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  • There is no doubt that China is one of the most powerful countries in the world today.

    毫無疑問,中國是當今世界上最強大的國家之一。

  • To some, China's rise to power has been nerve-racking.

    對一些人來說,中國的崛起讓人感到緊張。

  • Yet, China has always been powerful and influential, and in the grand scheme of human history,

    然而,中國一直很強大,很有影響力,在人類歷史的大計劃中也是如此。

  • China being an economic and cultural powerhouse has actually been the norm.

    中國作為一個經濟和文化強國,實際上已經是一種常態。

  • So let's take a look at the evolution of China and why it may be on track to be the

    是以,讓我們來看看中國的演變,以及為什麼它可能正在成為中國的一個重要組成部分。

  • world's next number one superpower.

    世界的下一個頭號超級大國。

  • If you want to understand why things are the way they are today, you have to understand

    如果你想了解為什麼事情會變成今天這個樣子,你必須瞭解

  • the past.

    過去。

  • The Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world.

    中國文化是世界上最古老的文化之一。

  • And like today, the ancient Chinese were builders.

    和今天一樣,古代中國人也是建設者。

  • Construction projects on a massive scale are being built right now, putting millions of

    現在正在建設大規模的建築項目,將數以百萬計的

  • Chinese citizens to work, and over 2000 years ago, China was doing the same thing.

    中國公民工作,而2000多年前,中國也在做同樣的事情。

  • Although there was definitely more slave labor being used in the past.

    雖然在過去肯定有更多的奴隸勞動被使用。

  • One of the most famous construction projects of ancient times started at the beginning

    古代最著名的建築項目之一開始於

  • of Chinese history.

    中國的歷史。

  • Qin Shihuangdi had unified much of the Chinese heartland between 221 and 206 BC, and it was

    秦始皇帝在公元前221年至公元前206年期間統一了中國的大部分腹地,它是

  • during this time that construction began on the first Great Wall of China.

    在這一時期,中國的第一條長城開始建造。

  • The period following Qin Shihuangdi's rule was considered the first Golden Age of the

    秦始皇帝統治之後的時期被認為是中國的第一個黃金時代。

  • region.

    地區。

  • Between 206 BC and 220 AD, China saw huge leaps in economic growth and its culture spread.

    公元前206年至公元220年間,中國的經濟增長出現了巨大的飛躍,其文化也得到了傳播。

  • Approximately 400 years later—a relatively short time in the scheme of thingsthe second

    大約400年後--在事物的發展過程中相對較短的時間--第二次

  • Golden Age of China began and it extended its sphere of its influence all the way into

    中國的黃金時代開始了,它的影響範圍一直擴展到

  • central Asia.

    中亞。

  • Just like with all empires, change in power was something to be expected.

    就像所有帝國一樣,權力的變化是可以預期的。

  • By the 13th century, the Mongols had conquered China and united much of the country under

    到了13世紀,蒙古人征服了中國,並將中國的大部分地區統一到了蒙古國。

  • their rule.

    他們的統治。

  • During this time, Beijing became the capital, and Westerners such as Marco Polo visited

    在這一時期,北京成為首都,馬可-波羅等西方人訪問了北京。

  • the country.

    國家。

  • This marked the starting point of contact between China and the West, which eventually

    這標誌著中國和西方之間接觸的起點,最終

  • evolved into prosperous trading relationships and the exchange of ideas, but also led to

    逐漸演變成繁榮的貿易關係和思想交流,但也導致了

  • death and destruction when the Mongols swept across the Asian continent and invaded Europe.

    當蒙古人橫掃亞洲大陸併入侵歐洲時,死亡和毀滅。

  • In 1368 the Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongols and took control of the country, and China

    1368年,明朝推翻了蒙古人的統治,控制了國家,中國

  • moved away from warfare and conquest to start focusing on the country itself.

    擺脫了戰爭和征服,開始關注國家本身。

  • China's economy ramped up due to high agricultural output, the bureaucracy and military were

    由於農業產量高,中國的經濟發展速度加快,官僚機構和軍隊的發展速度加快。

  • centralized, and the Great Wall of China was completed.

    中央集權,中國的長城已經完成。

  • We often forget that when learning about other countries, we are taught about them through

    我們常常忘記,在瞭解其他國家時,我們是通過以下方式瞭解它們的

  • the lens of our own culture.

    在我們自己文化的鏡頭下。

  • For people living in theWestern World,” the history curriculum in school rarely touches

    對於生活在 "西方世界 "的人來說,學校的歷史課程很少觸及

  • on the achievements or cultures of Asian countries.

    關於亞洲國家的成就或文化。

  • Make no mistake, just because China's early power and influence aren't often taught

    不要誤會,只是因為中國早期的實力和影響力並不經常被教導

  • or talked about that does not mean they didn't happen.

    或談及,並不意味著它們沒有發生。

  • China's past was full of advancements and economic growth, something that continues

    中國的過去充滿了進步和經濟增長,這種情況一直在持續。

  • to this day.

    直到今天。

  • We know of Chinese influence in the ancient past from written records and archaeological

    我們從書面記錄和考古學中瞭解到中國在古代的影響。

  • data.

    數據。

  • As we move closer to the present, we have even more information about the chain of events,

    當我們接近現在時,我們有更多關於這一系列事件的資訊。

  • which led to China becoming one of the most powerful nations on the planet.

    這導致中國成為地球上最強大的國家之一。

  • By the 19th century, Western powers had colonized many parts of the world, including Asia.

    到19世紀,西方列強已經在世界許多地方進行了殖民統治,包括亞洲。

  • China had been in a long decline, and the unequal treaties negotiated by European powers

    中國曾長期處於衰落狀態,歐洲列強談判的不平等條約

  • had crippled the Chinese economy even further.

    導致中國經濟進一步癱瘓。

  • This led to the destabilization of the government, allowing regional warlords to rise to power.

    這導致了政府的不穩定,使地區軍閥得以上臺。

  • During the 19th and early 20th century, events were set in motion that would lead to modern-day

    在19世紀和20世紀初,發生了一些事件,導致了現代的

  • China.

    中國。

  • It was a time of bloodshed and oppression in the country.

    那是一個國家充滿血腥和壓迫的時代。

  • Foreign intervention in the affairs of China led to the exploitation of its government

    外國對中國事務的干預導致了對中國政府的剝削

  • and peoples, which led to massive amounts of poverty.

    和人民,這導致了大量的貧困。

  • Along with Russia and Japan, Western countries exploited China and forced the government

    與俄羅斯和日本一起,西方國家剝削中國,強迫政府

  • into giving concessions while simultaneously weakening the country's ruling body.

    迫使他們做出讓步,同時削弱國家的統治機構。

  • Then in 1931, Japan invaded China.

    然後在1931年,日本入侵中國。

  • Over the next decade, they occupied more and more Chinese land.

    在接下來的十年裡,他們佔據了越來越多的中國土地。

  • In 1937 the different factions within China united to fight back against the Japanese

    1937年,中國國內的不同派別聯合起來,共同抗擊日本。

  • annexation of their country.

    吞併他們的國家。

  • Finally, the Chinese took back their lands but immediately fell into civil war, and whoever

    最後,中國人奪回了他們的土地,但立即陷入了內戰,而不管是誰

  • won would rule the country.

    贏得的將是對國家的統治。

  • China had gone through decades of struggle to regain its land and power.

    中國經歷了幾十年的鬥爭,重新獲得了土地和權力。

  • In 1949, Mao Zedong, the leader of the Communist Party of China, was victorious over the opposing

    1949年,中國共產黨的領導人毛澤東戰勝了反對派。

  • Nationalist side during the civil war.

    內戰期間,國民黨方面。

  • The foundation of modern-day China had finally begun.

    現代中國的基礎終於開始了。

  • It is essential not to forget everything that led up to this point.

    至關重要的是,不要忘記導致這一點的一切。

  • The idea of China's power and influence in the past was still ingrained in the country's

    中國過去的實力和影響力的想法仍然根深蒂固地存在於該國的

  • cultural history.

    文化歷史。

  • The memories of the oppression and exploitation of China by Western nations and their allies

    對西方國家及其盟友壓迫和剝削中國的記憶

  • were also still fresh in the collective consciousness of the Chinese people.

    在中國人民的集體意識中,也仍然是新鮮的。

  • And the longing to return to a time where China's power and economic strength were

    而渴望回到中國的國力和經濟實力的時代,則是

  • respected was a driving force for the decisions made by the new Communist government.

    尊重是共產黨新政府決策的推動力。

  • In 1958 Mao launched theGreat Leap Forward,” a five-year economic plan that was meant to

    1958年,毛澤東發起了 "大躍進",這是一個為期五年的經濟計劃,目的是為了

  • lift the Chinese people out of poverty and jumpstart the country's economy.

    使中國人民擺脫貧困並啟動國家經濟。

  • It was supposed to collectivize farming and introduce labor-intensive industries.

    它本應使農業集體化,並引入勞動密集型工業。

  • As with all economic plans, not everyone would benefit, and the plan ended up being a complete

    就像所有的經濟計劃一樣,並不是每個人都會受益,而這個計劃最終是一個完整的

  • failure.

    失敗。

  • However, the move towards revitalizing the Chinese economy persisted.

    然而,振興中國經濟的行動仍在繼續。

  • Mao's follow-up plan was theCultural Revolution,” which lasted ten years and

    毛澤東的後續計劃是 "文化大革命",它持續了十年,並且

  • changed the country's political and ideological systems.

    改變了國家的政治和意識形態體系。

  • It was a way to inspire a revolutionary spirit in the people, which it did, but not in the

    這是在人民中激發革命精神的一種方式,它做到了,但不是在

  • way Mao had intended.

    毛澤東打算的方式。

  • The masses protested, causing disruptions in the economic, social, and political systems

    民眾抗議,造成經濟、社會和政治系統的混亂

  • of China.

    中國的。

  • This primed the country for extreme changes.

    這為國家的極端變化做好了準備。

  • When Mao died in 1976, he was succeeded by Deng Xiaoping.

    1976年,毛澤東去世,由鄧小平繼任。

  • His main goal was to start China on a path to economic reform that would make the country

    他的主要目標是讓中國開始走上經濟改革的道路,使國家

  • wealthy and influential in the growing world economy.

    在不斷增長的世界經濟中,富裕並具有影響力。

  • Xiaoping knew that to ramp up the economy, the country needed a healthy workforce.

    小平知道,為了提升經濟,國家需要一個健康的勞動力。

  • Population growth in China had exploded, which meant there were plenty of workers, but the

    中國的人口增長呈爆炸性增長,這意味著有大量的工人,但

  • resources required to support so many people were lacking.

    支持如此多的人所需的資源是缺乏的。

  • In response to this, the government imposed a one-child policy to try and curb population

    作為迴應,政府實施了獨生子女政策,試圖遏制人口。

  • growth.

    增長。

  • The government also granted peasants the right to farm their own plots of land instead of

    政府還授予農民耕種自己的土地的權利,而不是讓他們耕種自己的土地。

  • relying solely on the communist distribution system.

    完全依靠共產主義分配製度。

  • These changes resulted in improved living standards and decreased the number of food

    這些變化導致了生活水準的提高,並減少了食物的數量。

  • shortages.

    短缺。

  • Xiaoping also started China's “open-door policy,” which now allowed diplomatic relations

    小平還啟動了中國的 "門戶開放政策",現在允許外交關係

  • to resume and foreign investments to begin within the country.

    爭取恢復,並在國內開始外國投資。

  • It also provided other nations access to China's very large yet very cheap labor workforce.

    它還為其他國家提供了接觸中國非常龐大但非常廉價的勞動力的機會。

  • All of these things combined led to an enormous amount of money being poured into China, setting

    所有這些事情結合在一起,導致大量的資金湧入中國,為中國的發展奠定了基礎。

  • the country up to become one of the largest economies in the world.

    該國已成為世界上最大的經濟體之一。

  • China was gaining massive amounts of wealth and influence through relations with different

    中國通過與不同國家的關係獲得了大量的財富和影響力。

  • governments and corporations around the world.

    世界各地的政府和公司。

  • Theopen-door policyalso allowed the development of a market economy and private

    開放政策 "也使市場經濟和私營企業得以發展。

  • business sectors.

    商業部門。

  • But just like when wealth and growth come to any country, the average citizen does not

    但就像當財富和增長來到任何國家時,普通公民並沒有

  • always benefit.

    始終受益。

  • Corruption in the government ran rampant and influential leaders were getting wealthy from

    政府中的腐敗現象十分猖獗,有影響力的領導人從以下方面獲得財富

  • the economic boom, but poverty and cultural shifts led to protests around China.

    經濟繁榮,但貧窮和文化的轉變導致了中國各地的抗議活動。

  • This culminated in the Tiananmen Square massacre.

    這在天安門廣場大屠殺中達到了頂峰。

  • International outrage led to sanctions on China, but this did not stop the economic

    國際社會的憤怒導致了對中國的制裁,但這並沒有阻止經濟發展。

  • engine that had already been set in motion.

    已經啟動的引擎。

  • In 1989, stock markets opened in Shanghai and Shenzhen leading to even more economic

    1989年,上海和深圳的股票市場開放,導致了更多的經濟增長。

  • growth.

    增長。

  • Three years later Russia and China signed a declaration restoring cooperation between

    三年後,俄羅斯和中國簽署了一項聲明,恢復了兩國之間的合作。

  • the two countries, which allowed for further economic opportunities for China.

    這使中國有了更多的經濟機會。

  • In that same year, the International Monetary Fund ranked China as the third-largest economy

    同年,國際貨幣基金組織將中國列為第三大經濟體。

  • in the world after the United States and Japan.

    在世界範圍內僅次於美國和日本。

  • It wouldn't be long until they moved even further up in the rankings.

    用不了多久,他們的排名就會進一步上升。

  • On October 1st, 1999, the country celebrated its fiftieth anniversary as the People's

    1999年10月1日,該國慶祝了其作為人民代表大會的五十週年。

  • Republic of China.

    中華民國。

  • The following year the government cracked down on corruption with public executions.

    第二年,政府以公開處決的方式打擊了腐敗。

  • Not everyone agreed with the methods of the People's Republic, but the power that they

    不是所有人都同意人民共和國的方法,但他們的權力

  • wielded allowed for swift change and few actual repercussions.

    揮舞的武器允許迅速的改變,而實際的反響卻很少。

  • In 2001, China met with Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to

    2001年,中國與俄羅斯、哈薩克斯坦、吉爾吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦和烏茲別克斯坦舉行會議,以

  • create the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

    創建上海合作組織。

  • The mission of this new alliance was to combat ethnic and religious militancy in the countries.

    這個新聯盟的任務是打擊各國的民族和宗教好戰行為。

  • Of even more significant benefit to China though, was the agreement which promoted trade

    不過,對中國來說,更重要的是促進貿易的協議。

  • and investment between the countries.

    國家之間的投資。

  • With economic opportunity looming around every corner, China took the next step in expanding

    隨著經濟機會在每個角落隱現,中國採取了下一步措施,擴大

  • its power and influence by joining the World Trade Organization.

    通過加入世界貿易組織,它的權力和影響力。

  • This allowed for negotiations with other countries to lower trade barriers and tariffs on Chinese

    這使得我們能夠與其他國家進行談判,以降低對中國的貿易壁壘和關稅。

  • goods.

    貨物。

  • With fewer restrictions, and the ability to trade worldwide more efficiently, the Chinese

    隨著限制的減少,以及能夠更有效地在世界範圍內進行貿易,中國的

  • economy grew faster than ever.

    經濟增長比以往更快。

  • Many people still lived in poverty though, and the government continuously turned a blind

    然而,許多人仍然生活在貧困之中,而政府則繼續視而不見。

  • eye to unlawful working conditions.

    眼於非法的工作條件。

  • Some workers were even treated as slaves or paid an unlivable wage.

    一些工人甚至被當作奴隸對待,或被支付無法生存的工資。

  • This allowed Chinese companies to make and sell products at lower and lower prices while

    這使得中國公司能夠以越來越低的價格生產和銷售產品,同時

  • still making enormous profits.

    仍在賺取鉅額利潤。

  • As the economy grew, more resources could be spent on other government projects like

    隨著經濟的增長,更多的資源可以用在其他政府項目上,如

  • military and space programs.

    軍事和空間項目。

  • In 2003 China launched its first crewed spacecraft.

    2003年,中國發射了其第一個載人航天器。

  • Two years after that, China and Russia conducted their first joint military exercises.

    此後兩年,中國和俄羅斯進行了首次聯合軍事演習。

  • With a powerful ally in Russia and several free trade agreements with other countries

    擁有俄羅斯這個強大的盟友,並與其他國家簽訂了若干自由貿易協定

  • in the region, China gained more and more power.

    在該地區,中國獲得了越來越多的權力。

  • While expanding its global influence, China also has been constructing cities and internal

    在擴大其全球影響力的同時,中國也一直在建設城市和內部環境。

  • renovation projects that created jobs and cash flow for its citizens.

    翻新項目,為其公民創造就業機會和現金流。

  • In 2006 China finished building the world's largest hydroelectric dam called the Three

    2006年,中國完成了世界上最大的水力發電大壩--三峽工程的建設。

  • Gorges Dam.

    高爾基大壩。

  • Later that year, China met with African leaders for the China-Africa summit in Beijing.

    同年晚些時候,中國與非洲領導人在北京舉行了中非峰會。

  • Around 2 billion dollars in business deals were agreed upon in exchange for loans and

    約有20億美元的商業交易被商定,以換取貸款和

  • credit from China.

    來自中國的信貸。

  • This only furthered China's economic power and gave them leverage in the future.

    這只是進一步增強了中國的經濟實力,使他們在未來有了籌碼。

  • With the industrialization of China, its numerous large-scale construction projects, and the

    隨著中國的工業化,其眾多的大型建設項目,以及

  • desire to keep its economy going, concerns about public and environmental health had

    為了保持經濟發展,對公眾和環境健康的擔憂已經影響到我們的生活。

  • fallen to the wayside.

    淪落到如此地步。

  • The government acknowledged that pollution in the country had reached critical levels

    政府承認,該國的汙染已經達到了關鍵水準

  • and that new policies would be implemented to deal with the problem.

    並表示將實施新的政策來處理這個問題。

  • However, this did not stop the economic drive of the country.

    然而,這並沒有阻止國家的經濟動力。

  • The government continued to pour money into technology and the military.

    政府繼續將資金投入到技術和軍事領域。

  • China tested long-range missiles and even shot down an old weather satellite in space,

    中國測試了遠程飛彈,甚至在太空中擊落了一顆古老的氣象衛星。

  • showing the world that they now had missiles capable of hitting targets in orbit.

    向世界展示,他們現在擁有能夠打擊軌道上目標的飛彈。

  • In 2008 as the global economy slowed down, the Chinese government announced a 586 billion

    2008年,隨著全球經濟的放緩,中國政府宣佈了一項586億的

  • dollar stimulus package to ensure their economic growth wouldn't stall.

    美元的經濟刺激計劃,以確保其經濟增長不會停滯。

  • To secure the resources they needed, China signed a 25 billion dollar deal with Russia

    為了確保他們所需的資源,中國與俄羅斯簽署了一項250億美元的協議

  • making sure that the country has enough oil for the next 20 years.

    確保國家在未來20年內有足夠的石油。

  • In 2010 China became the world's largest exporter, and the following year China overtook Japan

    2010年,中國成為世界上最大的出口國,次年,中國超過了日本。

  • as the world's second-largest economy.

    作為世界第二大經濟體。

  • And even after China overtook Japan, it continued to grow its economy until 2014, at which point,

    而且,即使在中國超過日本之後,它的經濟仍在繼續增長,直到2014年,這時。

  • things finally started to slow down.

    事情終於開始放緩。

  • China's economy is still growing, but not at the incredible rate that it had been over

    中國的經濟仍然在增長,但不是像過去那樣以令人難以置信的速度增長。

  • the previous decade.

    在過去的十年裡。

  • Thanks to a strong economy and a government with absolute authority, China grew into one

    由於強大的經濟和擁有絕對權威的政府,中國成長為一個

  • of the most powerful nations in the world.

    世界上最強大的國家之一。

  • But this is not surprising, as even in the past, China was incredibly influential.

    但這並不令人驚訝,因為即使在過去,中國也有令人難以置信的影響力。

  • They had the workforce to ramp up their economy, and once they switched from isolationist policies

    他們有勞動力來提升他們的經濟,而且一旦他們從孤立主義政策轉為

  • to joining the global economy, there was very little that could stop China's progress.

    到加入全球經濟,幾乎沒有什麼能阻止中國的進步。

  • The economic gains made by China did pull hundreds of millions of people out of poverty

    中國取得的經濟成果確實使數以億計的人擺脫了貧困

  • but at the expense of polluted air and unsafe working conditions.

    但代價是汙染的空氣和不安全的工作條件。

  • Whether your political ideology is for or against the way China runs its country, there

    無論你的政治意識形態是支持還是反對中國的國家管理方式,有

  • is no denying that there were benefits from the reforms and economic policies they implemented.

    不可否認,他們實施的改革和經濟政策是有好處的。

  • Education rates have gone up drastically, and it is estimated that by 2030 the same

    教育率急劇上升,據估計,到2030年,相同的

  • percentage of Chinese workers will have a university degree as countries in Europe have

    中國工人中擁有大學學位的比例將與歐洲國家一樣。

  • today.

    今天。

  • However, many poor rural communities in the country have low skill levels and an aging

    然而,該國許多貧窮的農村社區技能水準低下,老齡化嚴重。

  • workforce.

    勞動力。

  • But this is also true in other economically advanced countries around the world.

    但在世界其他經濟發達的國家也是如此。

  • China became powerful by taking a different path than Western countries, and now with

    中國通過採取與西方國家不同的道路而變得強大,而現在隨著

  • a thriving economy comes the ability to have a strong military and loan out money to other

    蓬勃發展的經濟意味著有能力擁有一支強大的軍隊並向其他國家貸款。

  • countries, which can be used as leverage in the future.

    國家,這可以在未來作為槓桿。

  • It is no surprise that after a time of relatively low economic and cultural output during European

    不足為奇的是,在經歷了一個經濟和文化產出相對較低的時期後,在歐洲

  • colonization, China would eventually return to its norm as being one of the most powerful

    中國最終將恢復其作為最強大的國家之一的常態。

  • countries in the world, a position it has held for much of its multi-thousand-year history.

    在其數千年的歷史中,它一直保持著這一地位。

  • Now check outReal Reason Why China Wants To Expand.”

    現在看看 "中國想要擴張的真正原因"。

  • Or watchChina vs United States (USA) - Who Would Win?

    或觀看《中國對美國--誰會贏?

  • 2020 Military / Army Comparison

    2020年軍事/軍隊比較"

There is no doubt that China is one of the most powerful countries in the world today.

毫無疑問,中國是當今世界上最強大的國家之一。

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中國如何演變為如此強大的國家 (How China Evolved to Become So Powerful)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 18 日
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