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  • August 21, 1986.

    1986年8月21日。

  • A man named Joseph shakes himself out of a haze.

    一個叫約瑟夫的人把自己從陰霾中搖醒。

  • His head is thumping.

    他的頭在砰砰作響。

  • He's almost delirious.

    他幾乎是神志不清了。

  • His nostrils are filled with the most noxious smell.

    他的鼻孔裡充滿了最令人厭惡的氣味。

  • He tries to say something, but words won't come out of his mouth.

    他想說點什麼,但話到嘴邊卻說不出來。

  • He surveys his body.

    他打量著自己的身體。

  • It's stained red and covered in painful blisters.

    它被染成紅色,上面佈滿了痛苦的水泡。

  • Before he can assess what's happened, he loses consciousness.

    在他能夠評估所發生的事情之前,他失去了意識。

  • He wakes up again and walks into his daughter's room.

    他再次醒來,走進他女兒的房間。

  • She's already departed from this world.

    她已經離開了這個世界。

  • With eyes filled with tears, he slowly walks over to his neighbor's house.

    他的眼睛裡充滿了淚水,慢慢地走到他的鄰居家。

  • All of them are dead.

    所有的人都死了。

  • In every house in the village, he finds nothing but death.

    在村裡的每間房子裡,他除了發現死亡之外,什麼都沒有。

  • Riding on his motorcycle outside of the village he sees no sign of life.

    他在村外騎著摩托車,沒有看到任何生命跡象。

  • People he knew, even the animals in the fields: all of them are dead.

    他認識的人,甚至田裡的動物:都已經死了。

  • This was one of the worst natural disasters ever to befall mankind, and the worrying thing

    這是人類有史以來最嚴重的自然災害之一,而令人擔憂的是

  • is, it could happen again.

    是,它可能再次發生。

  • Let's now go back to the start, early evening close to Lake Nyos in northwestern Cameroon.

    現在讓我們回到起點,傍晚時分,靠近喀麥隆西北部的尼奧斯湖。

  • Nothing is out of the ordinary, there are no signs of what's about to come.

    沒有什麼是不正常的,沒有任何跡象表明即將到來的事情。

  • Like on any other evening, Joseph is preparing dinner.

    像其他任何一個晚上一樣,約瑟夫正在準備晚餐。

  • His daughter is outside playing with her dog.

    他的女兒正在外面和她的狗玩耍。

  • The villagers are cooking their meals, smokes from fires billows above their huts.

    村民們正在做飯,火堆的煙氣在他們的小屋上方飄蕩。

  • Just after 9 pm, some of them swear they can hear a strange rumbling sound.

    晚上9點剛過,他們中的一些人發誓,他們能聽到一種奇怪的隆隆聲。

  • Many people are already asleep, their bellies full, unaware that they're having the last

    許多人已經睡著了,他們的肚子飽了,不知道他們正在吃最後的

  • dreams they'll ever have.

    他們將有的夢想。

  • In just moments to come, they will be dead, as will just about any other living thing.

    在接下來的時間裡,他們將和其他任何生物一樣,都將死去。

  • Not far away at the lake, the rumbling stops for a while, and then whoosh, a massive jet

    在不遠處的湖邊,轟隆隆的聲音停了一會兒,然後嗖的一聲,一架巨大的噴氣機

  • of water some 300 feet high (91 meters) sprays into the air.

    約300英尺高(91米)的水噴到空中。

  • This has never happened before, at least not for a long, long time.

    這種情況以前從未發生過,至少在很長、很長的時間內沒有。

  • This serene lake, which the locals rely on for their drinking water, has a dark secret

    這個寧靜的湖泊是當地人賴以生存的飲用水,但它有一個黑暗的祕密

  • no one is aware of.

    沒有人知道。

  • When that jet of water rose into the air it brought with it carbon dioxide that had been

    當水柱上升到空氣中時,它帶來了二氧化碳,而這些二氧化碳已經在空氣中擴散。

  • building up in the lake for maybe a thousand years.

    積累在湖中可能有一千年了。

  • The gas formed a huge cloud, as wide as a football field, and it moved towards those

    這些氣體形成了一個巨大的雲,有一個足球場那麼寬,它向那些

  • villagers at a velocity that made it almost inescapable.

    村民們以一種幾乎無法逃避的速度前進。

  • When it arrived at the huts in those villages, it wrapped around those people like a cloak

    當它到達那些村莊的小屋時,它像斗篷一樣包裹著那些人。

  • of death, there was nothing they could do.

    他們也無能為力。

  • With only carbon dioxide to breathe, they passed out and died fairly quickly from suffocation.

    由於只有二氧化碳可供呼吸,他們昏了過去,很快因窒息而死。

  • Some people survived, but not many.

    有些人活了下來,但不是很多。

  • Joseph, who is very much a real person, was one of those survivors.

    約瑟夫是一個非常真實的人,他是這些倖存者中的一員。

  • He woke up at one point but then collapsed again.

    他一度醒過來,但隨後又倒下了。

  • He recalled seeing red on his trousers, his body covered in what he called a “starchy

    他回憶說,他看到自己的褲子上有紅色的東西,他的身體上覆蓋著他稱之為 "澱粉狀 "的東西。

  • mess”.

    混亂"。

  • Later in an interview, he said, “I wanted to speak, my breath would not come out.”

    後來在一次採訪中,他說:"我想說話,我的呼吸就不出來了。"

  • He wasn't even in the worst-hit village, which was one of the reasons why he survived.

    他甚至不在受災最嚴重的村子裡,這是他活下來的原因之一。

  • After seeing his daughter lifeless and then seeing how most of the village was dead, he

    在看到他的女兒沒有生命跡象,然後看到村子裡大多數人都死了之後,他

  • got on his motorbike and headed over to the village of Wum.

    他騎上摩托車,向伍姆村走去。

  • This is what he said about that perilous journey: “I didn't see any sign of any living thing

    這是他對那段危險的旅程的評價。"我沒有看到任何活物的跡象

  • ... When I got to Wum, I was unable to walk, even to talk ... my body was completely weak.”

    ...當我到達烏姆時,我無法行走,甚至無法說話......我的身體完全虛弱。"

  • When he arrived there he was met with utter devastation he could not ever have imagined

    當他到達那裡時,他遇到的是他無法想象的徹底的破壞

  • in his worst nightmare.

    在他最糟糕的噩夢中。

  • Death everywhere, people were just lying in the road, collapsed over fences; dead cows

    到處都是死亡,人們只是躺在路上,倒在柵欄上;死牛

  • in the hundreds were lying in the fields.

    數以百計的人躺在田裡。

  • Chickens, pet dogs, all just lying on the ground not breathing.

    雞、寵物狗,都只是躺在地上沒有呼吸。

  • Still, in a few of the huts there were some people still breathing, but only just.

    不過,在幾間小屋中,仍有一些人仍在呼吸,但只是在呼吸。

  • Some of them would wake up in a day or two, only to find every single member of their

    他們中的一些人在一兩天內就會醒來,卻發現他們的每一個成員都在

  • family had passed away.

    妻子和兒子都已去世。

  • It seemed impossible, and we guess to a western audience, something straight out of an apocalyptic

    這似乎是不可能的,我們猜測對西方觀眾來說,這是直接來自於世界末日的事情。

  • movie.

    電影。

  • Word soon got to western scientists- nobody had heard of a catastrophic event of such

    消息很快傳到西方科學家那裡--沒有人聽說過這樣的災難性事件。

  • magnitude.

    幅度。

  • Just what had happened?

    究竟發生了什麼?

  • Soon newspaper headlines read things like, “Aid, and scientists, flow into Cameroon.”

    很快,報紙頭條寫道:"援助和科學家流入喀麥隆"。

  • Teams of experts from North American and Europe booked their flights, hoping they might solve

    來自北美和歐洲的專家團隊預訂了他們的班機,希望他們能解決

  • this mystery of this mass death.

    這個大規模死亡的奧祕。

  • Why would so many people just die and there not be any clear sign of what did it?

    為什麼這麼多人就這麼死了,而且沒有任何明確的跡象表明是什麼造成的?

  • It seemed at first to be what is calledoutgassing.”

    起初,這似乎是所謂的 "放氣"。

  • This is when gas has been trapped and it suddenly gets released.

    這是指氣體被困住後突然被釋放。

  • But what happened at Lake Nyos isn't common at all, in fact, it was a strange thing indeed,

    但在尼奧斯湖發生的事情一點都不常見,事實上,這確實是一件奇怪的事情。

  • the worst of its kind in recorded history.

    這是有史以來最糟糕的一次。

  • The scientists first had to understand just what had come out of the lake and what had

    科學家們首先必須瞭解從湖裡出來的是什麼東西,以及什麼東西是什麼。

  • made that water spray into the air with such violence.

    使得水以如此暴力的方式噴射到空中。

  • They lowered containers into the lake so they might check just what was in the water.

    他們把容器放進湖裡,以便檢查水裡有什麼。

  • They were shocked to find that when they pulled some of those containers to the top, the lids

    他們震驚地發現,當他們把其中一些容器拉到頂部時,蓋子

  • blew off.

    吹掉了。

  • What was certain is that there was so much carbon dioxide in the water that it created

    可以肯定的是,水裡有如此多的二氧化碳,以至於它產生了

  • enough pressure to cause the lids to blow.

    足夠的壓力導致蓋子爆炸。

  • What had happened at the lake, they agreed, was a “limnic eruption.”

    他們一致認為,在湖邊發生的事情是 "石灰性噴發"。

  • This is when dissolved carbon dioxide is somehow displaced from the bottom of a lake, and as

    這是當溶解的二氧化碳以某種方式從湖底移出,作為

  • happened in this case, a large cloud of gas moves through the air, killing most living

    在這種情況下,一大團氣體在空氣中移動,殺死了大多數生物。

  • things in its path.

    在它的道路上的東西。

  • Everything caught in its wake suffocates in such a case.

    在這種情況下,所有被它追上的東西都會窒息。

  • The human death toll was almost 1,800, with over 3,500 livestock dying, all in an area

    死亡人數近1800人,3500多頭牲畜死亡,所有這些都發生在一個地區。

  • of 16 miles (25 km) of the lake.

    的16英里(25公里)的湖泊。

  • These events are incredibly rare, but it had happened before, again in Cameroon, at Lake

    這些事件是非常罕見的,但以前也發生過,還是在喀麥隆,在湖邊。

  • Monoun in 1984.

    1984年,莫努恩。

  • That time, 37 people died.

    那次,有37人死亡。

  • But get this, there's a lake in Africa where a limnic eruption could occur and the lake

    但是,聽好了,非洲有一個湖,那裡可能會發生石灰岩噴發,而這個湖

  • is 1,700 times larger than Lake Nyos.

    是尼奧斯湖的1,700倍。

  • It's also surrounded by about two million people.

    它還被大約200萬人口所包圍。

  • If an eruption happens, it could be one of the worst disasters known to man.

    如果噴發發生,可能是人類已知的最嚴重的災難之一。

  • We'll come back to that soon.

    我們很快會回到這個問題上。

  • First, let's look more closely at what went down at Nyos.

    首先,讓我們更仔細地看看在尼奧斯發生的事情。

  • Scientists were sure that a limnic eruption had occurred, but they weren't sure what

    科學家們確信發生了一次石灰岩噴發,但他們不確定是什麼原因。

  • caused it.

    造成的。

  • Some geologists put forward the idea that a massive landslide had caused it, but others

    一些地質學家提出了大規模山體滑坡造成的觀點,但其他人

  • said it must have been an earthquake.

    說這一定是地震了。

  • Still, if that was true, wouldn't have someone felt it?

    儘管如此,如果那是真的,難道不會有人感覺到嗎?

  • None of the survivors had felt the ground move beneath them prior to the gas attack.

    在毒氣襲擊之前,沒有一個倖存者感覺到他們腳下的地面在移動。

  • What seemed certain was that around 1.2 cubic kilometers of gas ended up forming that giant

    似乎可以肯定的是,大約1.2立方公里的氣體最終形成了這個巨大的

  • cloud.

    雲。

  • The water turned a red color at the time as a result of the bottom part containing a lot

    當時的水變成了紅色,因為底部含有大量的

  • of iron, mixing with the air and being oxidized.

    的鐵,與空氣混合並被氧化。

  • That's why Joseph saw red all over himself.

    這就是為什麼約瑟夫看到自己渾身通紅。

  • You might wonder why the cloud just didn't disperse in the air and harmlessly move right

    你可能會想,為什麼那片雲沒有在空中散開,而是無害地向右移動?

  • over the heads of the villagers.

    在村民們的頭上。

  • The reason is carbon dioxide is denser than air.

    原因是二氧化碳的密度比空氣大。

  • That's why it moved low through the valleys and made its way to the villages.

    這就是為什麼它在山谷中低空移動,並向村莊進發。

  • It moved fast, too, at around 12–31 mph (20–50 kilometers per hour).

    它的移動速度也很快,大約為12-31英里/小時(20-50公里/小時)。

  • Of course, that's not easy to get away from, but some people did.

    當然,這是不容易擺脫的,但有些人做到了。

  • Most others suffocated and died without even knowing what was happening.

    其他大多數人窒息而死,甚至不知道發生了什麼。

  • The survivors didn't get off easy.

    倖存者並不容易脫身。

  • Many suffered from breathing problems after the disaster, while most of them had lesions

    災難發生後,許多人出現了呼吸問題,而他們中的大多數人都有病變

  • all over their bodies.

    他們的身體上都有。

  • Some even became paralyzed, but later recovered.

    有些人甚至癱瘓了,但後來康復了。

  • Scientists wanted to know what had caused all those injuries.

    科學家們想知道是什麼造成了所有這些傷害。

  • They figured CO2 was certainly the main culprit, but the release of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen

    他們認為二氧化碳肯定是罪魁禍首,但二氧化硫和氫氣的釋放也是如此。

  • sulfide could also have caused people injuries.

    硫化物也可能導致人們受傷。

  • In Joseph's words, “My arms had some wounds ... I didn't really know how I got these wounds.”

    用約瑟夫的話說,"我的手臂上有一些傷痕......。我真的不知道我是如何得到這些傷口的"。

  • You can look at any medical website and it will tell that exposure to hydrogen sulfide

    你可以查看任何醫學網站,它將告訴你,接觸硫化氫

  • can cause headaches, nausea, convulsions, and certain eye and skin irritations.

    可引起頭痛、噁心、抽搐,以及某些眼睛和皮膚的刺激。

  • Joseph also said he smelled something awful, and that could have been the rotten egg malodor

    約瑟夫還說他聞到了可怕的氣味,這可能是臭雞蛋的惡臭。

  • of hydrogen sulfide.

    的硫化氫。

  • The villages were evacuated for the time being while the researchers stayed.

    村莊暫時被疏散,而研究人員則留下來。

  • In fact, they had some disturbing news to report back to the Cameroonian government.

    事實上,他們有一些令人不安的消息要向喀麥隆政府報告。

  • That carbon dioxide was growing in the lake at a disturbing rate.

    二氧化碳在湖中以令人不安的速度增長。

  • If something wasn't done about it, a similar disaster could happen again.

    如果不採取一些措施,類似的災難可能再次發生。

  • One survivor was named Suley.

    一位倖存者名叫蘇雷。

  • She lost all her children and another 31 members of her family.

    她失去了她所有的孩子和另外31名家庭成員。

  • She lost over 400 cattle, too.

    她也失去了400多頭牛。

  • In the aftermath of the disaster, she and the other survivors even remarked that there

    在災難發生後,她和其他倖存者甚至說,有

  • weren't any flies on all the dead bodies.

    所有的屍體上都沒有任何蒼蠅。

  • The flies themselves had died.

    蒼蠅本身已經死亡。

  • Those survivors banded together and helped each other out the best they could, but they

    這些倖存者團結起來,互相幫助,盡其所能,但他們

  • were still afraid of the lake.

    他們仍然害怕湖水。

  • They hadn't in the past had much interest in science, but instead, myths surrounded

    他們過去對科學沒有太大的興趣,而是被神話所包圍。

  • the lake.

    湖邊。

  • Some of those stories stated it was home to their dead ancestors, and that it might rise

    其中一些故事說,它是他們死去的祖先的家,而且它可能會升起

  • up one day and cause calamity.

    有朝一日,他們會造成災禍。

  • Tales of how dangerous the lake was had been passed on through generations.

    關於這個湖有多危險的故事已經世代相傳。

  • They were right, but perhaps ignorant of exactly what caused the danger.

    他們是對的,但也許不知道到底是什麼造成了這種危險。

  • Scientists talked about suchgeomythology”, saying no doubt catastrophes have happened

    科學家們談到了這種 "地質學",說毫無疑問,災難已經發生了

  • over many years and stories have been passed down.

    許多年來,故事一直在流傳。

  • What they wanted to do was make sure there were no more catastrophes.

    他們想做的是確保不再有任何災難發生。

  • They got to work, not knowing if something would go off again and they'd be the ones

    他們開始工作,不知道是否會有什麼東西再次響起,而他們會是那些

  • lapsing into a coma and dying.

    陷入昏迷並死亡。

  • The villagers that survived invited them into their homes and made sure they always got

    倖存下來的村民邀請他們到家中做客,並確保他們總能得到

  • a good meal.

    一頓好飯。

  • You have to remember this place was extremely remote.

    你必須記住這個地方是極其偏遠的。

  • The only hotel was a hut.

    唯一的旅館是一間小屋。

  • Over the weeks and months, they figured that the lake, made from a crater, sat on top of

    經過幾周和幾個月的時間,他們猜測,這個由火山口形成的湖泊,坐落在

  • volcanic rubble.

    火山碎石。

  • They knew carbon dioxide was down there and that springs could take it into the water.

    他們知道下面有二氧化碳,而且泉水可以將其帶入水中。

  • They didn't know what had caused the massive eruption, but they knew where that gas had

    他們不知道是什麼導致了大規模的噴發,但他們知道這些氣體在哪裡。

  • come from.

    來的。

  • It was a time bomb.

    這是個定時炸彈。

  • It was sure to go off again one day.

    它肯定有一天會再次響起。

  • They considered digging tunnels down there to try and free the gas, but that would cost

    他們考慮在下面挖隧道,試圖釋放氣體,但這將花費

  • way too much.

    太多了。

  • They even tinkered with the idea of using explosives to free the gas, but that was deemed

    他們甚至想出了用炸藥釋放氣體的主意,但這被視為

  • a bit on the dangerous side even if the immediate area was evacuated.

    即使附近地區被疏散,也有點危險。

  • In the end, they decided to lay down a pipe at the bottom of the lake and let the gas

    最後,他們決定在湖底鋪設一條管道,讓氣體在湖底流動。

  • run through that.

    貫穿其中。

  • Small amounts could slowly be released through the pipe and then come out of the top of the

    少量可以通過管道慢慢釋放,然後從頂部出來。

  • pipe into the air.

    輸送到空中的管道。

  • Some experts thought that would be too dangerous, but by the time 2001 rolled around a pipe

    一些專家認為這太危險了,但到了2001年,一個管道

  • had been laid and the degassing of the lake began.

    奠定了基礎,並開始了湖泊的脫氣。

  • Right now, the lower parts of the area around Nyos are still eerily quiet.

    現在,尼奧斯周圍的低窪地帶仍然安靜得可怕。

  • Many people have moved to safer places, but the disaster is never far away from their

    許多人已經搬到了更安全的地方,但災難卻從未遠離他們。

  • thoughts.

    思想。

  • Some others missed the place where they'd lived for so long, and are now living aside

    還有一些人懷念他們生活了很久的地方,現在正生活在一邊

  • the great lake again.

    大湖又來了。

  • The good news is that the experts say there are just three lakes in the entire world where

    好消息是,專家們說,在整個世界上,只有三個湖泊有

  • so much carbon dioxide can cause such a disaster.

    這麼多的二氧化碳可以造成這樣的災難。

  • Those are Lake Nyos, Lake Monoun that we mentioned, and Lake Kivu, which sits on the border of

    這些湖泊是尼奧斯湖、我們提到的莫努恩湖和基伍湖,它們坐落在美國和加拿大的邊界。

  • The Congo and Rwanda.

    剛果和盧旺達。

  • The problem with Kivu is it's a giant, as we said, 1,700 times bigger than Nyos and

    基伍省的問題是它是一個巨大的,正如我們所說的,比尼奧斯省大1,700倍。

  • surrounded not by just small villages but millions of people.

    周圍不僅僅是小村莊,而是有數百萬人。

  • Just remember that scientists don't exactly know what caused the Nyos eruption, so it

    請記住,科學家們並不完全知道是什麼導致了尼奧斯火山爆發,所以它

  • seems such a thing could happen without any warning signs.

    似乎這樣的事情會在沒有任何警告信號的情況下發生。

  • If Kivu erupts, it could be a disaster like no other the world has ever seen.

    如果基伍火山爆發,這可能是一場世界上從未見過的災難。

  • Scientists went there after the Nyos disaster and what they found was a supersaturation

    科學家們在尼奧斯災難後去了那裡,他們發現的是一種過飽和狀態

  • of gas, meaning, it was a disaster waiting to happen.

    的氣體,也就是說,這是一場等待發生的災難。

  • Sure, such events are supposed to take place maybe every 1,000 years, but no one knows

    當然,這樣的事件應該可能每1000年發生一次,但沒有人知道

  • when the last one happened.

    當最後一次發生的時候。

  • What they do know is very large extinction events have occurred around that lake.

    他們所知道的是在該湖周圍發生了非常大的滅絕事件。

  • They say if it should happen again, and given a long enough timeframe it should, then a

    他們說,如果它應該再次發生,並且有足夠長的時間框架,它應該發生,那麼一個

  • lot of those two million people could die.

    這兩百萬人中有很多人可能死亡。

  • Experts also warn that lake tsunamis could also occur, due to those explosions of gas.

    專家還警告說,由於這些氣體的爆炸,也可能發生湖面海嘯。

  • Pipes could be built to allow the gas to release in a safe manner, but there are around 510

    可以建造管道,讓氣體以安全的方式釋放,但有大約510個

  • million metric tons of carbon dioxide down there.

    百萬公噸的二氧化碳在那裡。

  • That's about two percent of what's released into the atmosphere each year from humans

    這大約是每年由人類釋放到大氣中的東西的百分之二。

  • burning fossil fuels.

    燃燒化石燃料。

  • Right now, there are no pipes at Kivu.

    現在,在基伍沒有管道。

  • The locals might not have experienced such a catastrophic event in the area, but they've

    當地人可能沒有在該地區經歷過這樣的災難性事件,但他們已經

  • heard of the wordMazuku”.

    聽說過 "Mazuku "這個詞。

  • This is Swahili and in English, it meansevil wind”, a wind that blows over people and

    這是斯瓦希里語,在英語中,它的意思是 "惡風",一種吹在人身上的風和

  • animals and even plants, and when it's passed all in its wake are dead.

    動物甚至植物,而當它通過時,所有在它後面的人都死了。

  • Now you need to watch, “Worst Natural Disasters in Human History.”

    現在你需要觀看,"人類歷史上最糟糕的自然災害"。

  • Or, have a look at, “How Fukushima Disaster ACTUALLY Happened.”

    或者,看看 "福島災難是如何真實發生的"。

August 21, 1986.

1986年8月21日。

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B1 中級 中文 二氧化碳 災難 氣體 湖泊 約瑟夫 科學家

死亡之湖--為什麼已經有1800多人死在那裡? (Lake of Death - Why Did Over 1800 People Already Die There)

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