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  • July 2021 commemorates a century of the official founding of The Chinese Communist Party.

    2021年7月,紀念中國共產黨正式成立一個世紀。

  • In these 100 years, China's economy has monumentally transformed.

    在這100年裡,中國的經濟發生了不朽的轉變。

  • The party had a goal set that by the time we reach 100 years old, we're going to

    黨有一個既定的目標,即在我們達到100歲的時候,我們要

  • alleviate poverty in China.

    緩解中國的貧困。

  • And more than 800 million people have been lifted out of poverty since China began to open

    而自中國開始開放以來,已有超過8億人擺脫了貧困。

  • and reform its economy in 1978.

    並在1978年對其經濟進行改革。

  • But the journey to where it is today wasn't without controversy and failed policies.

    但是,在走到今天的過程中,並非沒有爭議和失敗的政策。

  • So how did China grow into the world's second biggest economy, and what's next for the nation's

    那麼,中國是如何成長為世界第二大經濟體的,以及這個國家的下一步是什麼?

  • sole governing party?

    唯一的執政黨?

  • To help bring the party's 100-year history to life, I called up CNBC's China correspondent

    為了讓黨的百年曆史更加生動,我召集了CNBC的中國記者

  • Evelyn Cheng in Beijing.

    伊夫林-程在北京。

  • Thank you for joining in. There's really no one better to have this discussion with.

    謝謝你的加入。真的沒有人比你更適合進行這種討論了。

  • Glad to be here. Hope I can be of some help.

    很高興來到這裡。希望我可以提供一些幫助。

  • Now I know, like 100 years is a long time.

    現在我知道了,像100年是一個很長的時間。

  • So, because we're CNBC and cover business news and in the interest of time,

    所以,因為我們是CNBC,報道商業新聞,為了節省時間。

  • let's focus on the economic story today.

    今天我們來關注一下經濟方面的情況。

  • Sounds good.

    聽起來不錯。

  • While the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party was created

    雖然中華人民共和國成立於1949年,但中國共產黨是在1949年創建的。

  • 28 years before that in 1921.

    此前28年的1921年。

  • There was a whole upheaval globally and 1946 so Chinese young people at that time were

    全球和1946年發生了整個動盪,所以當時的中國年輕人

  • very heavily influenced by Marxist thinking, by the workers' movement.

    在很大程度上受到馬克思主義思想和工人運動的影響。

  • In 1945, Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the party.

    1945年,毛澤東成為黨的領袖。

  • After defeating the Kuomintang in the Chinese civil war, the People's Republic of China

    在中國內戰中擊敗國民黨後,中華人民共和國

  • was established in October 1949.

    成立於1949年10月。

  • In the early years, Mao launched various socio-political and economic campaigns, notably the Great

    早年,毛澤東發起了各種社會政治和經濟運動,特別是 "偉大的

  • Leap Forward in 1958 and the Cultural Revolution in 1966, which devastated China's economy.

    1958年的 "大躍進 "和1966年的 "文化大革命",使中國的經濟遭到破壞。

  • You had efforts to implement local industrialization through the 'Great Leap Forward'.

    你們曾努力通過 "大躍進 "實施地方工業化。

  • That involved villages, setting up furnaces in their backyards and having very localised

    這涉及到村莊,在他們的後院建立爐子,並有非常局部的

  • production, but with things like machinery, I think that ran into a lot of problems, which

    但對於像機械這樣的東西,我認為這遇到了很多問題,這

  • was in famine, and reportedly tens of millions of people died because of that.

    是在饑荒中,據說有數千萬人是以而死亡。

  • And there were also a lot of waste and poor quality of production.

    而且還有很多浪費,生產品質也很差。

  • China then embarked on a series of market reforms, including a new 'Open Door' policy

    隨後,中國開始了一系列的市場改革,包括新的 "開放 "政策

  • in 1978, which was the country's first opening to foreign investment.

    在1978年,這是該國首次向外國投資開放。

  • Essentially, the major jobs and industries were all dominated and led by state-owned

    基本上,主要的工作和行業都是由國有企業主導和上司的。

  • enterprises, and then in 1978 and into the 80s and 90s, there was more of an effort to

    企業,然後在1978年和80年代和90年代,有更多的努力去

  • allow private companies to develop in the Chinese economy.

    允許私營公司在中國經濟中發展。

  • Now that you have a market that's not dominated by the state, you want competition, and particularly

    現在你有一個不被國家主導的市場,你希望有競爭,特別是

  • some of the goods and the technical know-how that foreign companies can bring.

    一些貨物和外國公司可以帶來的技術知識。

  • This liberalization coincided with a program to advance China's economy, called the Four Modernization Plan.

    這種自由化與推進中國經濟的計劃相吻合,稱為四個現代化計劃。

  • The Four Modernization Plan, you can still see tenets of that today because you have

    四個現代化計劃,你今天仍然可以看到其中的宗旨,因為你有

  • emphasis on agriculture, industry, national defense and science and technology.

    重點是農業、工業、國防和科技。

  • So, it set up these four pillars of economic development that China would really rely on

    是以,它設立了這四個經濟發展的支柱,中國將真正依賴這些支柱

  • to come into the 21st century.

    以進入21世紀。

  • The 1990s onwards, it was a very eventful time for China's economy.

    20世紀90年代以後,是中國經濟的一個非常多事的時期。

  • First, you had, allowing more foreign companies into the market.

    首先,你有,允許更多的外國公司進入市場。

  • Many of these other major American companies, European companies coming in, and bringing

    許多其他主要的美國公司,歐洲公司的進入,並帶來了

  • a little bit more competition and professionalization to this market.

    對這個市場來說,有一點更多的競爭和職業化。

  • At the same time, you also had the establishment of China's stock market, stock exchanges,

    同時,你也有中國的股票市場、證券交易所的建立。

  • early innings, I would say, of regulation.

    我想說的是,監管的早期局。

  • But it was a start, and that interaction with foreign businesses, and interaction on a political

    但這是一個開始,與外國企業的互動,以及在政治上的互動。

  • level, led to more support for China in joining the World Trade Organization in 2001.

    水準,導致中國在2001年加入世界貿易組織時獲得更多支持。

  • That helped boost their manufacturers into global supply chains.

    這有助於推動其製造商進入全球供應鏈。

  • Evelyn now brings us to the Chinese Communist Party's most recent chapter.

    伊夫林現在把我們帶到了中國共產黨的最新章節。

  • In 2012, President Xi Jinping came into power, and has arguably become the country's most

    2012年,習近平主席上臺,可以說他已經成為該國最重要的領導人。

  • influential leader since Mao.

    自毛澤東以來有影響力的領導人。

  • He's even been written into the party's constitution.

    他甚至被寫入了黨的章程。

  • Early in his presidency, he announced the country's most high-profile economic project

    在他擔任總統的初期,他宣佈了該國最引人注目的經濟項目

  • to date: the Belt & Road Initiative.

    迄今為止,"一帶一路 "倡議是最重要的。

  • The general understanding of the Belt and Road Initiative is China's effort under

    對 "一帶一路 "倡議的一般理解是,中國在 "一帶一路 "下的努力。

  • President Xi Jinping to increase its influence globally.

    習近平主席為提高其在全球的影響力。

  • China's also in a region that has been less economically developed versus other parts of the world.

    中國也處在一個相對於世界其他地區來說經濟欠發達的地區。

  • A lot of state-owned enterprises are the ones who are actually taking the contracts to build

    很多國有企業是真正拿著合同來建造的人。

  • these bridges, hospitals or agricultural trade projects that are happening as a part of the

    這些橋樑、醫院或農業貿易項目正在發生,作為其一部分。

  • Belt and Road initiative.

    一帶一路 "倡議。

  • It's just building up the regional pie, larger, in a way that China can benefit,

    它只是在建立地區的蛋糕,更大的,以一種中國可以受益的方式。

  • and it builds up potentially some goodwill with these other countries.

    而且它與這些其他國家建立了潛在的一些善意。

  • The details of many of these projects are usually opaque and come with strings attached.

    許多這類項目的細節通常是不透明的,並帶有附加條件。

  • You know, a lot can happen in between.

    你知道,這中間可以發生很多事情。

  • We've already seen Australia pulling out of Belt and Road deals in April this year.

    我們已經看到澳洲在今年4月退出了 "一帶一路 "交易。

  • What other challenges are there?

    還有什麼其他挑戰?

  • The G-7 has also announced recently their own infrastructure plan.

    七國集團最近也宣佈了他們自己的基礎設施計劃。

  • And you have governments, which had signed on to the Belt and Road Initiative, and then

    你有政府,他們已經簽署了 "一帶一路 "倡議,然後

  • now they're not quite happy with how some things played out in terms of debt or other

    現在他們對債務或其他方面的一些情況不太滿意。

  • issues.

    問題。

  • You're working with governments of developing countries and they have their own institutions

    你在與開發中國家的政府合作,他們有自己的機構

  • that are still trying to battle the coronavirus pandemic right now, their own social issues.

    現在仍在努力與冠狀病毒的大流行作鬥爭,他們自己的社會問題。

  • The very fact that they did not have their own ability to develop some of these projects

    他們沒有自己的能力來開發其中的一些項目,這一事實本身就說明了這一點。

  • perhaps highlight some of the risks.

    或許可以強調一些風險。

  • Then when you're talking about developed countries and their international relations

    那麼當你在談論發達國家和他們的國際關係時

  • with China, that's an entirely different matter.

    與中國,那是一個完全不同的問題。

  • Right, especially now when companies that are actually caught in the middle face a lot

    對,尤其是現在,當那些實際上被夾在中間的公司面臨很多

  • more compliance issues if you're thinking about either existing or potential sanctions

    如果你正在考慮現有的或潛在的制裁,就會有更多的合規問題。

  • that could be applied from either the U.S. or EU or China, and it just makes things a

    可以從美國、歐盟或中國適用,這只是讓事情變得更加複雜。

  • lot more complex.

    複雜得多。

  • Since the reforms in 1978, China's annual GDP growth has gained steadily through the decades,

    自1978年的改革以來,中國的年度GDP增長在幾十年間穩步增長。

  • with the exception of 2020 due to Covid-19.

    除2020年因Covid-19的原因外。

  • But while most big economies are still recovering, the IMF predicts that China's economy will

    但是,當大多數大經濟體仍在復甦時,國際貨幣基金組織預測,中國的經濟將

  • expand by 8.4% in 2021.

    2021年將擴大8.4%。

  • China's fast recovery from the Coronavirus pandemic largely relied on its ability to

    中國從冠狀病毒大流行中的快速恢復在很大程度上依賴於它的能力。

  • lock down cities very quickly.

    非常迅速地鎖定城市。

  • By the second quarter, China could reopen, and it was reopening while the rest of the world

    到了第二季度,中國可以重新開放了,而且是在世界其他地方重新開放的時候。

  • was still closed, and that created a lot of demand for Chinese exports, which also

    當時仍處於關閉狀態,這為中國的出口創造了大量的需求,這也是

  • helped the economy grow.

    幫助經濟增長。

  • So by the end of the year, China was able to grow by 2.3% and keep that momentum going.

    是以,到年底,中國能夠增長2.3%,並保持這一勢頭。

  • China's five-year plans also play a big role in shaping the country's future,

    中國的五年計劃在塑造國家的未來方面也發揮了很大作用。

  • for many aspects of economic and social development.

    為經濟和社會發展的許多方面。

  • The latest one encompasses sustainability targets, among others, as it aims to achieve

    最新的目標包括可持續性目標等,因為它旨在實現

  • carbon neutrality before 2060.

    在2060年前實現碳中和。

  • We're now in the 14th five-year plan, which just started this year.

    我們現在處於第14個五年計劃,今年剛剛開始。

  • And there's a big emphasis on self-reliance in technology, because of the sanctions put

    由於受到制裁,人們非常強調技術上的自力更生。

  • on some Chinese tech giants.

    對一些中國科技巨頭。

  • And then also, efforts to respond to the potential crisis from China's ageing population.

    然後還有,努力應對中國人口老齡化帶來的潛在危機。

  • China sees how it could become more influential globally because innovation and creativity,

    中國看到它如何能夠因為創新和創造而在全球範圍內變得更有影響力。

  • new products, new software, new technology was actually developed in the country, and

    新產品、新軟件、新技術實際上是在國內開發的,而且

  • of course, there would be a lot of ownership and benefits that come with that.

    當然,會有很多的所有權和利益隨之而來。

  • Are there any challenges that you foresee?

    您是否預見到有什麼挑戰?

  • The coronavirus has given that bit of a setback, and we're still waiting on a bigger pickup

    冠狀病毒已經給這一點帶來了挫折,我們仍在等待更大的收穫

  • on consumer spending.

    對消費者支出的影響。

  • The economy is still going to rely on other drivers of growth, such as industries, and

    經濟仍然要依靠其他的增長動力,如工業,和

  • manufacturing, which, in the grand longer-term plan that Chinese authorities have, is not

    製造業,在中國當局所制定的宏偉的長期計劃中,這並不是

  • something they want to see.

    他們想要看到的東西。

  • They actually want to rely more on consumption and private individual spending to boost economic growth.

    他們實際上想更多地依靠消費和私人個人支出來推動經濟增長。

  • Despite its challenges, China remains one of the world's biggest economic powers,

    儘管存在挑戰,中國仍然是世界上最大的經濟大國之一。

  • second only to the United States.

    僅次於美國。

  • The two countries have been each other's major trading partner on a single-country

    兩國一直是對方在單一國家的主要貿易伙伴。

  • basis for years.

    多年來的基礎。

  • However, in the past year, China has been steadily increasing its trade with ASEAN and the EU.

    然而,在過去一年中,中國一直在穩步增加與東盟和歐盟的貿易。

  • China is also part of the RCEP, a trade agreement between 15 Asia-Pacific nations,

    中國也是RCEP的一部分,這是15個亞太國家之間的貿易協定。

  • accounting for about 30% of the world's population.

    佔世界人口的30%左右。

  • We have emerging economies, all surrounding China and growing, and being able to trade

    我們有新興的經濟體,都圍繞著中國,而且在不斷增長,能夠進行貿易

  • more with each other.

    更多的是彼此之間的關係。

  • And so, analysts have said, RCEP is the largest trade pact.

    是以,分析家們說,RCEP是最大的貿易協定。

  • And these countries will now need to think about, am I going to work more with China,

    而這些國家現在需要考慮的是,我是否要與中國進行更多合作。

  • or do I need to work more with the U.S. and the EU, because there's going to be more and

    還是我需要與美國和歐盟進行更多的合作,因為會有越來越多的

  • more opportunity that might be tied with China than previously.

    與以前相比,有更多可能與中國聯繫在一起的機會。

  • What is the future for China's economy under the Chinese Communist Party?

    在中國共產黨的上司下,中國經濟的未來是什麼?

  • Under the government right now, they have this cohesion that's allowing the country

    在現在的政府下,他們有這種凝聚力,讓國家

  • to do things at a grand scale.

    以宏大的規模做事情。

  • People in China also emphasise to me that it's important for China to be unified,

    中國的人們也向我強調,中國的統一很重要。

  • that once China is unified, then they're able to do much greater things,

    一旦中國統一了,他們就能做更大的事情。

  • I mean, 1.4 billion people.

    我是說,14億人。

  • Having come 100 years since its founding, they've achieved their first goal of alleviating

    自成立以來已經走過了100年,他們已經實現了他們的第一個目標--緩解

  • poverty, but they're certainly not settled with that alone.

    貧困,但他們肯定不會僅靠這個來解決。

  • They have higher ambitions to build up a moderately prosperous society and go even further beyond that.

    他們有更高的野心,要建立一個小康社會,甚至更進一步。

  • China isn't the only country with a state capitalism model, but it is one of the most

    中國並不是唯一一個實行國家資本主義模式的國家,但它是最多的國家之一。

  • prominent examples.

    突出的例子。

  • While this model hasn't been without controversy, its competitiveness on the world stage has

    雖然這種模式並非沒有爭議,但其在世界舞臺上的競爭力已經

  • made the international community take note.

    讓國際社會注意到了這一點。

  • Anything else you wanted to share? Maybe you plans for next weekend.

    你還有什麼想分享的嗎?也許你下週末的計劃。

  • Next weekend? I don't know. I'll go to see an art show.

    下週末?我不知道。我將去看一個藝術展。

  • It's all back to normal, right, in Beijing?

    一切都恢復正常了,對吧,在北京?

  • Yeah, it's back to its over-achieving self.

    是的,它又回到了過度的自我。

July 2021 commemorates a century of the official founding of The Chinese Communist Party.

2021年7月,紀念中國共產黨正式成立一個世紀。

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中國共產黨的經濟遺產|CNBC解讀 (The Chinese Communist Party’s economic legacy | CNBC Explains)

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