勒擅長繪畫和建築,所以他們建議他

  • try his luck at the local Academy of Architecture.

    試試他在當地建築學院的運氣。

  • However, this is where Hitler's earlier decisions came back to bite him, because his

    然而,這正是希特勒早先的決定反過來咬他一口的地方,因為他的

  • poor school performance left him without the necessary academic qualifications to enter

    糟糕的學習成績使他沒有必要的學術資格進入大學。

  • the architecture college.

    建築學院。

  • Naturally, this left Hitler feeling pretty sour about his time in Vienna, but contrary

    自然,這讓希特勒對他在維也納的日子感到相當酸楚,但與之相反的是

  • to popular belief, his rejection from art school wasn't nearly as important in his

    與流行的看法不同,他被藝術學校拒之門外對他來說並沒有那麼重要。

  • development as the ideas and beliefs he was beginning to learn from his new locale.

    發展,因為他開始從新的地方學習思想和信仰。

  • Hitler had always been a nationalist, but in Vienna, it's believed that he first started

    希特勒一直是一個民族主義者,但在維也納,人們認為他第一次開始了

  • developing his hardcore antisemitism.

    發展他的鐵桿反猶太主義。

  • He read local magazines that blamed Jewish people for all the problems that Austria and

    他閱讀了當地的雜誌,這些雜誌將奧地利和中國的所有問題都歸咎於猶太人。

  • Germany were experiencing.

    德國正在經歷的。

  • Some who knew Hitler claimed his antisemitism pre-dated his time in Vienna, but it seemed

    一些認識希特勒的人聲稱,他的反猶太主義早在他在維也納的時候就有了,但似乎

  • as though his time in Vienna finally gave him the political and philosophical framework

    彷彿他在維也納的日子最終給了他一個政治和哲學框架。

  • for his irrational hatred of the Jewish people.

    因為他對猶太民族的非理性仇恨。

  • But amongst all this, one final tragedy would strike the now 18-year-old Adolf.

    但在這一切中,最後一個悲劇將降臨到現年18歲的阿道夫身上。

  • His mother, Klara, the only surviving member of his family that he was truly close with,

    他的母親克拉拉,是他唯一倖存的、與他真正親近的家庭成員。

  • had been diagnosed with terminal breast cancer at the age of 47.

    她在47歲時被診斷出患有乳腺癌晚期。

  • She was diagnosed and treated by the Hitler family doctor, Dr. Eduard Bloch.

    她被希特勒的家庭醫生愛德華-布洛赫博士診斷和治療。

  • He later recounted that Klara took the news with dignity, as a deeply religious woman

    他後來回憶說,克拉拉作為一個虔誠的女性,有尊嚴地接受了這個消息

  • who believed that everything that happened was part of God's plan.

    他相信所發生的一切是上帝計劃的一部分。

  • Adolf was devastated.

    阿道夫很受打擊。

  • Dr. Bloch described the closeness of their relationship in later interviews, saying:

    布洛赫博士在後來的採訪中描述了他們之間的親密關係,他說。

  • While Hitler was not a mother's boy in the usual sense, I never witnessed a closer

    "雖然希特勒不是通常意義上的母親的孩子,但我從未見過一個更親密的

  • attachment.

    附件。

  • Their love had been mutual.

    他們的愛是相互的。

  • Klara Hitler adored her son.

    克拉拉-希特勒很喜歡她的兒子。

  • She allowed him his own way whenever possible.

    只要有可能,她就允許他走自己的路。

  • For example, she admired his watercolor paintings and drawings and supported his artistic ambitions

    例如,她很欣賞他的水彩畫和素描,並支持他的藝術抱負。

  • in opposition to his father at what cost to herself one may guess.”

    在反對他父親的過程中,人們可能會猜到她的代價是什麼"。

  • When she finally died from the disease, Hitler was, according to Bloch, the saddest man he'd

    據布洛赫說,當她最終死於這種疾病時,希特勒是他所見過的最悲傷的人。

  • ever seen.

    見過的。

  • He was utterly broken - his last tether to humanity and decency, cut.

    他完全崩潰了--他與人性和體面的最後聯繫被切斷了。

  • It was clear that Dr. Bloch's good treatment of his mother meant a great deal to Hitler,

    很明顯,布洛赫醫生對他母親的善待對希特勒來說意義重大。

  • as he was one of the few Austrian Jews that Hitler allowed to move from Austria to the

    因為他是希特勒允許從奧地利移居的少數奧地利猶太人之一。

  • United States in 1940, as his genocidal plans were beginning to pick up steam.

    1940年,當他的種族滅絕計劃開始上升時,美國。

  • Later being interviewed, Dr. Bloch described Klara as a kind and decent woman, and said

    後來在接受採訪時,布洛赫博士將克拉拉描述為一個善良、正直的女人,並說

  • that she would roll in her grave if she ever knew what a monster her beloved son became

    如果她知道她心愛的兒子變成了什麼怪物,她會在墳墓裡打滾。

  • in the end.

    在最後。

  • So, we return to the big question: Did Hitler's childhood turn him into a monster?

    是以,我們回到了這個大問題。希特勒的童年是否將他變成了一個怪物?

  • Did Klara and Alois raise him to be a person capable of committing genocide?

    克拉拉和阿洛伊斯是否將他培養成一個能夠實施種族滅絕的人?

  • Was his childhood so tragic that it made him evil?

    他的童年是如此悲慘以至於使他變得邪惡嗎?

  • Well, no.

    嗯,沒有。

  • Hitler's beliefs were the product of popular and toxic philosophies that were rife during

    希特勒的信仰是流行和有毒哲學的產物,這些哲學在當時盛行。

  • his time: Nationalism, Authoritarianism, Anti-Semitism.

    他的時代。民族主義、獨裁主義、反猶太主義。

  • It might be more comforting to believe that Hitler was some kind of fluke, a supervillain

    相信希特勒是某種僥倖,是一個超級大壞蛋,可能會更令人欣慰。

  • born out of incest and abused into being evil by a controlling father.

    亂倫而生,被控制慾極強的父親虐待成了惡魔。

  • But even if Adolf Hitler had never joined the Nazi Party, a man like him would have,

    但即使阿道夫-希特勒沒有加入納粹黨,像他這樣的人也會加入的。

  • given how common it was to think like he did back then.

    鑑於當時像他那樣的想法是多麼普遍。

  • Hitler never could have done what he did alone.

    希特勒絕不可能獨自完成他的工作。

  • It took millions agreeing with him, and millions more simply doing nothing, or being killed

    數以百萬計的人同意他的觀點,還有數以百萬計的人只是袖手旁觀,或被殺害。

  • while trying to rebel.

    而試圖反叛。

  • Bad childhoods don't cause genocides.

    糟糕的童年並不會導致種族滅絕。

  • A society growing to hate its most vulnerable people does.

    一個越來越討厭其最脆弱的人的社會確實如此。

  • Now go check outWhat If Hitler Never Existed?” andHow Rich Was Hitler (Where Did All

    現在去看看 "如果希特勒不存在會怎樣?"和 "希特勒有多富有(在哪裡做的?

  • His Money Come From)” for more facts about history's worst monster!

    他的錢是從哪裡來的)",以瞭解更多關於歷史上最糟糕的怪物的事實!

Adolf Hitler.

阿道夫-希特勒。

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B1 中級 中文 希特勒 克拉拉 父親 奧地利 母親 維也納

誰養育了希特勒? (Who Raised Hitler?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 16 日
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