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  • When you think of billionaires, you probably think of the people who are on the TV all

    當你想到億萬富翁時,你可能會想到那些在電視上一直出現的人。

  • the time - the barons of industry and kings of tech who are controlling more and more

    越來越多的工業大亨和科技之王控制著越來越多的人,這就是時代。

  • of the world every year.

    每年,世界上都會有很多人在這裡工作。

  • But who actually is the richest today?

    但今天究竟誰是最富有的人?

  • And are they truly the richest people who ever lived?

    而他們真的是有史以來最富有的人嗎?

  • Or was there someone in the past who was much, much richer.

    或者說,過去有一個人比他有錢得多,有錢得多。

  • Bill Gates took a long time to build his fortune, growing his computer company Microsoft into

    比爾-蓋茨花了很長時間來建立他的財富,將他的計算機公司微軟發展成為

  • the top name in home computers since it was founded in the mid 70s.

    自70年代中期成立以來,它一直是家用電腦領域的頂級品牌。

  • And it's paid off, big time, with Bill having a current estimated net worth of $124 billion

    而且它得到了很大的回報,比爾目前的淨資產估計為1240億美元。

  • dollars.

    美元。

  • But some younger and hungrier billionaires have recently knocked him out of the top spot

    但一些更年輕、更飢渴的億萬富翁最近將他擠出了榜首位置

  • that he held so long.

    他持有這麼長時間的。

  • If you shop online, or stream online, or use the internet basically at all, then you've

    如果你在網上購物,或在網上流媒體,或基本上使用互聯網,那麼你已經

  • probably made some money for Jeff Bezos.

    可能為傑夫-貝佐斯賺了一些錢。

  • The founder of Amazon, he's made his company an indispensable part of everyday life - and

    作為亞馬遜的創始人,他使自己的公司成為日常生活中不可缺少的一部分--並且

  • that's made him the current titleholder as the world's richest man with a net worth

    這使他成為目前世界上最富有的人的頭銜,其淨資產為

  • of just under 180 billion dollars.

    近1800億美元的資金。

  • But he may not be in the top spot for long, due to a wild card.

    但他可能不會在榜首位置待很久,因為有一張外卡。

  • Elon Musk is probably the most colorful billionaire today, as the Tesla and SpaceX CEO is frequently

    埃隆-馬斯克可能是當今最豐富多彩的億萬富翁,因為這位特斯拉和SpaceX的首席執行官經常

  • capturing headlines for his controversial tweets or appearing on Saturday Night Live.

    因其有爭議的推文或出現在《週六夜現場》上而奪得頭條。

  • But Tesla exploded in popularity in 2020, giving him a net worth of over 150 billion

    但特斯拉在2020年爆紅,讓他的淨資產超過1500億

  • dollars and briefly giving him the #1 spot.

    美元,並短暫地給了他第一的位置。

  • But an unlikely rival may be the tortoise to their heir.

    但一個不太可能的對手可能是他們的繼承人的烏龜。

  • Bernard Arnault, the French chairman and CEO of Louis-Vuitton, heads up the largest luxury

    路易-威登公司的法國董事長兼首席執行官伯納德-阿爾諾(Bernard Arnault)上司著這個最大的奢侈品公司。

  • goods company in the world.

    世界上的商品公司。

  • But it's his canny investments that have made him and his family among the wealthiest

    但是,正是他精明的投資,使他和他的家人成為最富有的人之一。

  • in the world.

    在這個世界上。

  • With a net worth of around $150 billion, he doesn't get his rivals' headlines, but

    他的淨資產約為1500億美元,沒有得到對手的頭條,但

  • he is consistently battling for the top spot with them - and at one point even sat at the

    他一直在與他們爭奪頭把交椅--甚至一度坐在了

  • top of the list!

    榜首!

  • But just because one takes the top spot, doesn't mean they stay there.

    但是,一個人佔據了頭把交椅,並不意味著他們會一直在那裡。

  • Today, most of these billionaires' wealth is tied up in their stock holdings, which

    今天,這些億萬富翁的大部分財富都被捆綁在他們的股票持有量上,這

  • means they're subject to the whims of the market.

    這意味著它們受制於市場的變化。

  • An ill-advised statement, a proposed law from an angry Senator, or some bad press for the

    一個不明智的聲明,一個憤怒的參議員提出的法律建議,或者一些不好的新聞,對

  • company can send the stock tanking - and their bank account with it.

    公司可以使股票下跌--他們的銀行賬戶也隨之下跌。

  • They, along with Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg, are the only people with

    他們與Facebook創始人兼CEO馬克-扎克伯格是唯一擁有

  • net worths above $100 billion.

    淨資產超過1000億美元的人。

  • But when you look at history, it's a very different story.

    但是,當你看一下歷史,這是一個非常不同的故事。

  • In actual dollar amounts, no one has ever reached these sums before - but that's because

    在實際的美元數額方面,以前沒有人達到過這些數額--但這是因為

  • inflation has made prices rise and the value of a dollar less than ever.

    通貨膨脹使得物價上漲,美元的價值比以往更低。

  • When adjusted, history has played host to some people who were far richer than anything

    經過調整,歷史上有一些人遠比任何東西都要富有。

  • even today's titans of tech could even dream of.

    即使是今天的科技巨頭也能夢想到這一點。

  • These men ran powerful monopolies, they were emperors of industry - and in some cases,

    這些人經營著強大的壟斷企業,他們是工業的皇帝--在某些情況下也是如此。

  • literal empires.

    文字上的帝國。

  • Instead of their wealth being mostly in volatile stock holdings, they held massive amounts

    他們的財富不是主要集中在不穩定的股票持有上,而是持有大量的

  • of hard goods and land.

    的硬貨物和土地。

  • These were the actual richest men who ever lived in all of human history.

    這些人是整個人類歷史上最富有的人。

  • Inventing the most popular electric car made Elon Musk an icon - so imagine the wealth

    發明最受歡迎的電動汽車使埃隆-馬斯克成為偶像--所以想象一下財富

  • of the man who invented the most popular car period.

    的人發明了這一時期最受歡迎的汽車。

  • Henry Ford, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, turned the car into something the

    福特汽車公司的創始人亨利-福特(Henry Ford)將汽車變成了一種東西。

  • everyman could afford in the early 20th century, instead of just a luxury good.

    在20世紀初,它是每個人都能負擔得起的,而不僅僅是一種奢侈品。

  • His most significant innovation may have been the assembly line method of production, which

    他最重要的創新可能是裝配線生產方法,它

  • made his cars much faster and cheaper to produce - and in turn cheaper to buy.

    使得他的汽車生產速度更快,成本更低--反過來,購買成本也更低。

  • Not only did he have an adjusted net worth of just under 200 billion, but his company

    他不僅有一個調整後的淨資產,略低於2000億,而且他的公司

  • is still one of the dominant names in the automobile industry today.

    今天仍然是汽車行業的主導品牌之一。

  • But halfway around the world, another man dwarfed his wealth.

    但在世界的另一端,另一個人使他的財富相形見絀。

  • Mir Osman Ali Khan wasn't a businessman - he was a ruler, the last Nizam of the Hyderabad

    米爾-奧斯曼-阿里-汗不是一個商人--他是一個統治者,海德拉巴的最後一個尼扎姆。

  • State.

    州。

  • The ruler of a powerful region in British India, he ruled as a mostly-independent monarch

    他是英屬印度一個強大地區的統治者,作為一個基本獨立的君主進行統治。

  • who technically answered to the British empire but was able to amass a huge fortune all the

    他在技術上對大英帝國負責,但卻能夠積累大量的財富。

  • same.

    同樣。

  • The key to his massive wealth?

    他獲得鉅額財富的關鍵是什麼?

  • The Golconda mines, which happened to be the only place in the world at the time where

    戈爾康達礦區,恰好是當時世界上唯一一個有

  • diamonds could be found.

    可以找到鑽石。

  • If you wanted a diamond - the ultimate status symbol - you had no choice but to go through

    如果你想要一顆鑽石--終極地位的象徵--你別無選擇,只能通過

  • Mir Osman Ali Khan.

    米爾-奧斯曼-阿里-汗。

  • Not only did he have an adjusted net worth of 210 billion, but he was wealthy enough

    他不僅擁有2100億的調整後淨資產,而且他的財富足以

  • that he could use the huge Jacob Diamond as a paperweight.

    他可以用巨大的雅各布鑽石作為鎮紙。

  • But back in America, two men proved that there were things more valuable than diamonds.

    但在美國,有兩個人證明了有比鑽石更有價值的東西。

  • As America entered the industrial age, one of the biggest businesses became construction

    隨著美國進入工業時代,最大的業務之一成為建築業

  • - and at the end of the 19th century, one man stood to revolutionize the industry.

    - 而在19世紀末,有一個人站出來為這個行業帶來了革命。

  • Andrew Carnegie's expansion of the American steel industry made him one of the most powerful

    安德魯-卡內基對美國鋼鐵業的擴張使他成為最強大的人之一。

  • and richest men in the world, and he soon had major investments in the railroad and

    和世界上最富有的人,他很快就在鐵路和其他領域有了重大投資。

  • oil industry.

    石油工業。

  • An aggressive investor who had holdings around the world, he eventually sold his steel company

    他是一個積極的投資者,在世界各地都有持股,最終他賣掉了他的鋼鐵公司。

  • and devoted the rest of his life to philanthropy.

    並將他的餘生奉獻給了慈善事業。

  • His articleThe Gospel of Wealthis still read today by civic-minded billionaires.

    他的文章《財富的福音》至今仍被有公民意識的億萬富翁閱讀。

  • When his wealth was at its peak, his adjusted net worth was over 310 billion - but it was

    當他的財富處於巔峰時,他的調整後淨資產超過3100億--但這是

  • almost all gone by the time he passed away in 1919, having been given to charities and

    他在1919年去世時,幾乎所有的財產都被捐給了慈善機構和其他機構。

  • foundations, many of which still remain operational today thanks in no small part to his contributions.

    其中許多基金會至今仍在運作,這在很大程度上歸功於他的貢獻。

  • But he wasn't even the most powerful American baron of industry.

    但他甚至不是美國最強大的工業男爵。

  • Even today, the Rockefeller name is associated with wealth, and it all comes back to one

    即使在今天,洛克菲勒的名字仍與財富聯繫在一起,而這一切都要歸結於一個人

  • thing - oil.

    事--石油。

  • John D. Rockefeller, the founder and chairman of the Standard Oil company, started out as

    標準石油公司的創始人和董事長約翰-D-洛克菲勒,一開始是作為

  • a bookkeeper and worked his way up to controlling 90% of all oil in the United States - at a

    他從一個簿記員開始,一直到控制美國90%的石油---------。

  • time when oil was the primary light source, before electricity had become mainstream.

    在電力成為主流之前,石油是主要光源的時代。

  • His company was so massive that in 1911, the Supreme Court ordered that it be broken up

    他的公司規模龐大,以至於在1911年,最高法院下令將其拆分。

  • into thirty-four separate companies - some of which remain the most powerful oil companies

    變成了34家獨立的公司--其中一些公司仍然是最強大的石油公司

  • in the world.

    在這個世界上。

  • Rockefeller's fortune grew to a staggering estimated total of over 400 billion dollars

    洛克菲勒的財富增長到驚人的估計總額,超過4000億美元

  • when adjusted for today, and his heirs remained power-brokers - with one even serving as Vice

    如果按今天的情況調整,他的繼承人仍然是權力掮客--其中一個甚至擔任了副總理。

  • President.

    主席。

  • The 19th and 20th century brought the first industrial power brokers - but even they still

    19世紀和20世紀帶來了第一批工業權力經紀人--但即使他們仍然

  • weren't the richest ever.

    並非有史以來最富有的人。

  • No it was in eras long since gone by that had the richest people who ever lived.

    不,這是在早已過去的時代,有史以來最富有的人。

  • In 15th century Germany, Jakob Fugger's father was a successful merchant - but the

    在15世紀的德國,雅各布-富格爾的父親是一位成功的商人--但

  • son would obtain riches the father could never dream of.

    兒子將獲得父親做夢也想不到的財富。

  • A combination of the textile trade with Italy, investments in the banking and mining sectors,

    與意大利的紡織品貿易、銀行和礦業部門的投資相結合。

  • and a marriage to German nobility allowed Fugger to become one of the wealthiest industrialists

    以及與德國貴族的婚姻使富格爾成為最富有的工業家之一

  • in history.

    在歷史上。

  • He made savvy deals with the most powerful royal families in Europe, even engineering

    他與歐洲最強大的皇室家族進行了精明的交易,甚至是工程

  • the election of a Holy Roman Emperor who favored him.

    選舉出了一個對他有利的神聖羅馬帝國皇帝。

  • That led him to amass a fortune that's estimated to be between 400 and 500 billion dollars

    這使他積累了估計為4000至5000億美元的財富。

  • today - a record that may never be beaten by a businessman - and was estimated to be

    今天--這個記錄可能永遠不會被一個商人打破--估計是

  • a shocking two percent of all of Europe's gross domestic product at the time.

    佔當時全歐洲國內生產總值的2%,令人震驚。

  • But there's still one way to get richer than even the richest businessmen - be a ruler.

    但仍有一種方法可以比最富有的商人更富有--做一個統治者。

  • In the era that we now look back on as the transition from BC to AD, there was no more

    在我們現在回顧的從公元前到公元的過渡時代,沒有更多的

  • powerful position than the ruler of the Roman Emperor.

    比羅馬皇帝的統治者更強大的地位。

  • All of these Emperors were wildly wealthy, as their palaces showed, but no emperor was

    所有這些皇帝都非常富有,正如他們的宮殿所顯示的,但沒有一個皇帝是

  • richer than Augustus.

    比奧古斯都更富有。

  • Rising to power at the conclusion of a chaotic era for Rome following the death of Julius

    在朱利葉斯死後,羅馬在一個混亂的時代結束時上臺。

  • Caesar, with many battles over succession, Augustus' forty-one year reign came to be

    愷撒,為爭奪繼承權進行了多次爭鬥,奧古斯都在位四十一年的時間裡,以

  • known as Pax Romana, a golden, peaceful era for Rome - and he brought that era to many

    稱為 "大同",是羅馬的一個黃金、和平時代--他把這個時代帶給了許多人。

  • areas of the world, massively expanding the empire and conquering many rivals.

    世界各地的地區,大規模地擴大帝國,並征服了許多對手。

  • There's no way to know exactly how wealthy he was, but some experts estimate his adjusted

    沒有辦法確切知道他有多富有,但一些專家估計他的調整後的

  • wealth at over four trillion dollars - though that number has an asterisk beside it, because

    財富超過四萬億美元--儘管這個數字旁邊有一個星號,因為

  • much of that wealth came from conquering and owning all of Egypt.

    這些財富大部分來自於征服和擁有整個埃及。

  • But even Emperor Augustus would stare in envy at the wealth of the richest man who ever

    但即使是奧古斯都皇帝也會羨慕地注視著這位有史以來最富有的人的財富。

  • lived.

    生活。

  • It was the end of the thirteenth century, and while Europe was still in the medieval

    那是13世紀末,當歐洲還處於中世紀的時候

  • period, Africa was full of thriving kingdoms that controlled the many trade routes across

    在這一時期,非洲充滿了繁榮的王國,它們控制著跨越非洲的許多貿易路線。

  • the Saharan desert.

    撒哈拉沙漠。

  • One of the most powerful of these kingdoms was the Mali Empire, which stretched from

    這些王國中最強大的國家之一是馬裡帝國,它的疆域範圍從1950年到2000年。

  • the western coast of Africa to modern Timbuktu.

    非洲西海岸到現代的廷巴克圖。

  • While the empire had many emperors before, the one who became famous worldwide for his

    雖然帝國以前有許多皇帝,但因其在世界範圍內聞名的皇帝是

  • wealth was known as Mansa Musa.

    財富被稱為曼薩-穆薩。

  • He was wildly ambitious - and it paid off.

    他野心勃勃--而且得到了回報。

  • When Mansa Musa ascended the throne as the tenth Emperor of the Mali empire, it already

    當曼薩-穆薩作為馬裡帝國的第十位皇帝登基時,它已經

  • consisted of parts of five modern countries.

    由五個現代國家的一部分組成。

  • He quickly conquered twenty-four cities and their surrounding areas, and he knew an opportunity

    他很快征服了二十四座城市及其周邊地區,他知道有一個機會

  • when he saw it - and that opportunity was under the ground.

    當他看到它時--而這個機會就在地底下。

  • Under Musa, the Mali empire stepped up its mining efforts considerably, and they discovered

    在穆薩的上司下,馬裡帝國大大加強了其採礦工作,他們發現了

  • the largest stores of gold in the world at the time, along with a massive supply of salt.

    是當時世界上最大的黃金儲存地,同時還有大量的鹽供應。

  • These were two of the most valuable resources in the world at the time, and together they

    這是當時世界上最有價值的兩種資源,它們一起

  • made the Mali empire one of the world's biggest trading partners.

    使得馬裡帝國成為世界上最大的貿易伙伴之一。

  • How wealthy was Mansa Musa?

    曼薩-穆薩有多富有?

  • He was so rich that he could single-handedly affect the world economy.

    他是如此富有,以至於他可以單槍匹馬地影響世界經濟。

  • Musa was a devout Muslim, and one of the most important religious duties for any Muslim

    穆薩是一個虔誠的穆斯林,對任何穆斯林來說,最重要的宗教職責之一是

  • who is able to is to make a pilgrimage to Mecca.

    有能力的人要去麥加朝聖。

  • When Musa set out on his journey in 1324 he was accompanied by a group of over seventy

    1324年,當穆薩踏上旅程時,他有一個由七十多人組成的團隊陪同。

  • thousand, but he also brought along a small portion of his massive riches.

    千,但他也帶來了他大量財富的一小部分。

  • His 12,000 slaves each carried four pounds of gold bars, and his heralds each had a gold

    他的12,000名奴隸每人攜帶四磅金條,他的傳令官每人都有一個金的

  • staff while his animals all bore bags of gold dust.

    而他的動物都帶著一袋金粉。

  • Along his journey, he shared his wealth with everyone he met, giving the gold bars to the

    在他的旅程中,他與他遇到的每個人分享他的財富,把金條給了

  • poor and trading gold for interesting items.

    貧窮,用黃金換取有趣的物品。

  • He would also give communities the gold they needed to build mosques.

    他還會給社區提供建造清真寺所需的黃金。

  • But generosity can have a surprising downside.

    但是,慷慨解囊會有令人驚訝的壞處。

  • Gold was one of the main currencies in use at the time, and the local economies were

    黃金是當時使用的主要貨幣之一,而當地的經濟是

  • not equipped for such a sudden massive influx of the precious metal.

    不具備應對這種突然大量湧入的貴金屬的能力。

  • The cost of gold was devalued from the sudden appearance of so much all at once, leading

    由於突然出現了這麼多的黃金,黃金的成本被貶低了,導致了

  • to the cost of other items rising, causing major economic problems along Musa's route.

    到其他物品的成本上升,造成穆薩路線上的重大經濟問題。

  • After his pilgrimage to Mecca was complete, Mansa Musa and his entourage returned home

    在麥加朝聖結束後,曼薩-穆薩和他的隨行人員回到家中

  • the way they came - and were shocked at the impact they saw from their display of wealth.

    他們來時的路--對他們展示的財富所帶來的影響感到震驚。

  • He wound up borrowing back all the gold his entourage could carry at high interest, to

    他最終以高額利息借回了他的隨行人員可以攜帶的所有黃金,以

  • try to repair the local economies and maintain the Mali empire's good name.

    試圖修復當地經濟,維護馬裡帝國的良好聲譽。

  • While there have been fabulously wealthy people before, Mansa Musa may be the only one to

    雖然以前也有過富可敵國的人,但曼薩-穆薩可能是唯一一個能做到的人。

  • single-handedly derail a sector of the economy.

    單槍匹馬地破壞一個經濟部門。

  • He may have been the richest man to ever live - but just how wealthy was he?

    他可能是有史以來最富有的人--但他到底有多富有?

  • Modern estimates place his net worth at over four hundred billion dollars mostly in gold

    據現代估計,他的淨資產超過四千億美元,大部分是黃金。

  • and salt assets, which is more than any modern businessman has ever reached.

    和鹽業資產,這比任何現代商人所達到的都要多。

  • But while this is a rough estimate, many historians say his actual net worth may be incalculable.

    但是,儘管這是一個粗略的估計,許多歷史學家說他的實際淨資產可能無法計算。

  • Combining the land he held with the gold and other resources he owned puts him high on

    將他所擁有的土地與黃金和其他資源結合起來,使他的地位很高。

  • the charts, but there is no way of knowing just how much of those resources remained

    但我們無法知道這些資源中到底有多少仍在使用。

  • in the ground.

    在地面上。

  • He controlled much of the world's supply of gold, and many experts believe he may have

    他控制了世界上大部分的黃金供應,許多專家認為他可能有

  • been a multi-trillionaire, and certainly the richest man ever in solid assets.

    已經是一個多萬億的富翁,當然也是有史以來固體資產最豐富的人。

  • But is he likely to keep that title?

    但他有可能保持這個頭銜嗎?

  • It's unlikely that anyone will ever top his wealth in solid assets, given how wealth

    鑑於財富是如何產生的,不太可能有人能在堅實的資產上超過他的財富。

  • has shifted to being determined by shares held in the stock market.

    已經轉移到由在股票市場上持有的股票決定。

  • But today's billionaires are among the wealthiest people who ever lived - and for most of them,

    但今天的億萬富翁是有史以來最富有的人之一--而且對他們中的大多數人來說。

  • their wealth is only growing.

    他們的財富只會越來越多。

  • As new innovations make their companies even larger, could any of them grow to the level

    隨著新的創新使他們的公司變得更加龐大,他們中的任何一個都能發展到

  • of historical billionaires and trillionaires?

    的歷史億萬富翁和萬億富翁?

  • The outlook is cloudy.

    前景是多雲的。

  • Bill Gates and Bernard Arnault are considered too cautious to more than double their net

    比爾-蓋茨和伯納德-阿爾諾被認為太過謹慎,他們的淨值超過了一倍

  • worth, as they have proven, long-time business models that they're unlikely to shake up.

    值得一提的是,正如他們已經證明的那樣,長期的商業模式,他們不太可能動搖。

  • Elon Musk, meanwhile, may be a bit too much of a risk-taker.

    與此同時,埃隆-馬斯克可能有點過於冒險了。

  • While any one of his big ideas could send his stock price skyrocketing, it's just

    雖然他的任何一個大點子都能讓他的股價暴漲,但這只是

  • as likely that his next tweet would tank it.

    他的下一條推特很可能會破壞它。

  • But Jeff Bezos is another story.

    但傑夫-貝佐斯是另一個故事。

  • His company, Amazon, has grown by more than a third every year for the last five years.

    他的公司--亞馬遜,在過去五年裡每年都有超過三分之一的增長。

  • When the world was turned upside down in 2020, he was ready to step into the chaos, and his

    當世界在2020年被顛覆時,他已經準備好步入混亂的局面,他的

  • home delivery services became indispensable when most people didn't want to leave their

    當大多數人不想離開自己的家時,送貨上門服務就變得不可或缺了。

  • homes.

    住宅。

  • At his current rate of growth, experts believe he could become the world's first trillionaire

    按照他目前的增長速度,專家認為他可能成為世界上第一個萬億富翁。

  • in only five more years - and from there, who knows?

    只需再過五年--從那時起,誰知道呢?

  • If the government doesn't step in, the title of the richest man to ever live could one

    如果政府不介入,有史以來最富有的人的頭銜可能是一個

  • day have a new titleholder.

    日有一個新的頭銜持有人。

  • For more on the world of the fabulously wealthy, why not watchMillionaires vs. Billionaires

    想了解更多關於富人世界的資訊,不妨觀看《百萬富翁與億萬富翁》。

  • - How Do They Live?”, or check outThe Deadly Curse of the Billionaire Family

    - 他們如何生活?",或查看 "億萬富翁家族的致命詛咒"

  • for more on the dark side of near-limitless wealth.

    瞭解更多關於近乎無限的財富的黑暗面。

When you think of billionaires, you probably think of the people who are on the TV all

當你想到億萬富翁時,你可能會想到那些在電視上一直出現的人。

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B1 中級 中文 財富 富有 富翁 皇帝 資產 黃金

有史以來最富有的人是怎樣的富人 (How Rich was the Richest Man that Ever Lived)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 29 日
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