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  • What if you could hop on a spaceship and cruise around the solar system?

    如果你能跳上宇宙飛船,繞著太陽系巡遊呢?

  • It would be like an interplanetary road trip.

    這將是一次星際公路旅行。

  • This is not possible with current technology, but scientists have recently discovered a

    這在目前的技術中是不可能的,但科學家最近發現了一種

  • way to zip around our own solar system usingSuperhighwaysthat run between planets,

    利用行星之間的 "超級高速公路 "在我們自己的太陽系中飛馳的方法。

  • moons, and the sun.

    月球和太陽。

  • In the future, traveling from planet to planet might be similar to hopping in your car, merging

    在未來,從一個星球到另一個星球的旅行可能類似於跳上你的汽車,併入

  • onto the highway, and cruising to your destination.

    上了高速公路,巡航到你的目的地。

  • Space is so incredibly vast, it's almost unfathomable.

    空間是如此令人難以置信的廣闊,幾乎是深不可測的。

  • Our own Solar System is so large that it takes light, the fastest moving thing in our universe,

    我們自己的太陽系是如此之大,以至於它需要光,我們宇宙中移動最快的東西。

  • about 8 minutes and 20 seconds to reach Earth from the sun.

    約8分20秒後從太陽到達地球。

  • It takes that same light approximately another five and a half hours to reach the outskirts

    同樣的光線大約還需要五個半小時才能到達郊區。

  • of our Solar System.

    我們的太陽系。

  • The problem is that humans can not travel at the speed of lightyet.

    問題是,人類還不能以光速旅行......。

  • So if we are going to fly around in space any time soon, we need a means of getting

    是以,如果我們要在不久的將來在太空中飛行,我們需要一種方法來獲得

  • from one planet to another quickly.

    從一個星球快速到另一個星球。

  • No one wants to leave earth bound for Jupiter and get there decades later.

    沒有人願意離開地球前往木星,並在幾十年後到達那裡。

  • By the time you reached your destination, you would be too old to enjoy it.

    當你到達目的地時,你已經太老了,無法享受。

  • Currently we are constrained to certain speeds by the technology we have available, and even

    目前,我們被我們現有的技術限制在一定的速度上,甚至是

  • though technology is advancing at an astonishing rate, it will be a long time before we can

    儘管技術正在以驚人的速度發展,但我們還需要很長的時間才能做到這一點。

  • quickly travel between the planets.

    迅速在行星間旅行。

  • However, the newly discovered Superhighway around our solar system may make interplanetary

    然而,新發現的圍繞我們太陽系的超級高速公路可能會使星際間的

  • travel more realistic in the near future.

    在不久的將來,旅行更加現實。

  • That is if we can accurately map it, and utilize the gravitational forces that allow the Superhighways

    那是如果我們能夠準確地繪製它,並利用引力讓超級公路

  • to exist.

    存在。

  • At the most basic level the Superhighways through space are created by the gravitational

    在最基本的層面上,通過空間的超級公路是由引力和重力創造的。

  • fields of planets, moons, and the sun.

    行星、月球和太陽的領域。

  • Ever since humans have been launching vehicles and satellites beyond Earth's immediate

    自從人類將飛行器和衛星發射到地球周邊以外的地方以來,就一直是如此。

  • orbit, we have been using the gravity of other celestial bodies to increase the speed of

    我們一直在利用其他天體的引力來提高

  • our spacecraft.

    我們的航天器。

  • By calculating the correct trajectory, a spacecraft can literally circle an object at a specific

    通過計算正確的軌跡,航天器實際上可以在一個特定的位置繞過一個物體。

  • angle, and use the object's gravity toslingshotitself in a precise direction.

    角度,並利用物體的重力將自己 "彈射 "到一個精確的方向。

  • By using these maneuvers the spacecraft can gain massive amounts of speed every time it

    通過使用這些機動裝置,航天器每次都能獲得大量的速度。

  • passes by a large body such as a planet or moon.

    經過一個大的天體,如行星或月球。

  • The newly discovered Superhighway uses these same gravitational fields, but takes advantage

    新發現的超級高速公路使用這些相同的引力場,但利用了

  • of where they meet.

    的地方相遇。

  • All of the celestial bodies in our solar system interact with one another.

    我們太陽系中的所有天體都互相影響。

  • The sun pulls on Mars, but Mars also pulls back on the sun.

    太陽拉著火星,但火星也拉回了太陽。

  • Same goes for Mars and Earth, or Earth and Jupiter, all moons and planets are pulling

    火星和地球也一樣,或者地球和木星也一樣,所有的衛星和行星都在拉動

  • on one another, even if just slightly.

    彼此之間的關係,哪怕只是一點點。

  • Scientists have discovered routes through the solar system where this interaction can

    科學家們已經發現了穿過太陽系的路線,在那裡這種互動可以

  • actually speed up objects that run through them.

    實際上是加快了貫穿其中的物體的速度。

  • Most recently this phenomenon was identified by a research team led by Nataša Todorović

    最近,由Nataša Todorović上司的一個研究小組發現了這種現象

  • of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory in Serbia.

    在塞爾維亞的貝爾格萊德天文臺。

  • Todorović and her team discovered a series of arches where different gravitational fields

    Todorović和她的團隊發現了一系列的拱門,在那裡不同的引力場

  • meet to allow objects moving through that section of space to travel faster than expected.

    滿足,以使移動通過該段空間的物體比預期的要快。

  • The term that Todorović's team uses to describe this region of space is theCelestial

    託多羅維奇的團隊用來描述這一空間區域的術語是 "天體"。

  • Autobahn.”

    Autobahn"。

  • You may be wondering how scientists like Todorović's even discovered this planetary Superhighway

    你可能想知道像託多羅維奇這樣的科學家甚至是如何發現這條行星超級公路的

  • in the first place.

    在第一時間。

  • The answer is actually pretty amazing.

    答案其實是相當驚人的。

  • The paths through space that make up the Superhighway can't be seen with the naked eye.

    構成超級高速公路的空間路徑是無法用肉眼看到的。

  • Scientists need to observe how objects travel through our solar system, like comets and

    科學家們需要觀察物體是如何穿越太陽系的,比如彗星和

  • asteroids, to identify the specific paths the Superhighway follows.

    小行星,以確定超級高速公路所遵循的具體路徑。

  • Todorović and her team observed three sets of objects in specific regions of space to

    Todorović和她的團隊在空間的特定區域觀察了三組物體,以

  • make their ground breaking discovery.

    做出他們的突破性發現。

  • The first group is called Jupiter-family comets.

    第一組被稱為木星家族的彗星。

  • They have an orbit of less than 20 years, and don't stray from Jupiter's gravitational

    它們的軌道不到20年,而且不會偏離木星的引力。

  • pull.

    拉。

  • The second group are Centaurs, which are icy chunks of rocks that travel between Jupiter

    第二組是半人馬座,它們是在木星與木星之間旅行的冰冷的大塊岩石。

  • and Neptune.

    和海王星。

  • And the last group observed were trans-Neptuinian objects, which travel to the farthest reaches

    而最後觀察到的一組是跨尼普頓的物體,它們前往最遠的地方

  • of our solar system.

    我們的太陽系的。

  • The last two categories of space objects have orbits that can range from decades to a billion

    最後兩類空間物體的軌道可以從幾十年到十億年不等。

  • years.

    年。

  • When Todorović and other researchers first examined this region of space everything seemed

    當Todorović和其他研究人員第一次檢查這個空間區域時,一切似乎都是如此。

  • normal.

    正常。

  • But then they noticed something strange.

    但後來他們注意到一些奇怪的事情。

  • Some of the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects that should have orbits that take thousands

    一些半人馬座和跨海王星的天體,其軌道應該需要成千上萬的時間。

  • or millions of years, were moving much quicker than they should have been.

    或數百萬年的時間,比它們應該有的速度快得多。

  • This led Todorović and her team to investigate further.

    這促使託多羅維奇和她的團隊進一步調查。

  • They knew about gravitational slingshotting around planets, but the objects were continually

    他們知道關於行星周圍的引力彈射,但這些物體不斷地

  • moving faster through space, not just at specific points near planets and moons.

    在空間中更快地移動,而不僅僅是在行星和衛星附近的特定點。

  • It was like they had been put on a high speed conveyor belt in the middle of space.

    就像他們被放在太空中的高速傳送帶上。

  • Using complex mathematics and modeling the scientists discovered that certain asteroids

    科學家們利用複雜的數學和建模,發現某些小行星

  • and comets were speeding up in this region.

    和彗星在這一地區的速度加快。

  • These objects were not just being affected by points in space where massive gravitational

    這些物體不只是受到空間中大規模引力的點的影響,而且還受到其他的影響。

  • fields were present, instead, they were following a network of deep space highways, running

    場地的存在,相反,他們是沿著深空高速公路的網絡,運行在

  • around planets and through empty space.

    圍繞行星和穿越空曠的空間。

  • This was the first set of discoveries that led to identifying the Superhighway in this

    這是第一組發現,導致在這一領域確定了超級高速公路。

  • region of the Solar System.

    太陽系的區域。

  • Todorović and her team collected data on millions of orbits in the Solar System, trying

    託多羅維奇和她的團隊收集了太陽系中數百萬條軌道的數據,試圖

  • to figure out the path that the Superhighway took, and what was causing the phenomena that

    以弄清超級高速公路的路徑,以及是什麼導致了這些現象的發生。

  • was increasing the speed of objects in it.

    正在增加其中物體的速度。

  • It became clear that it was the gravitational interaction between celestial bodies within

    很明顯,是天體之間的引力相互作用,在天體內部

  • the solar system that was creating the Superhighway.

    正在創建超級高速公路的太陽系。

  • Unsurprisingly, one planet in particular was having a massive effect on the path of the

    不足為奇的是,有一顆行星特別是對 "天體 "的路徑產生了巨大影響。

  • Superhighway: Jupiter.

    超級公路。朱庇特。

  • Scientists have been using Jupiter for decades as a means to accelerate spacecraft that are

    科學家們幾十年來一直利用木星作為加速航天器的手段,這些航天器是

  • traveling into the deepest parts of our Solar System.

    旅行到我們太陽系的最深處。

  • Voyager-1 and Voyager-2, the two furthest man made objects from planet Earth, both used

    旅行者-1號和旅行者-2號是距離地球最遠的兩個人造物體,都使用了

  • Jupiter's massive gravity field to slingshot them to the stars.

    木星的巨大引力場將它們彈射到恆星上。

  • These two spacecraft are no longer in our Solar System, but are traveling through interstellar

    這兩個航天器已經不在我們的太陽系,而是在星際間旅行。

  • space.

    空間。

  • Without the massive gravity assist of Jupiter, the Voyager spacecrafts would have taken decades

    如果沒有木星的巨大引力輔助,旅行者號航天器將花費幾十年時間

  • longer to reach the edge of the Solar System.

    到達太陽系邊緣的時間更長。

  • That being said, scientists at the time when the Voyager missions were launched had no

    話雖如此,在旅行者號任務啟動時,科學家們還沒有

  • idea that a Superhighway between the planets existed.

    認為行星之間存在著一條超級高速公路。

  • Understanding what Todorović and others are now discovering about the pathways through

    瞭解託多羅維奇和其他人現在所發現的關於通過

  • our solar system will have a huge impact on the future of space exploration.

    我們的太陽系將對未來的空間探索產生巨大影響。

  • At this point you may be wondering how much faster is the Superhighway than traveling

    在這一點上,你可能想知道,超級高速公路比旅行快多少?

  • through regular space?

    通過常規空間?

  • The answer is a lot faster.

    答案是快得多。

  • Keep in mind that there are incredibly long distances between any two planets in space.

    請記住,太空中任何兩顆行星之間都有令人難以置信的遙遠距離。

  • Normally objects traveling between Jupiter and Neptune take hundreds of thousands to

    通常情況下,在木星和海王星之間旅行的物體需要幾十萬到幾十萬的時間。

  • millions of years to travel from one planet to the other.

    從一個星球到另一個星球需要數百萬年的時間。

  • However, researchers found that objects following the path of the Superhighway made this journey

    然而,研究人員發現,沿著超級高速公路的路徑行駛的物體完成了這一旅程

  • in a matter of decades.

    在幾十年的時間裡。

  • Decades seems like a long time for us as humans, but millions of years is much, much, longer.

    幾十年對我們人類來說似乎是很長的時間,但幾百萬年則要長得多,長得多。

  • This means objects traveling along the Superhighway were moving from 1 to 100,000 times faster

    這意味著沿超級公路行駛的物體的速度是1至10萬倍。

  • than similar objects in normal space.

    比正常空間中的類似物體。

  • So, if a spacecraft carrying people were to hop onto one of the Superhighways and add

    是以,如果一個載人的航天器跳上其中一條超級公路,並加入

  • its own thrust, the time of travel between planets could be greatly reduced.

    它自身的推力,行星之間的旅行時間可以大大減少。

  • These Superhighways are by no means a replacement for the need to find faster ways to travel

    這些超級高速公路絕對不能取代尋找更快旅行方式的需要

  • in space, but it will definitely be helpful on our journey to other planets in our Solar

    但在我們前往太陽系其他行星的旅途中,它肯定會有幫助。

  • System in the future.

    未來的系統。

  • Also, there are other benefits to understanding the Superhighway.

    另外,瞭解超級公路還有其他好處。

  • Some are even more important than speeding up space travelespecially for those of

    有些甚至比加快空間旅行的速度更重要--特別是對於那些

  • us who are stuck here on Earth.

    我們這些被困在地球上的人。

  • By understanding the path the Superhighway takes, astronomers and scientists can better

    通過了解超級高速公路的路徑,天文學家和科學家可以更好地

  • predict the paths of comets and asteroids traveling around the inner Solar System where

    預測彗星和小行星在太陽系內部運行的路徑,其中

  • Earth orbits.

    地球軌道。

  • This is important if we want to protect our planet from impacts with these objects.

    如果我們想保護我們的星球免受這些物體的撞擊,這一點很重要。

  • Although space is a big place, given enough time, celestial objects tend to run into one

    雖然太空是個大地方,但只要有足夠的時間,天體往往會碰到一個

  • another.

    另一個。

  • Earth is just another rock floating through space, and it's only a matter of time before

    地球只是漂浮在太空中的另一塊岩石,而這只是一個時間問題。

  • our planet crosses the path of another space rock.

    我們的星球與另一塊太空石的路徑相交。

  • Just think about what happened to the dinosaurs the last time Earth came into contact with

    試想一下,在地球最後一次接觸到恐龍時,恐龍發生了什麼?

  • a rogue asteroid.

    一個流氓小行星。

  • By utilizing the map of the Superhighway, scientists will have a better idea of where

    通過利用超級公路的地圖,科學家們將更好地瞭解哪裡是

  • to look for incoming asteroids.

    以尋找來襲的小行星。

  • No matter what is rushing towards Earth, the more time we have to plan and prepare, the

    無論什麼東西衝向地球,我們有越多的時間來計劃和準備,就會有越多的機會。

  • better.

    更好。

  • If scientists can track the movement of asteroids and comets through the Solar System's Superhighway,

    如果科學家能夠通過太陽系的超級高速公路追蹤小行星和彗星的運動。

  • then we can predict more accurately when one of those objects will be crossing our path,

    那麼我們就可以更準確地預測這些物體中的一個會在什麼時候穿過我們的路徑。

  • and prevent it.

    並防止其發生。

  • There is a plethora of technology being developed by space agencies around the world to knock

    世界各地的空間機構正在開發大量的技術來敲打

  • an asteroid off its collision course with Earth, but they all require a long time to

    小行星偏離其與地球的碰撞軌道,但它們都需要很長的時間來完成。

  • implement.

    實施。

  • Understanding the Superhighway can give scientists even more time to change the path of an incoming

    瞭解超級高速公路可以給科學家更多的時間來改變來襲的路徑

  • object, and the more time they have, the higher the success rate will be for preventing a

    觀察對象,而且他們的時間越多,防止發生意外的成功率就越高。

  • life ending impact.

    終止生命的影響。

  • Another reason that scientists are studying these pathways extensively is because if humans

    科學家們正在廣泛研究這些途徑的另一個原因是,如果人類

  • ever plan to use them, we need to know where different highways meet or cross paths.

    我們需要知道不同的公路在哪裡交匯或交叉,並計劃使用它們。

  • We already know objects such as asteroids and comets travel quickly around the Solar

    我們已經知道像小行星和彗星這樣的天體在太陽系周圍快速移動。

  • System using the Superhighway, so if we are going to put spacecraft on the same paths

    系統使用超級高速公路,所以如果我們要把航天器放在相同的路徑上

  • as these chunks of rock and ice, we need to be able to avoid collisions with them.

    作為這些大塊的岩石和冰,我們需要能夠避免與它們發生碰撞。

  • Junctions where different paths cross are predicted to be places with high concentrations

    據預測,不同路徑交叉的交界處是高濃度的地方。

  • of space objects.

    的空間物體。

  • It may be at these junctions where most of the space debris enters the Superhighway,

    可能正是在這些路口,大部分的空間碎片進入了超級高速公路。

  • so spacecraft nearing such junctions will need to proceed with caution.

    是以,航天器在接近這種結點時,需要謹慎行事。

  • But if we can use the Superhighway to transport spacecraft, supplies, and people around the

    但是,如果我們能夠利用超級高速公路將航天器、物資和人員運送到各地

  • Solar System it would change everything.

    太陽系,它將改變一切。

  • It would be the freeway of the future.

    這將是未來的高速公路。

  • And like any highway, whether in space or on our planet, it needs to have some sort

    像任何高速公路一樣,無論是在太空還是在我們的星球上,它都需要有某種形式的

  • of rest stop.

    歇息點的。

  • Martin Lo, a researcher at NASA, suggests there are junctions along the Superhighway

    美國宇航局的研究人員馬丁-羅(Martin Lo)建議,在超級公路沿線有一些結點

  • that could be used as refueling stations or supply stops.

    可作為加油站或補給站使用。

  • These stations could sit at precise locations where their orbits could remain indefinitely,

    這些站點可以位於精確的位置,其軌道可以無限期地保持。

  • using only the gravity created by planets and the sun.

    只使用行星和太陽產生的引力。

  • No energy would be required once the station was in the correct position along the Superhighway.

    一旦該站處於超級高速公路的正確位置,就不需要任何能源。

  • This would occur at what are called Lagrange points.

    這將發生在所謂的拉格朗日點。

  • These locations in space are where one celestial body's gravity balances another's.

    空間中的這些位置是一個天體的重力平衡另一個天體的地方。

  • Using Lagrange points Lo mapped parts of the space Superhighway near Earth, where the different

    利用拉格朗日點,洛氏繪製了地球附近的部分太空超級高速公路,其中不同的

  • paths meet and gravity balances out.

    路徑相遇,重力平衡。

  • It is at these spots platforms or space stations could be built for refueling or to provide

    正是在這些地方,可以建立平臺或空間站,以補充燃料或提供

  • supplies for travelers along the Superhighway in the future.

    未來為超級公路沿線的旅行者提供用品。

  • Once the Superhighway has been charted there are some obvious downsides, just like using

    一旦繪製了超級高速公路,就會有一些明顯的缺點,就像使用

  • any set of roads.

    任何一組道路。

  • For example, the desired destination may not be directly along the route.

    例如,期望的目的地可能不直接在路線上。

  • Say you want to get to Neptune from Mars; this journey is long and will most likely

    假設你想從火星到達海王星;這個旅程很漫長,而且很可能會

  • cause the spacecraft to go through several junctions.

    導致航天器要經過幾個路口。

  • Perhaps the route the Superhighway carries objects through actually takes longer than

    也許超級高速公路載著物體經過的路線實際上要比

  • if there was a high tech engine that could launch you in a straight line across the Solar

    如果有一個高科技的引擎,可以將你直線發射到太陽系的另一端。

  • System.

    系統。

  • Since there could be many different pathways, you may have to wait until the planet you're

    由於可能有許多不同的途徑,你可能要等到你所在的星球的

  • on is in the right spot in its orbit to reach the path of the Superhighway you need.

    上是在其軌道上的正確位置,以達到你所需要的超級高速公路的路徑。

  • This is already a limitation of space travel.

    這已經是太空旅行的一個限制。

  • When planning missions to Mars from Earth scientists need to wait for specific times

    在計劃從地球出發前往火星的任務時,科學家需要等待特定的時間

  • of year when the two planets are at their closest points relative to their orbits.

    當兩顆行星處於相對於其軌道的最近點時的一年。

  • It makes no sense to launch a spacecraft to Mars when it is on the other side of the sun.

    當火星在太陽的另一邊時,向火星發射航天器是沒有意義的。

  • The same thing would be true of the Superhighway.

    超級公路也是如此。

  • If the junction onto the Superhighway you need is on the other side of the sun, you'll

    如果你需要的進入超級公路的路口在太陽的另一邊,你就會

  • just have to wait until your planet orbits to that location.

    只需等待你的行星運行到那個位置。

  • The interplanetary Superhighway is a relatively new discovery, and we have a long way to go

    星際超級公路是一個相對較新的發現,我們還有很長的路要走

  • before humans will be zipping around the Solar System on family vacations.

    在人類將在家庭度假時繞著太陽系飛翔之前。

  • But at the very least, our understanding of the Superhighway and how it moves objects

    但至少,我們對超級公路的理解以及它是如何移動物體的

  • quickly around the Solar System, will help astronomers identify objects that are on a

    圍繞著太陽系快速移動,將幫助天文學家識別那些在太陽系中的物體。

  • collision course with Earth.

    與地球發生碰撞。

  • In the near future, space agencies will likely consider using the paths of the Superhighway

    在不久的將來,空間機構可能會考慮使用超級高速公路的路徑

  • to allow spacecraft to travel more quickly and efficiently through our Solar System.

    以使航天器能更快、更有效地穿越我們的太陽系。

  • Now watch “50 Surprising Facts About Space You Didn't Know.”

    現在觀看 "關於太空的50個你不知道的令人驚訝的事實"。

  • Or check outWhy No Weapons In Space?”

    或者看看 "為什麼太空中沒有武器?"

What if you could hop on a spaceship and cruise around the solar system?

如果你能跳上宇宙飛船,繞著太陽系巡遊呢?

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B2 中高級 中文 公路 太陽系 高速 物體 行星 航天器

天文學家剛剛發現了用於穿越太陽系的宇宙 "超級公路 (Astronomers Just Discovered Cosmic 'Superhighways' For Traveling Through the Solar System)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 11 日
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