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  • In the dead of night sometime in the late 1700s, two masked Englishmen sneak into a

    在17世紀末的某個夜深人靜的時候,兩個蒙面的英國人潛入了一個

  • graveyard.

    墓地。

  • As thick cloud moves in front of an almost-full moon, they hop from headstone to headstone

    當厚厚的雲層在幾乎滿月的前面移動時,他們在墓碑之間跳來跳去。

  • on the way to their prize.

    在通往他們的獎品的路上。

  • A Mrs. Crinklebottom has just passed away from a bad case of consumption, God bless

    一位名叫Crinklebottom的女士因嚴重的肺病剛剛去世,上帝保佑她。

  • her soul, and her newly interred body is ready for the taking.

    她的靈魂,以及她新埋葬的身體已經準備好接受。

  • These couple of so-calledbody snatchersare aware that the corpse of dear Mrs. Crinklebottom

    這對所謂的 "盜屍者 "知道,親愛的克林克博特姆夫人的屍體

  • is worth a good bit of money if sold to the right people, so with empty stomachs they

    如果賣給合適的人,是很值錢的,所以他們餓著肚子

  • have no qualms about resurrecting her.

    毫無顧慮地讓她復活。

  • Getting her out isn't hard, either.

    把她弄出來也不難。

  • In no time at all, the two men are chuckling as they carry the cadaver through the dark

    在任何時候,兩個人都在笑著抬著屍體穿過黑暗的地方。

  • streets of London.

    倫敦的街道。

  • After hearing that we're guessing you already have a good idea as to why graves might have

    聽完這些,我們猜想你已經對為什麼墳墓可能有

  • been dug six feet in depth.

    已經挖了六英尺深。

  • Graverobbing was a job back in those days for some people.

    在那些日子裡,對一些人來說,盜墓是一項工作。

  • It didn't require much skill and could earn a person a good living.

    它不需要太多的技能,可以為一個人贏得良好的生活。

  • You might now ask, why rob a grave?

    你現在可能會問,為什麼要盜墓?

  • Surely there isn't a huge market for smelly corpses?

    當然,發臭的屍體不會有很大的市場?

  • Well, there was back then.

    嗯,那時候有。

  • Gravediggers, sometimes calledresurrectionistsorresurrection-menwere actually doing

    掘墓人,有時被稱為 "復活者 "或 "復活人",實際上是在進行

  • the work that the government kind of wanted done.

    政府希望完成的工作。

  • You see, the medical profession was advancing very fast, but there weren't enough fresh

    你看,醫學界發展得非常快,但沒有足夠的新鮮人,也沒有足夠多的人。

  • bodies around for a growing number of anatomists in the medical schools.

    身邊越來越多的醫學院的解剖學家。

  • That's one of the reasons why the government only made stealing corpses a misdemeanor crime.

    這就是為什麼政府只把偷竊屍體定為輕罪的原因之一。

  • The medical men of the time would usually get their bodies from people who'd been

    當時的醫護人員通常會從那些已經被人

  • sentenced to death and also dissection.

    被判處死刑,還被解剖。

  • But the thing was, this kind of sentence was reserved for only the very worst crimes.

    但問題是,這種判決只保留給非常嚴重的罪行。

  • There just weren't enough extreme crimes being committed, so the anatomists were always

    只是沒有足夠的極端犯罪被實施,所以解剖學家總是

  • short of bodies.

    屍體不足。

  • That's why they paid for them on the black market and why the government turned a blind

    這就是為什麼他們在黑市上購買這些東西,以及為什麼政府對這些東西視而不見。

  • eye to the trade.

    對貿易的眼睛。

  • Of course, Mrs. Crinklebottom's devoted husband and family wouldn't have been too

    當然,克林克博特姆夫人忠誠的丈夫和家人也不會太在意。

  • happy about their beloved going missing in the night.

    他們對自己的夫妻在夜裡失蹤感到高興。

  • Back then, in all parts of Britain, families were aware that their loved one might be stolen.

    那時,在英國的各個地方,家庭都意識到他們的親人可能被盜。

  • That's why they'd sometimes guard over the grave for days, or pile big stones on

    這就是為什麼他們有時會在墓前守候數日,或在墓前堆放大石頭。

  • it, or even surround it with iron bars.

    它,甚至用鐵柵欄包圍它。

  • Still, those wily gravediggers were hard to stop.

    不過,那些狡猾的掘墓人還是很難阻止。

  • Even if the grave was covered, they'd sometimes dig a hole close to it and then tunnel to

    即使墳墓被覆蓋,他們有時也會在靠近墳墓的地方挖一個洞,然後通過隧道到達

  • the coffin.

    棺材。

  • They'd then open the box and pull out the body, taking it back through the tunnel.

    然後他們會打開盒子,拉出屍體,把它從隧道里帶回去。

  • They could subsequently cover up their hole and the relatives of the deceased wouldn't

    他們隨後可以掩蓋他們的洞,而死者的親屬也不會

  • know anything had happened.

    知道發生了什麼事。

  • A day or two later, a bunch of bespectacled men with white beards would be brandishing

    一兩天後,一群長著白鬍子的人就會揮舞著手中的牌子

  • scalpels as they stood over an almost-fresh corpse.

    當他們站在一具幾乎新鮮的屍體上時,他們用手術刀。

  • It really was a big business.

    這確實是一樁大生意。

  • You might have heard of two Brits named Burke and Hare.

    你可能聽說過兩個叫伯克和哈雷的英國人。

  • They hatched a plan one day while sitting in a tavern over a few ales.

    有一天,他們坐在小酒館裡喝了幾杯啤酒後制定了一個計劃。

  • Why wait for people to die, they thought?

    他們想,為什麼要等人死呢?

  • Why not just kill someone and then tell the guys at the medical school they'd dug the

    為什麼不直接殺了人,然後告訴醫學院的人他們已經挖了

  • body up?

    身體了嗎?

  • That's exactly what they did, and the surgeons paid them hard cash for their victims.

    這正是他們所做的,而外科醫生為他們的受害者支付了大量現金。

  • It happened in the US, too.

    這也發生在美國。

  • Sometimes criminally-minded women would turn up at the poorhouses and shed rivers of tears

    有時,有犯罪意識的婦女會出現在濟貧院,並流下淚水。

  • for the newly dead.

    為新死的人。

  • It was all an act, they just wanted the body to sell on.

    這都是演戲,他們只是想把屍體賣掉。

  • The US was a bit behind Europe when it came to anatomical dissection, but it was catching

    在解剖學方面,美國有點落後於歐洲,但它正在趕上。

  • up, so it, too, had a body shortage problem.

    了,所以它也有一個身體短缺的問題。

  • So, corpses were snatched just like they were over the pond.

    是以,屍體被搶走了,就像在池塘那邊一樣。

  • It was illegal, of course, but some people thought, well, it's for the greater good.

    這當然是非法的,但有些人認為,嗯,這是為了更大的利益。

  • When a famous physician named Charles Knowlton was arrested for performing a dissection on

    當一位名叫查爾斯-諾爾頓的著名醫生因對病人進行解剖而被捕時

  • a body that he had no business cutting up, he defended his actions by saying the work

    他為自己的行為辯護說:"我的工作與我無關。

  • he was doing couldincrease the happiness, or diminish the misery, of mankind.”

    他所做的事情可以 "增加人類的幸福,或減少人類的痛苦"。

  • He was probably right, but the public didn't really see eye to eye with the man.

    他可能是對的,但公眾對這個人的看法並不一致。

  • Remember there were a lot of people who really didn't want their loved ones ending up on

    請記住,有很多人真的不希望他們的親人最終在

  • the chopping block, never mind how good it might be for their future brethren.

    斬釘截鐵地說,別忘了這對他們未來的弟兄們有多好。

  • Laws were eventually changed so that people could donate their bodies to science, but

    法律最終被修改,人們可以將自己的身體捐獻給科學,但

  • before that happened, graverobbing was so serious that sometimes cemeteries had to be

    在這之前,盜墓的情況非常嚴重,有時墓地不得不

  • guarded day and night.

    日夜守衛。

  • That's one reason why the graverobbers sometimes turned to places called a “Potter's field”,

    這就是為什麼盜墓者有時會轉向被稱為 "波特之地 "的地方的一個原因。

  • which is where the poor and unclaimed were laid to rest, usually in unmarked graves.

    這是窮人和無人認領者安息的地方,通常是在無標記的墳墓中。

  • Even they might be guarded, but the guys stealing for the physicians could easily get around

    即使他們可能有警衛,但為醫生偷東西的人可以很容易地繞過。

  • that with a small bribe.

    這是用少量的賄賂換來的。

  • There was also the fact that some bodies were seen as fair game, just because they had died

    還有一個事實是,一些屍體被視為公平的遊戲,只是因為他們已經死亡。

  • poor and were seen as having a low social standing.

    窮人,被視為社會地位低下。

  • African-American bodies were sometimes stolen over poor white bodies, which in 1787 led

    非裔美國人的屍體有時被盜,而不是可憐的白人屍體,這在1787年導致了

  • a group of free blacks to petition the local council in New York state.

    一群自由黑人向紐約州的地方議會請願。

  • They wrote, “Under the cover of night, they dig up the bodies of the deceased, friends

    他們寫道:"在夜晚的掩護下,他們挖出死者的屍體,朋友們

  • and relatives of the petitioners, carry them away without respect to age or sex, mangle

    和請願人的親屬,不分年齡和性別地將他們帶走,弄壞了

  • their flesh out of wanton curiosity and then expose it to beasts and birds.”

    他們的肉是出於肆意的好奇,然後把它暴露給野獸和鳥類。"

  • Slaves in the south were often dissected after death, as were criminals of any color who'd

    南方的奴隸在死後往往被解剖,任何膚色的罪犯在死後也被解剖。

  • been sentenced to death.

    被判處死刑。

  • In all, graverobbing was a huge problem all over the US.

    總而言之,盜墓是美國各地的一個巨大問題。

  • It was reported that yearly as many as 40,000 bodies were stolen for the purpose of advancing

    據報道,每年有多達40,000具屍體被盜,目的是為了提高工作效率。

  • medical science, and people weren't happy about it.

    醫學科學,而人們對此並不滿意。

  • Sure, you could pay a fair bit of cash and buy what one company called, “Burglar proof

    當然,你可以支付相當多的現金,購買一家公司所謂的 "防盜器"。

  • grave vaults made of steel”, but not everyone was wealthy enough to do that.

    鋼製的墓穴",但不是每個人都有足夠的財富來這樣做。

  • One simple and cheap solution was to bury the body farther down.

    一個簡單而廉價的解決方案是將屍體埋在更遠的地方。

  • That's just one of the theories as to why bodies were buried that deep, although there

    這只是關於為什麼屍體被埋得那麼深的理論之一,儘管有

  • are more theories.

    是更多的理論。

  • We thought you just needed to hear a little bit of the history of graverobbing.

    我們認為你只需要聽一聽關於盜墓的歷史。

  • Six feet is a lot of digging, so generally, people wouldn't have put the effort in when,

    六英尺是一個很大的挖掘量,所以一般情況下,人們不會把精力放在當。

  • say, three or four feet would have done the job.

    說,三或四英尺就能完成工作。

  • That was the case in the 17th century in England.

    17世紀的英國就是這種情況。

  • But then in 1665 something awful besieged the city of London.

    但在1665年,一些可怕的東西圍攻了倫敦城。

  • This was called theGreat Plague of London.”

    這被稱為 "倫敦大瘟疫"。

  • The city might have been bustling and one of the centers of the world, but it was also

    這座城市可能是繁華的,是世界的中心之一,但它也是

  • overcrowded and filthy in parts.

    部分地區過於擁擠和骯髒。

  • This London plague killed around 100,000 people, which worked out at about a quarter of the

    這場倫敦瘟疫造成約10萬人死亡,約為四分之一。

  • entire population.

    整個人口。

  • That's why the authorities came up with a bunch of ways to try and prevent the spread

    這就是為什麼當局想出了一堆方法,試圖防止傳播

  • of the plague.

    的瘟疫。

  • Believe it or not, they imposed a lockdown, but only on houses where it was thought people

    信不信由你,他們實行了封鎖,但只是對那些被認為有人的房子進行封鎖。

  • were sick with the deadly disease.

    患了這種致命疾病。

  • When we say lockdown, it was more like being locked in.

    當我們說封鎖時,它更像是被鎖在裡面。

  • If people were suspected of carrying the plague their house was basically locked up from the

    如果人們被懷疑攜帶瘟疫,他們的房子基本上就會被鎖起來。

  • outside on the order of the Justices of the Peace in Middlesex.

    在米德爾塞克斯的治安官的命令下,在外面。

  • Many of the public, mostly the poor public, didn't much like this and they rioted in

    許多公眾,主要是貧窮的公眾,不大喜歡這樣做,他們在下列地方舉行了暴動

  • the streets and opened up locked down houses.

    街道上,打開了被鎖住的房屋。

  • This is what a well-known minister said in regard to how the public felt at the time:

    這是一位著名的部長在談到公眾當時的感受時所說的話。

  • Fear quickly begins to creep upon peoples hearts; great thoughts and discourse there

    "恐懼很快就開始爬上人們的心;偉大的思想和話語在那裡

  • is in Town about the Plague.”

    是在鎮上關於瘟疫的。"

  • The rich of London got out of there, but most people were stuck, and as we said, many of

    倫敦的富人離開了那裡,但大多數人被困住了,正如我們所說,許多人

  • them died.

    他們死了。

  • So, one of the things those people came up with to prevent the spread was to make sure

    是以,這些人想出的防止傳播的辦法之一是確保

  • the dead bodies were well and truly buried.

    死者的屍體已被真正埋葬。

  • A pamphlet was passed around at the time, with the title, “Orders Conceived and Published

    當時有一本小冊子傳來傳去,題目是:"構思和發佈的命令

  • by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London Concerning the Infection of the

    倫敦市市長和市議員們關於 "倫敦市的傳染病 "的報告。

  • Plague.”

    瘟疫。"

  • There were quite a lot of orders indeed.

    確實有相當多的訂單。

  • One of them was thatWatchmenwere to stand outside houses of the infected day and

    其中之一是,"守望者 "要站在受感染者的房子外面,並在白天

  • night to ensure no one went inside.

    晚上,以確保沒有人進去。

  • Searcherswere hired to seek out infected persons, and they were followed byChirurgeons.”

    僱傭了 "搜索者 "來尋找受感染的人,他們的後面是 "Chirurgeons"。

  • That's an old word for a surgeon.

    這是對外科醫生的一個古老說法。

  • Social distancing measures were also put in place, withDinners at Taverns, Alehouses

    社會疏導措施也已到位,"酒館、啤酒屋的晚餐"

  • to be stopped.

    要停止。

  • There were a lot more orders, but for the purpose of today's show we'll go straight

    還有很多訂單,但為了今天的節目,我們將直接進行

  • to the part headed, “Burial of the dead.”

    到標題 "死者的埋葬 "部分。

  • Basically, people were ordered not to go anywhere near the corpse or even the grave of someone

    基本上,人們被命令不得靠近某人的屍體或甚至墳墓。

  • who'd died from plague.

    他死於瘟疫。

  • But the order also said this, “All the Graves shall be at least six-foot deep.”

    但該命令還說,"所有墳墓應至少有六英尺深"。

  • So, possibly it was disease and that very order where the six feet thing originated.

    是以,可能是疾病,也可能是六英尺的事情起源於那個非常的秩序。

  • Still, it wasn't exactly a strict science.

    不過,這也不完全是一門嚴格的科學。

  • Often the victims of the plague were thrown into deep pits with lots of other people.

    瘟疫的受害者往往被扔進深坑,與其他許多人在一起。

  • Word on the street is that another reason why six foot was the measurement of choice

    有消息稱,另一個原因是六英尺是首選的測量標準

  • was because if the grave was any more shallow the body might accidentally be relieved of

    因為如果墳墓再淺一點,屍體可能會意外地被卸下。

  • its resting place by a rather powerful plow.

    它的安身之處是由一個相當強大的犁。

  • On top of that, with a shallow grave there was a chance of an animal getting to the corpse.

    此外,由於墳墓很淺,動物有可能會接近屍體。

  • But that still doesn't really explain six feet.

    但這仍然不能真正解釋六英尺。

  • Why not 5.2 feet?

    為什麼不是5.2英尺?

  • Surely even a Jack Russell Terrier in its prime could not get down that low.

    當然,即使是一隻正值壯年的傑克-羅素梗也不可能降到那麼低。

  • Let's imagine that people did in fact want to bury bodies quite deep because of disease

    讓我們想象一下,人們事實上確實因為疾病而想把屍體埋得很深

  • or plows or even animals with strong claws.

    或犁,甚至是具有強大爪子的動物。

  • The question then might be, just how low can you go?

    那麼問題可能是,你能做到多低?

  • Some people have suggested that back in the day someone came up with the idea that six

    有些人認為,當年有人想出了一個主意,即六個

  • feet was about a deep as you could dig without the digging becoming dangerous.

    這是你能挖到的最深的地方,挖起來不會有危險。

  • They said any deeper than that and the walls might cave in.

    他們說再深一點,牆就可能塌了。

  • On top of this, what about the poor gravedigger in the days before machines did the digging?

    除此之外,在機器挖掘之前的日子裡,可憐的掘墓人怎麼辦?

  • Not only would his job have been very dangerous had he dug down, say, seven feet, but if he

    如果他往下挖,比如說七英尺,不僅他的工作會非常危險,而且如果他

  • pushed it to ten feet he would have been asking for trouble.

    如果把它推到10英尺,他就會自找麻煩。

  • For that reason, graves were dug to a similar depth as the person's height.

    出於這個原因,墳墓被挖到與人的身高相似的深度。

  • That way, he was likely not in danger and the hole was deep enough to prevent things

    這樣一來,他很可能不會有危險,而且這個洞足夠深,可以防止事情發生。

  • from happening that we've discussed.

    我們已經討論過了。

  • He could likely even get out of the hole without the use of a ladder.

    他甚至可能不用梯子就能從洞裡出來。

  • Then there was therule of thumbwhich as you know means making a rough estimate

    然後是 "經驗法則",如你所知,這意味著做出一個粗略的估計

  • without any kind of precision involved.

    沒有任何形式的精確參與。

  • It's kind of doing what seems right.

    這是種做看起來正確的事情。

  • In the case of graves, the rule of thumb might have been to bury the person down according

    在墳墓的情況下,經驗法則可能是將人埋在下面,根據

  • to their height.

    到他們的高度。

  • Maybe a safe grave was as deep as it was long.

    也許一個安全的墳墓就像它的長度一樣深。

  • In the case of a man's average height back in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was something

    在17和18世紀,一個男人的平均身高是這樣的

  • like 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), in England at least.

    像165釐米(5英尺5英寸),至少在英國是這樣。

  • A six-foot-ish grave might have made sense if you believe in the rule of thumb theory.

    如果你相信經驗法則理論,一個六英尺左右的墳墓可能是合理的。

  • The saying is an old one and was likely used in the past, but these days gravediggers anywhere

    這句話是一個古老的說法,在過去很可能被使用,但現在任何地方的掘墓人都是如此。

  • in the world are not told to dig a grave exactly six feet.

    在這個世界上,沒有人被告知要準確地挖一個六英尺的墳墓。

  • In the US, there is no rule about six feet, with a grave being dug only as deep as the

    在美國,沒有關於六英尺的規定,墳墓的挖掘深度只相當於

  • local authority says it should be.

    地方當局說它應該是。

  • That depth will often be 30 to 36 inches above the coffin, which would work out at closer

    這個深度通常會在棺材上方30至36英寸,這將使我們更接近於

  • to four feet or just a bit over in total.

    到四英尺,或者總的來說剛剛超過一點。

  • It's the same in the UK, with most graves being dug so that three feet of space is above

    這在英國也是一樣的,大多數墳墓都被挖成三英尺以上的空間。

  • the coffin once it's down there.

    棺材在下面之後。

  • Coffins of course are not all the same size.

    當然,棺材的尺寸並不都是一樣的。

  • For some particularly obese people, a coffin can be super-sized.

    對於一些特別肥胖的人來說,棺材可以是超大的。

  • That might also require a deeper grave.

    這可能還需要一個更深的墳墓。

  • It also depends on how people are buried.

    這也取決於人們的埋葬方式。

  • For instance, in Pennsylvania, if there's a concrete vault it is written that thedistance

    例如,在賓夕法尼亞州,如果有一個混凝土拱頂,就寫著 "距離

  • from parts of the top of the outer case containing the casket may not be less than 1.5 feet (18

    從裝有棺材的外箱頂部的部分開始,不得少於1.5英尺(18米)。

  • inches) from the natural surface of the ground.”

    英寸)的自然地表"。

  • In New York, if there's a concrete vault, it should be at least two feet from the surface

    在紐約,如果有一個混凝土拱頂,它應該離地面至少兩英尺。

  • and if there is no vault then the distance should be three feet from the surface.

    如果沒有拱頂,那麼距離應該是距離地面三英尺。

  • We actually found an academic paper titled, “Burial Practices in Southern Appalachia”,

    我們實際上找到了一篇題為 "南部阿巴拉契亞的葬禮習俗 "的學術論文。

  • which told us things like back in the day when someone was buried in those parts the

    它告訴我們,在過去,如果有人被埋葬在這些地方,就會有一些事情。

  • family would often throw into the grave, “jewelry, eyeglasses, tobacco, pipes, guns, knives,

    家人經常會把 "珠寶、眼鏡、菸草、菸斗、槍支、刀子 "扔進墳墓。

  • toys, Bibles, and alcoholic beverages.”

    玩具、聖經和酒精飲料"。

  • The paper also said that those graves should be six feet deep, which was to prevent burrowing

    該文件還說,這些墳墓應該有六英尺深,這是為了防止鑽探。

  • animals from getting close to the coffin.

    動物不會靠近棺材。

  • That was in the past, though.

    不過,那是過去的事了。

  • These days the folks from Appalachia likely don't go six feet under.

    這些天來,來自阿巴拉契亞的人們很可能不會走到六英尺以下。

  • Then you have the fact that sometimes coffins are stacked on top of each other, so in some

    然後,你有一個事實,即有時棺材是堆疊在一起的,所以在一些

  • cases, the grave will be way deeper than six feet.

    在某些情況下,墳墓會比六英尺深得多。

  • All in all, it's unlikely when you pass, you'll be resting deep down in the ground,

    總而言之,當你通過時,你不太可能在地下深處休息。

  • but will be closer to pushing up daisies.

    但會更接近於推起菊花。

  • Now you need to watch, “Best Evidence of Life After Death.”

    現在你需要觀看,"死後生命的最佳證據"。

  • Or, have a look at...

    或者,看一看...

In the dead of night sometime in the late 1700s, two masked Englishmen sneak into a

在17世紀末的某個夜深人靜的時候,兩個蒙面的英國人潛入了一個

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B1 中級 中文 墳墓 屍體 棺材 瘟疫 埋葬 地方

為什麼墳墓實際上被挖到6英尺深? (Why Graves Are Actually Dug 6 Feet Deep)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 02 日
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