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  • You and your people have long eked out a humble living off the land in your isolated corner

    你和你的人民長期以來一直在你那與世隔絕的角落裡靠土地勉強維持生計。

  • of the world.

    世界的。

  • Then one day you make contact with modern man, and suddenly disease ravages your community,

    然後有一天,你們與現代人接觸,突然疾病肆虐你們的社區。

  • killing most of your family.

    殺死你的大部分家人。

  • A sci-fi plotline?

    科幻小說的情節?

  • It was actually life for a small tribe in Paraguay - only just over sixty years ago.

    這實際上是巴拉圭的一個小部落的生活--僅僅在60多年前。

  • The Ache tribe made their home in eastern Paraguay, and they managed to avoid regular

    阿切部落在巴拉圭東部安家,他們設法避免了定期的

  • contact with the outside world until the second half of the twentieth century.

    直到二十世紀下半葉才與外部世界接觸。

  • The outside world's main awareness of them came from the writings of Spanish Jesuits

    外部世界對他們的認識主要來自於西班牙耶穌會士的著作

  • starting in the early 17th century, as the new settlers caught glimpses of the nomadic

    從17世紀初開始,由於新定居者瞥見了遊牧民族的生活方式,他們就開始了自己的生活。

  • tribe of hunter-gatherers.

    狩獵-採集者的部落。

  • While some Ache were briefly captured by missionaries and brought to a Jesuit facility, they all

    雖然有些阿奇被傳教士短暫抓獲,並被帶到耶穌會所,但他們都

  • died within months of disease and little information was gathered.

    在患病的幾個月內死亡,收集到的資訊很少。

  • However, the writings were able to create a basic picture of this uncontacted tribe

    然而,這些文字能夠創造出這個未接觸過的部落的基本情況

  • and how they live, including their culture, economy, and faith.

    以及他們的生活方式,包括他們的文化、經濟和信仰。

  • And much of it was largely unchanged from before the arrival of European settlers.

    而且大部分地區與歐洲定居者到來之前相比基本沒有變化。

  • While the Ache were all hunter-gatherers, they were not one unified tribe.

    雖然阿奇人都是狩獵採集者,但他們並不是一個統一的部落。

  • In fact, there were multiple Ache groups that didn't have peaceful contact with each other.

    事實上,有多個Ache團體彼此之間沒有和平接觸。

  • Their diet mostly consisted of fruit, venison, roots, and palm pith.

    他們的飲食主要包括水果、鹿肉、根莖和棕櫚果核。

  • They frequently attached small stones to their lips for a dramatic visual effect, and their

    他們經常把小石頭貼在嘴脣上,以達到戲劇性的視覺效果,而他們的

  • economy consisted largely of trading edible goods.

    經濟主要由可食用貨物貿易組成。

  • While they briefly encountered the Jesuits in the 17th and 18th century, the religious

    雖然他們在17和18世紀曾短暫地遇到過耶穌會士,但這些宗教

  • group was expelled in 1768 without any long-term impact on the Ache culture, and there is a

    該群體於1768年被驅逐,但沒有對阿奇文化產生任何長期影響。

  • large gap of information of how the Ache evolved until the end of the 19th century.

    在19世紀末之前,關於阿奇族如何演變的資訊存在很大的空白。

  • Then, in 1908, everything changed.

    然後,在1908年,一切都改變了。

  • The world was opening up, and scientists both local and foreign were increasingly interested

    世界正在開放,在地和外國的科學家們越來越感興趣。

  • in isolated groups like the Ache.

    在像Ache這樣的孤立的群體中。

  • Most observed them from afar, including famous Paraguayan naturalist Moises Bertoni.

    大多數人從遠處觀察它們,包括著名的巴拉圭自然學家莫伊塞斯-貝爾託尼。

  • But Federico Maynthusen, a German immigrant, was the first to make contact in 1908 and

    但德國移民Federico Maynthusen於1908年率先進行了接觸,並且

  • was able to gather modern information on their culture and language, raising the interest

    他能夠收集關於他們的文化和語言的現代資訊,提高了人們的興趣。

  • of locals.

    的當地人。

  • The outside world was creeping in - and it rarely had good intentions.

    外面的世界正在悄悄進入--它很少有好的意圖。

  • As development came closer to the Ache territory, local farmers and colonists occasionally clashed

    隨著開發工作越來越接近阿切地區,當地農民和殖民者偶爾會發生衝突。

  • with them - but there was no formal contact yet.

    但還沒有正式接觸。

  • But the Ache's days of isolation were coming to an end.

    但是,阿奇家與世隔絕的日子即將結束。

  • It was 1954 when the Paraguayan government underwent a seismic shift.

    那是1954年,巴拉圭政府經歷了一次地震式的轉變。

  • The staunch anti-communist Alfredo Stroessner staged a military coup against the sitting

    堅定的反共分子阿爾弗雷多-斯特羅斯納(Alfredo Stroessner)發動了一場軍事政變,反對在任總統。

  • President.

    主席。

  • He quickly gained absolute control of Paraguay, winning one-party elections and filling the

    他很快就獲得了對巴拉圭的絕對控制權,贏得了一黨制選舉,並填補了這一空白。

  • courts and legislature with his supporters.

    法院和立法機構與他的支持者。

  • Paraguay quickly became a one-party state, his political opponents were captured or killed,

    巴拉圭很快成為一個一黨制國家,他的政治對手被抓或被殺。

  • and he kept the country in a constant state of emergency that allowed him to rule as an

    他使國家持續處於緊急狀態,這使他能夠作為一個國家的統治者。

  • absolute dictator.

    絕對的獨裁者。

  • There was not an area of life in Paraguay that he didn't want to control - and that

    在巴拉圭,沒有一個領域的生活是他不想控制的--這一點。

  • included the most isolated regions.

    包括最孤立的地區。

  • 1959 brought the modern world to the Ache's door.

    1959年將現代世界帶到了阿奇家的門口。

  • Manuel de Jesus Pereira was the first to make contact with the Ypety Ache tribe.

    曼努埃爾-德-赫蘇斯-佩雷拉是第一個與Ypety Ache部落取得聯繫的人。

  • Once they had been pacified, he used them as guides to track down other isolated tribes

    一旦他們被平定下來,他就利用他們作為嚮導,追蹤其他孤立的部落

  • and make contact.

    並進行接觸。

  • While contact with the Ypety and Yvytyruzu tribes was relatively peaceful, it didn't

    雖然與Ypety和Yvytyruzu部落的接觸相對和平,但它並沒有

  • bring good things to the small communities.

    給小社區帶來好的東西。

  • They were less than a hundred individuals when they were found, and as they were studied

    它們被發現時還不到一百個個體,在對它們進行研究時

  • by local anthropologists, they proved very vulnerable to unfamiliar diseases and more

    在當地人類學家的幫助下,他們被證明非常容易受到不熟悉的疾病和更多的

  • than half of each small tribe died in less than ten years.

    每個小部落有一半以上的人在不到十年的時間裡死亡。

  • But contacting the Northern Ache would prove more complicated.

    但事實證明,與北阿奇的聯繫會更加複雜。

  • While the Northern Ache had avoided contact, they had frequent conflict with local loggers

    雖然北阿奇人一直避免接觸,但他們與當地伐木工人經常發生衝突

  • and ranchers.

    和牧場主。

  • They occupied a large region near the San Joaquin mountains, with over 550 members of

    他們佔據了聖華金山脈附近的大片地區,有超過550名成員。

  • their tribe.

    他們的部落。

  • Stroessner encouraged Pereira to remove this group from the area, and so Pereira moved

    斯特羅斯納鼓勵佩雷拉將這群人趕出該地區,於是佩雷拉搬到了

  • what was left of the smaller tribes to what would become the Cerro Moroti reservation

    剩餘的小部落到後來成為Cerro Moroti保留地的地方。

  • and trained them in the use of modern weapons.

    並訓練他們使用現代武器。

  • When a group of them were attacked by some Northern Ache while hunting, they were able

    當他們中的一群人在打獵時被一些北阿奇襲擊時,他們能夠

  • to capture a Northern Ache woman thanks to their shotguns.

    由於他們的獵槍,抓住了一個北阿奇的女人。

  • For the first time, Pereira had a way into this most isolated tribe.

    佩雷拉第一次有辦法進入這個最孤立的部落。

  • It took a month, but Pereira and the Ache working with him were able to convince her

    花了一個月的時間,但佩雷拉和與他一起工作的阿切能夠說服她

  • to lead them to her tribe's base.

    帶他們到她的部落的基地。

  • The Northern Ache were convinced to surrender and move to the reservation, but they were

    北部阿奇人被說服投降並遷往保留地,但他們被

  • only one of the Northern Ache groups in the forest.

    是森林中唯一的一個北阿奇群體。

  • In the 1970s, there would be at least ten removals of Ache populations from the region

    在20世紀70年代,至少有十次將阿奇族人從該地區移出。

  • to the reservation, many of which soon died from respiratory ailments.

    到保留地,其中許多人很快死於呼吸道疾病。

  • The small and isolated tribe was being decimated by illness, and their original way of life

    這個與世隔絕的小部落正在被疾病摧毀,而他們原來的生活方式

  • was threatened.

    受到了威脅。

  • Time moved on, but one woman would not be silent.

    時間在流逝,但有一個女人不會沉默。

  • She never knew her original name, because she was at most five in 1967 when the world

    她從不知道自己的原名,因為1967年她最多隻有5歲,當時世界上

  • came coming.

    來了。

  • The little girl who would come to be known as Margarita was living in eastern Paraguay

    這個後來被稱為瑪格麗特的小女孩當時生活在巴拉圭東部地區。

  • when she was kidnapped by colonists and sold as a domestic slave.

    當她被殖民者綁架並作為家庭奴隸出售時。

  • She barely remembered the early years with her tribe, and was soon given a new name by

    她幾乎不記得早年與她的部落在一起的歲月,很快就由她取了一個新名字

  • a woman who told her she was her mother.

    一個女人告訴她,她是她的母親。

  • But while this woman insisted Margarita was her daughter, she treated her as anything

    但是,雖然這個女人堅持認為瑪格麗特是她的女兒,但她卻把她當成了任何東西。

  • but.

    但。

  • Margarita wasn't sent to school like a girl her age would be, and instead was forced to

    瑪格麗特沒有像她這個年齡的女孩那樣被送進學校,而是被迫

  • work as a cook and maid for a woman who never showed her any affection.

    為一個從未向她表示過任何感情的女人做廚師和女僕。

  • The outside world was no more welcoming.

    外面的世界不再歡迎我了。

  • As Margarita was brought outside, she started to realize how different she was from the

    當瑪格麗特被帶到外面時,她開始意識到自己與其他國家的人有多麼不同。

  • people who surrounded her.

    圍繞著她的人們。

  • People on the street called her slurs used to insult indigenous people, and she had none

    街上的人叫她用來侮辱土著人的汙言穢語,而她沒有。

  • of the papers used to identify citizens of Paraguay - only a name that seemed to come

    用於識別巴拉圭公民身份的文件中--只有一個似乎是來自的名字。

  • out of nowhere.

    不知從哪裡來的。

  • She was one of countless indigenous children kidnapped and given to local families.

    她是無數被綁架並被送給當地家庭的土著兒童之一。

  • While Margarita lived with this family, the Ache's way of life was being systematically

    當瑪格麗特與這個家庭生活在一起時,阿奇家的生活方式正在被系統地改變。

  • dismantled - with almost the entire population of the Northern Ache being confined to small

    拆除--北阿奇的幾乎所有人口都被限制在小範圍內。

  • reservations with poor living conditions under Stroessner's regime.

    在斯特羅斯納政權下,保留地的生活條件很差。

  • But Margarita had not forgotten her roots.

    但瑪格麗特並沒有忘記她的根。

  • When she turned eighteen, she was finally able to get away from the people that claimed

    當她年滿18歲時,她終於能夠遠離那些聲稱

  • to be her family.

    成為她的家人。

  • She wanted to find her roots - but she had no way to know where to start.

    她想找到自己的根--但她沒有辦法知道從哪裡開始。

  • The good news was that the Church in Paraguay had ongoing contact with the Ache tribes,

    好消息是,巴拉圭的教會與阿奇部落有持續的聯繫。

  • and by 1980 many of the clergy had taken a more progressive view than their ancestors.

    到1980年,許多神職人員採取了比他們祖先更進步的觀點。

  • A local Priest and the missionaries he worked with heard her story and offered to help her,

    一位當地牧師和與他一起工作的傳教士聽到了她的故事,並表示願意幫助她。

  • and Margarita was able to make contact with her fellow Ache people for the first time

    而瑪格麗特第一次能夠與她的阿奇族同胞取得聯繫。

  • in over a decade.

    在超過十年的時間裡。

  • She met with her family, but soon learned that her parents had both died and two more

    她與家人見面,但很快得知她的父母都已去世,還有兩個

  • of her siblings had also been taken by the same farmers who kidnapped her.

    她的兄弟姐妹也被綁架她的同一個農民帶走了。

  • But there was another obstacle in the way of reconnecting with her people.

    但在與她的人民重新聯繫的道路上還有一個障礙。

  • Any traces of the Ache language she knew as a little girl were long gone, and she had

    她小時候知道的阿奇語的任何痕跡都早已消失,她有

  • no way of communicating with her remaining siblings.

    沒有辦法與她剩下的兄弟姐妹進行溝通。

  • Margarita dedicated herself to learning the Ache language, and soon became deeply involved

    瑪格麗特致力於學習阿奇語,並很快深入參與其中。

  • with her tribe.

    與她的部族。

  • She learned how they lived now, recreating a version of their old hunter-gatherer way

    她瞭解到他們現在是如何生活的,再現了他們古老的狩獵採集方式的版本

  • of life on a small patch of land given to them by the government.

    在政府給他們的一小塊土地上的生活。

  • While they still foraged for food, they had taken to agriculture as a way to produce more

    雖然他們仍在覓食,但他們已將農業作為一種生產更多食物的方式。

  • food - as the government did not give them the resources they needed to survive.

    食物--因為政府沒有給他們提供生存所需的資源。

  • Much of their ancestral homeland had been given over to farmers and loggers, and much

    他們祖先的大部分家園已經交給了農民和伐木工人,而大部分的

  • of the forest had been cut down for building supplies.

    森林已被砍伐用於建築用品。

  • Now that Margarita knew the truth, she would not be silenced again.

    現在瑪格麗特知道了真相,她不會再沉默了。

  • Things were changing in Paraguay, and while the Ache's numbers had dwindled, there was

    巴拉圭的情況正在發生變化,雖然阿奇族的人數已經減少,但還有

  • increased attention to their plight.

    越來越多的人關注他們的困境。

  • Stroessner was toppled in a coup in 1989 and fled the country, and his successor, General

    斯特羅斯納在1989年的一次政變中被推翻,並逃離了該國。

  • Andres Rodriguez, liberalized the country somewhat and allowed for free elections.

    安德烈-羅德里格斯(Andres Rodriguez)在一定程度上解放了國家,並允許進行自由選舉。

  • Under his tenure, Paraguay would ratify the Indigenous and Tribal People's Convention's

    在他的任期內,巴拉圭將準許《土著和部落人民公約》。

  • C169 law, which regulated the treatment of indigenous people.

    C169法,該法規定了土著人的待遇。

  • And for the first time in decades, the Ache people had the tools by which to make a stand

    幾十年來,阿切人第一次有了可以表明立場的工具。

  • for their rights.

    爭取他們的權利。

  • But it would be a long battle.

    但這將是一場漫長的戰鬥。

  • Margarita, now known as Margarita Mbywangi, had continued her involvement with her family

    瑪格麗特,現在叫瑪格麗特-姆比旺吉,一直在繼續參與她的家庭生活

  • and tribe and eventually became a tribal chief.

    和部落,並最終成為部落酋長。

  • She continued to learn and make up for lost time, and became a powerful force in the community.

    她繼續學習,彌補失去的時間,併成為社區的強大力量。

  • Her activism and poetry raised awareness of the Ache among the people of Paraguay, but

    她的行動主義和詩歌提高了巴拉圭人民對阿切的認識,但

  • she was up against significant opposition.

    她面臨著巨大的反對。

  • Stroessner had overseen the sale of all of Paraguay's land to private sources, primarily

    斯特羅斯納監督了巴拉圭所有的土地出售給私人,主要是

  • developers, and the government couldn't afford to buy it back to return it to the

    開發商,而政府沒有能力買回它,把它還給開發商。

  • Ache people.

    疼的人。

  • Margarita Mbywangi would need more power to make a change - and she was about to get it.

    瑪格麗特-姆比旺吉需要更多的權力來做出改變--而她即將得到這種權力。

  • 2008 brought another sea change to Paraguay with the election of former Bishop Fernando

    2008年,巴拉圭發生了另一次鉅變,前主教費爾南多-卡洛斯(Fernando)當選為總統。

  • Lugo to the presidency, making him the first President in 61 years to not be a member of

    盧戈成為總統,使他成為61年來的第一位不屬於美國政府成員的總統。

  • Stroessner's Colorado party.

    斯特羅斯納的科羅拉多派對。

  • One of many leftist leaders to rise to power in South America in the 2000s, Lugo promised

    盧戈是2000年代在南美洲上臺的許多左派領導人之一,他承諾

  • changes when it came to how the government treated its indigenous citizens - and to carry

    當涉及到政府如何對待其土著公民時,要進行改變--並進行

  • out those changes, he needed a strong Minister of Indigenous Affairs.

    為了實現這些變化,他需要一個強有力的土著事務部長。

  • Lugo was determined it wouldn't be business as usual - and he had an unconventional idea

    盧戈決定不會像往常一樣做生意--他有一個非常規的想法

  • for the role.

    的角色。

  • The appointment of Margarita Mbywangi as a government minister came as a surprise to

    瑪格麗特-姆比旺吉被任命為政府部長,這讓人感到驚訝。

  • many.

    很多。

  • While she was a prominent figure in the fight for the rights of the Ache, she had never

    雖然她是為阿切人爭取權利的傑出人物,但她從未

  • held any government position before and was not a prominent member of the party.

    之前擔任過任何政府職務,也不是黨內的重要成員。

  • But she quickly went to work despite the controversy, spending her tenure advocating for increased

    但是,儘管存在爭議,她很快就開始了工作,在任期內倡導提高

  • land rights for the Ache, conservation of Paraguay's forests, better access to food

    阿奇人的土地權,保護巴拉圭的森林,更好地獲得食物。

  • and water, and the rights of indigenous people worldwide.

  • Her tenure came to an end in 2011 when she was pressured to step down - only a year before

    她的任期於2011年結束,當時她在壓力下下臺--僅在一年前

  • Lugo would be removed from office in a controversial impeachment.

    盧戈將在一場有爭議的彈劾中被免職。

  • Her time in the government was over - but her voice would not be silenced.

    她在政府的時間已經結束--但她的聲音不會被壓制。

  • Mbywangi's profile had been raised massively by her position in Lugo's government, and

    姆比旺吉在盧戈政府中的地位大大提升了她的形象,並且

  • she spoke all around the world before powerful organizations like the World Land Trust.

    她在世界各地向世界土地信託基金等強大的組織發言。

  • Of special concern to her was the welfare of the remaining uncontacted tribes around

    她特別關注的是周圍剩餘的未接觸過的部落的福利。

  • the world.

    世界。

  • Even into the 21st century, there are around a hundred remaining tribes of uncontacted

    即使到了21世紀,仍有大約100個未接觸過人類的部落。

  • peoples, most of whom have only been seen by neighboring tribes or by video footage

    他們中的大多數人只在鄰近的部落或錄像中見過。

  • from the air.

    從空氣中。

  • While they exist in India and New Guinea, as well as around South America, one location

    雖然它們存在於印度和新幾內亞,以及南美各地,但有一個地方

  • plays host to more than half of the world's uncontacted tribes.

    世界上一半以上的未接觸的部落都在這裡。

  • And it just happens to be one of the most ecologically diverse locations on Earth.

    而它恰好是地球上生態最多樣化的地方之一。

  • Divided between nine nations and containing over 3,000 indigenous territories, the Amazon

    亞馬遜河被9個國家分割,包含3000多個土著領地。

  • rainforest is home to millions of species, including one in five bird species worldwide.

    雨林是數百萬物種的家園,包括全世界五分之一的鳥類物種。

  • While the vast majority of species in the Amazon are insects, it contains over 100,000

    雖然亞馬遜的絕大多數物種都是昆蟲,但它包含了超過100,000個物種。

  • vertebrate species.

    脊椎動物物種。

  • But they, and the people who make it their home, are threatened by increased development.

    但是,它們和以其為家的人們受到了越來越多的發展的威脅。

  • While the laws governing the rights of indigenous people are better than they were at the time

    雖然有關土著人民權利的法律比當時要好一些

  • Margarita Mbywangi was taken from her family, the pro-development government of Brazil has

    瑪格麗特-姆比萬吉被從她的家庭帶走,巴西支持發展的政府已經

  • many activists for the Amazon worried.

    許多活動家為亞馬遜的發展擔憂。

  • Margarita's fight continues - and so does the story of the Ache people.

    瑪格麗特的鬥爭在繼續--阿奇人的故事也在繼續。

  • The government has given increased sovereignty to the Ache, returning to the Northern Ache

    政府賦予阿奇族更多的主權,將其歸還給北阿奇族。

  • a forest reserve in 1991.

    1991年成為森林保護區。

  • There are currently six Ache communities recognized by the government, and while they are small

    目前有六個阿奇社區得到了政府的認可,雖然它們規模不大

  • in number, they are one of the fastest-growing indigenous communities in Paraguay.

    在數量上,他們是巴拉圭增長最快的土著社區之一。

  • While they struggle against harassment and incursions from locals including those seeking

    他們在與當地人的騷擾和入侵作鬥爭的同時,包括那些尋求

  • to claim their land, they continue to fight for their rights - including both fending

    他們繼續為自己的權利而戰--包括抵禦外來入侵。

  • off landless peasants with bows and arrows, and filing a claim of genocide against the

    用弓箭射殺沒有土地的農民,並提出了一個針對種族滅絕的索賠。

  • Stroessner regime with an Argentinian court in 2014.

    斯特羅斯納政權在2014年與阿根廷法院的合作。

  • The Ache's isolation from Paraguay's larger society may have ended, but their actions

    阿奇家族與巴拉圭大社會的隔絕可能已經結束,但他們的行為

  • since have proven that whether using an ancient weapon or a modern court filing, they're

    以來,已經證明無論是使用古代武器還是現代法庭文件,他們都

  • not ready to let the modern world eliminate their way of life.

    不準備讓現代世界消除他們的生活方式。

  • For more on the most isolated citizens of the world, check outUncontacted Tribe

    關於世界上最與世隔絕的公民的更多資訊,請查看《未接觸的部落》。

  • With Only One Member - Man of the Hole”, or watch this video instead.

    只有一個成員--洞中人",或者觀看這個視頻。

You and your people have long eked out a humble living off the land in your isolated corner

你和你的人民長期以來一直在你那與世隔絕的角落裡靠土地勉強維持生計。

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當隱藏的叢林部落遇到現代世界會發生什麼? (What Happens When Hidden Jungle Tribe Meets the Modern World)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 21 日
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