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  • It's a warm sunny day in August 1944. Hans  Eppinger is sitting in his office jotting down  

    這是1944年8月的一個溫暖的晴天。漢斯-埃平爾正坐在他的辦公室裡記下

  • some notes in a well-worn book. He pushes his  spectacles farther up the bridge of his nose,  

    在一本破舊的書上做了一些筆記。他把眼鏡往鼻樑上推得更遠。

  • exhales, and puts down his pen. Just a few feet  away are a group of emaciated Romani people.  

    呼出一口氣,放下筆。就在幾英尺外,有一群憔悴的羅馬人。

  • They are his subjects, his human Guinea pigs. Some of them are already close to death,  

    他們是他的臣民,是他的人類豚鼠。他們中的一些人已經接近死亡。

  • so dehydrated they are on all fours licking  water that was just used to mop the floor.  

    脫水嚴重,他們四肢著地,舔著剛用來拖地的水。

  • Suddenly the door to their hut opens. In walks  Eppinger. Pointing with his finger, he says,  

    突然間,他們小屋的門打開了。進來的是Eppinger。他用手指了指,說

  • 'You, you, and you, come with me.” They won't be seen again

    '你,你,還有你,跟我一起去。"他們不會再被看到。

  • That was the Sea Water Torture Experiment we  just talked about, and as you'll see today,  

    這就是我們剛剛談到的海水酷刑實驗,今天你也會看到。

  • it was just one of many infinitely appalling  experiments that happened in those camps

    這只是在這些集中營中發生的許多無限駭人聽聞的實驗之一。

  • 5. Thirst Let's finish the  

    5.渴了 讓我們完成

  • story we started. Eppinger was an Austrian  physicist whose name among many others is  

    我們開始的故事。Eppinger是一位奧地利物理學家,他的名字在許多人中是

  • written in the annals of human depravity. He  was employed by the Nazis during the Second  

    寫在人類墮落史上。他在第二次世界大戰期間受僱於納粹。

  • World War to conduct odious experiments on  human beings at the Dachau concentration camp

    世界大戰中,在達豪集中營對人進行了可憎的實驗。

  • Eppinger used mainly Romani people, a nomadic  group sometimes referred to asgypsies” – a  

    Eppinger主要使用羅馬人,一個有時被稱為 "吉普賽人 "的遊牧群體--一種

  • term they don't like. Back in the war, about 90  of them were chosen for the water experiments

    他們不喜歡的術語。早在戰爭時期,他們中約有90人被選中進行水實驗。

  • These weren't exactly technical. The Nazis wanted  to know what would happen if you deprived someone  

    這些並不完全是技術性的。納粹想知道,如果你剝奪一個人的權利,會發生什麼事?

  • of food and drinking water and had to survive  on seawater. How long would it take to die? What  

    的食物和飲用水,不得不靠海水生存。它需要多長時間才能死亡?什麼是

  • would happen during the passage to death? In the  war, this could happen to one of their pilots

    會在通向死亡的過程中發生嗎?在戰爭中,這可能發生在他們的一個飛行員身上。

  • We know the answer thanks to a survivor of those  camps named Joseph Tschofenig. He watched the  

    我們知道答案,這要歸功於那些集中營中一位名叫約瑟夫-喬費尼格的倖存者。他觀看了

  • experiments with his own eyes, saying later  that the victims were so desperate they  

    親眼看到的實驗,後來他說,受害者是如此絕望,他們

  • licked the floor and sucked on damp ragsThe outcome was the people usually died

    舔著地板,吸著潮溼的抹布。 其結果是這些人通常都死了。

  • Prudence demanded that Tschofenig kept his mouth  about this, with him not even showing sympathy to  

    謹慎地要求Tschofenig對這件事守口如瓶,他甚至沒有表示同情

  • the victims when any German soldiers were aroundHe also pretended not to see anything. He later  

    當有任何德國阿兵哥在附近時,他就會去找受害者。 他還假裝什麼都沒看見。後來他

  • noted that he'd seen another worker in the camp  take too much interest in an experiment and for  

    他指出,他看到營地裡的另一名工人對一項實驗太感興趣了,並且為

  • that, he was sent straight to the gas chamberThe experiment was related to how humans deal  

    他被直接送入毒氣室。 該實驗與人類如何處理

  • with extreme low-pressure. 4. The doctor of death 

    伴隨著極度的低氣壓。4.死神的醫生

  • The low-pressure experiments were conducted  by a man often called a monster. This was  

    低壓實驗是由一個經常被稱為怪物的人進行的。這就是

  • Sigmund Rascher, an SS doctor of death  whose depravity seemed to know no limits

    西格蒙德-拉舍爾(Sigmund Rascher),一個黨衛軍的死亡醫生,他的墮落似乎沒有極限。

  • He'd been a pilot in the Luftwaffe and that made  him think about the effect of high-altitude on  

    他曾是德國空軍的一名飛行員,這使他想到了高海拔對人體的影響。

  • pilots. The problem was, as he wrote inletter to Nazi SS boss Heinrich Himmler,  

    飛行員。問題是,正如他在寫給納粹黨衛軍老闆海因裡希-希姆萊的信中所說。

  • it wasn't exactly easy to get people to sign  up for experiments. He wrote that he'd already  

    要讓人們報名參加實驗並不容易。他寫道,他已經

  • tried using monkeys, but that didn't go down  too well. He needed humans, he told Himmler,  

    試圖使用猴子,但這並不太順利。他需要人類,他告訴希姆萊。

  • stating that the experiments would likely  end their life. No problem, replied Himmler

    他說,這些實驗可能會結束他們的生命。沒問題,希姆萊回答說。

  • Humans he got, and during the Spring and the  Summer of 1942 he rounded up a bunch of prisoners  

    在1942年的春天和夏天,他召集了一批囚犯。

  • at the Dachau camp. One by one, he told them  to enter a pressure chamber. Once they were in,  

    在達豪集中營。他讓他們一個接一個地進入一個壓力室。一旦他們進去了。

  • Rascher played around with the pressuremaking it so low that it corresponded with  

    拉舍爾對壓力進行了調整,使其變得如此之低,以至於與以下情況相對應

  • being at a very high altitude. He would then  quickly change the pressure in an attempt to  

    處於非常高的海拔高度。然後他將迅速改變壓力,試圖

  • see what it might be like for a German pilot  parachuting from a plane without any oxygen

    看看一個德國飛行員從沒有任何氧氣的飛機上跳傘可能是什麼樣子。

  • According to reports, the people used in  these experiments were mostly Poles and  

    據報道,在這些實驗中使用的人大部分是波蘭人和

  • Russians. Some of them died, and some of them  survived. When Rascher told Himmler about this,  

    俄羅斯人。他們中有些人死了,有些人活了下來。當拉舍爾把這件事告訴希姆萊的時候。

  • the boss said if they survive then spare  them the gas chamber. Just give them life  

    老闆說,如果他們能活下來,就不要讓他們進毒氣室。只要給他們生命

  • in prison. Rascher then quickly wrote backreminding Himmler who those people were

    在監獄裡。拉舍爾隨後迅速回信,提醒希姆萊這些人是誰。

  • Some of the letters survived the war. Here's part  of one Rascher wrote to Himmler in April 1942: 

    其中一些信件在戰爭中倖存下來。以下是拉舍爾在1942年4月寫給希姆萊的信的一部分。

  • Only continuous experiments at altitudes  higher than 10.5 Km resulted in death. These  

    "只有在海拔高於10.5公里的連續實驗才會導致死亡。這些

  • experiments showed that breathing stopped  after about 30 minutes, while in two cases  

    實驗表明,呼吸在大約30分鐘後停止,而在兩個案例中

  • the electrocardiographically charted action of  the heart continued for another 20 minutes.” 

    心電圖顯示的心臟動作又持續了20分鐘"。

  • He said after four minutes the people started  towiggleand move their head around.  

    他說,四分鐘後,這些人開始 "扭動",並四處移動他們的頭。

  • A minute later, they would cramp up in various  parts of the body. Then their breathing would  

    一分鐘後,他們會在身體的各個部位抽筋。然後他們的呼吸會

  • become rapid and at around 10 minutes they lost  consciousness. At around the 30-minute mark,  

    變得迅速,在大約10分鐘時,他們失去了知覺。在大約30分鐘的時候。

  • the subjects would only be taking about three  slow breaths per minute. Death came soon after

    受試者每分鐘只能進行大約三次緩慢的呼吸。死亡很快就來了。

  • He wrote this in May of the same year: “After relative recuperation from such a  

    他在同年5月這樣寫道。"在經歷了這樣一次相對休整後

  • parachute descending test had taken placehowever, before regaining consciousness,  

    然而,在恢復意識之前,已經進行了降落傘下降試驗。

  • some experimental subjects were  kept underwater until they died.” 

    一些實驗對象被關在水下,直到他們死亡。

  • You can see just how little concern these people  had for human life. But it gets even worse

    你可以看到這些人對人的生命有多麼不關心。但是,情況變得更加糟糕。

  • Rascher, likely following the orders of Luftwaffe  chief surgeon Erich Hippke, experimented on people  

    拉舍爾可能是遵照德國空軍外科主任埃裡希-希普克(Erich Hippke)的命令,對人們進行了實驗

  • to see just how cold you could make themThese were called thefreezing experiments.” 

    看看你能把它們變得多冷。 這些被稱為 "冰凍實驗"。

  • They wanted to know what would happen ifGerman pilot survived his fall from the sky  

    他們想知道,如果一個德國飛行員從天上掉下來還能活下來,會發生什麼事?

  • and landed in the freezing cold ocean? How best  to warm someone up who had hypothermia? In a world  

    並降落在冰冷的海洋中?如何最好地給一個體溫過低的人取暖?在一個世界上

  • not eclipsed by evil, you couldn't  conduct such an experiment on humans

    如果不被邪惡所侵蝕,你就不能在人類身上進行這樣的實驗。

  • Rascher used people from the Dachau camp, this  time putting prisoners in a tank of freezing  

    拉舍爾利用達豪集中營的人,這次是把囚犯放在一個冰冷的罐子裡。

  • cold water for up to three hours. Others he  made stay outside in the cold weather while  

    冷水,時間長達3小時。他讓其他人在寒冷的天氣中呆在外面,而

  • they were naked. Throughout their ordealthey were monitored to see the effects the  

    他們是裸體的。在整個折磨過程中,他們被監視著,以看到對他們的影響。

  • cold had on the body. One experiment was called,  “Warming Up After Freezing to the Danger Point.” 

    寒冷對身體的影響。有一個實驗被稱為 "凍結到危險點後的變暖"。

  • In a letter shown at the Nuremberg  trials, Himmler gives his approval of  

    在紐倫堡審判中展示的一封信中,希姆萊表示贊同

  • thewarming upexperiments, signing  off, “Kind Greetings, Heil Hitler!”

    的 "熱身 "實驗,簽下 "親切的問候,希特勒萬歲!"

  • The victims were almost frozen to death and  then were warmed up, but we are not talking  

    受害者幾乎被凍死,然後被暖和起來,但我們不是在談論

  • about being given a blanket and a steaming cup of  tea. They were immersed in hot water, sometimes  

    關於被給予一條毯子和一杯熱氣騰騰的茶。他們被浸泡在熱水中,有時

  • boiling water. This was of course a massive shock  to the system, and some people subsequently died

    開水。這當然是對系統的一次巨大沖擊,一些人隨後死亡。

  • The warming by water was not a good way to  treat people suffering from hypothermia was  

    用水取暖並不是治療體溫過低的人的好方法。

  • the conclusion, so Himmler told Rascher to  go and ask fisherman who worked in the cold  

    結論,所以希姆萊讓拉舍爾去問在寒冷地區工作的漁民

  • North sea what they would do. Himmler  reportedly said that “a fisherwoman  

    北海,他們會做什麼。據報道,希姆萊說,"一個女漁民

  • could well take her half-frozen husband  into her bed and revive him in that manner.” 

    她完全可以把她半凍的丈夫帶到她的床上,以這種方式使他甦醒過來。"

  • After that, Romani people were frozen  half to death and then placed in between  

    此後,羅姆人被凍得半死,然後被安置在

  • two warm Romani women. They had to be naked of  course. The victims were monitored throughout,  

    兩個熱情的羅馬尼亞婦女。當然,她們必須是裸體的。受害者全程受到監控。

  • and if they died, autopsies were performed. You can see the actual reports. They state  

    如果他們死亡,則進行屍檢。你可以看到實際的報告。他們說

  • if a person is immersed in water at 5 C it  can usually be tolerated for an hour. When  

    如果一個人被浸泡在5攝氏度的水中,通常可以忍受一個小時。當

  • they raised the temperature to 15 C the victim  could tolerate the water for four or five hours

    他們將溫度提高到15攝氏度,受害者可以忍受四五個小時的水。

  • The reports also state that even after the people  were taken out of the water their temperature  

    報告還指出,即使在人們被帶出水面後,他們的溫度

  • would continue to drop. They often died soon  after, even when revival attempts were made. We  

    將繼續下降。他們往往很快就死了,即使是在嘗試復甦的時候。我們

  • now know about things such asre-warming shock”  and theafter-drop effectand we know you should  

    現在,我們知道了諸如 "復溫衝擊 "和 "跌落後效應 "的事情,我們知道你應該

  • not warm a hypothermic person up using warm waterbut back then the science wasn't up to speed

    不使用溫水來溫暖一個體溫過低的人,但在當時,科學還沒有發展到這個地步。

  • The reports state that people whose body  temperatures were reduced to 25 C and then  

    報告稱,體溫被降至25攝氏度的人,然後

  • warmed up to 28 C died. No number was written  down as to how many died. One report just said  

    升溫到28攝氏度時死亡。沒有寫明有多少人死亡。一份報告只是說

  • they ALL died. They usually died anywhere  between 53 and 106 minutes of cooling. But  

    他們都死了。他們通常在冷卻53到106分鐘之間的任何地方死亡。但是

  • then those were the water experiments only. During the trials, two people who said they  

    那麼這些只是水的實驗。在試驗期間,有兩個人說他們

  • witnessed these experiments said 80 to 90  people died. They said they saw only two  

    目睹這些實驗的人說有80至90人死亡。他們說他們只看到兩個

  • people actually get through the experiment, but  noted that they becamemental casesas a result

    人們實際通過了實驗,但指出他們是以而成為 "精神病例"。

  • Finally, this same doctor conducted what was  called theblood coagulation experiments.”  

    最後,這名醫生進行了所謂的 "血液凝固實驗"。

  • Basically, the Nazis wanted to know if you took  a pill made from beet and Apple pectin would the  

    基本上,納粹想知道,如果你服用由甜菜和蘋果果膠製成的藥丸,會不會對你的身體產生影響?

  • blood clot after being shot, therefore  possibly saving the life of a soldier

    中槍後的血凝塊,是以有可能挽救一名阿兵哥的生命。

  • Again, in a normal world, you could never conduct  this experiment on humans, but the Nazis simply  

    同樣,在一個正常的世界裡,你永遠不可能在人類身上進行這種實驗,但納粹分子只是

  • used victims of the camps. They shot them and  then gave them the drug. What's even worse,  

    利用難民營的受害者。他們射殺他們,然後給他們注射藥物。更糟糕的是。

  • they sometimes amputated people's limbsThis was an attempt to try and duplicate  

    他們有時會截去人們的肢體。 這是一種嘗試,試圖複製

  • a person losing a limb on the battlefield due  to a bomb. They made it as real as possible,  

    一個人在戰場上因炸彈而失去肢體。他們儘可能地使之成為現實。

  • removing the limbs sometimes without  giving the victim any kind of anesthetic.  

    有時在不給受害者任何形式的麻醉劑的情況下切除四肢。

  • After that, they got the blood-clotting drug. In his notes, Rascher wrote, “The tests of this  

    之後,他們得到了凝血藥物。拉舍爾在他的筆記中寫道:"這個的試驗

  • medicine showed no failures under most varied  circumstances.” This got back to Hitler himself,  

    醫學在最不同的情況下都沒有顯示出失敗。"這又回到了希特勒本人身上。

  • who was impressed with the experiment. As for what happened to the dead, it was  

    他對這個實驗印象深刻。至於死者的情況,則是

  • later revealed that Rascher had a thing for human  skin, using it to make handbags, gloves, slippers,  

    後來透露,拉舍爾對人皮情有獨鍾,用它來製作手袋、手套、拖鞋。

  • saddles, pants, and other items. He sometimes sold  these things to his colleagues, according to the  

    馬鞍、褲子和其他物品。他有時將這些東西賣給他的同事,據說

  • book, “Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich.” Since those reports were released to the world,  

    "醫學、倫理和第三帝國 "一書。自從這些報告被公佈於世後。

  • scientists have said that Rascher lied in them and  there were many contradictions and inaccuracies.  

    科學家們說,拉舍爾在其中撒了謊,有許多矛盾和不準確之處。

  • The Nazis also realized he'd lied at times. Rascher was arrested in 1944 on the order of  

    納粹也意識到他有時會撒謊。拉舍爾在1944年被逮捕,其命令是

  • Himmler after it was revealed he'd kidnapped three  children. He was accused of scientific fraud and  

    希姆萊在被發現綁架了三個孩子之後。他被指控犯有科學欺詐和

  • even murdering his assistant. He ended up being  a prisoner himself at Dachau and then in 1945,  

    甚至謀殺了他的助手。他最終自己在達豪成為囚犯,然後在1945年成為囚犯。

  • he was executed by firing squad. Ok, now for something very short,  

    他被行刑隊處決。好了,現在說點很短的。

  • but extremely terrifying. 3. Head injury 

    但極其可怕。3.頭部受傷

  • This account of one single experiment was told  by a Holocaust survivor named Martin Small,  

    這段關於一個單一實驗的敘述是由一位名叫馬丁-斯莫爾的大屠殺倖存者講述的。

  • who wrote that one day he and another prisoner  were working at the house of a Nazi named Dr.  

    他寫道,有一天,他和另一名囚犯在一個名叫博士的納粹分子家裡工作。

  • Wichtmann. He said the doctor took off  somewhere, so he did some looking around  

    維克特曼。他說醫生不知去了哪裡,所以他做了一些調查。

  • and at one point found himself looking into  a locked room by a window outside the house

    並一度發現自己在屋外的窗戶邊上看了一個上鎖的房間。

  • In his own words, he said, “I placed my hands  on the ledge and put my face to the window. I  

    用他自己的話說,"我把我的手放在窗臺上,把我的臉對著窗戶。I

  • was not prepared for what was inside and  at first sight, I could not find words to  

    我對裡面的東西沒有準備,第一眼看到,我找不到詞來描述

  • interpret what I was looking at…I put my hand to  my mouth as if trying to muffle my own outburst.  

    解釋我在看什麼......我把手放在嘴邊,似乎想壓制住自己的爆發。

  • I nearly vomited. 60 years later I still  cannot erase the vivid, terrible image…” 

    我幾乎要嘔吐了。60年後,我仍然無法抹去那生動、可怕的畫面......"

  • Ok, so what was he looking at? He described seeing a young boy  

    好吧,那麼他在看什麼呢?他描述了看到一個小男孩

  • strapped to a chair. Above him was a mechanized  hammer that struck the boy over the head every  

    他被綁在一張椅子上。在他的上方有一個機械化的錘子,每隔一段時間就會敲打一下這個男孩的頭部。

  • few seconds. It wasn't hard enough to break the  skull, but you can only imagine what that must  

    幾秒鐘。它沒有硬到足以打破頭骨,但你只能想象那一定是什麼。

  • have felt like after say, an hour, a day, two  days, more. The guy said the boy was already  

    有感覺說,一個小時後,一天,兩天,更多。那個人說那個男孩已經

  • driven mad, not dead, but not there, either. He said that this same doctor had actually  

    被逼瘋了,沒有死,但也不在那裡。他說,這位醫生實際上已經

  • saved him from being killed by another Nazi, so  he was surprised he was torturing a little boy in  

    拯救了他,使他免於被另一個納粹分子殺害,所以他很驚訝他在折磨一個小男孩的時候

  • the worst kind of way. “I dropped to my knees in  sickness and disgust, and I trembled,” he wrote

    最糟糕的一種方式。"他寫道:"我在病痛和厭惡中跪下來,我顫抖著。

  • It's hard to imagine a human doing that to  another human, but of course you are about  

    很難想象一個人對另一個人這樣做,但當然你是關於

  • to hear something even worse. Sorry, that's  just the way it's going to be with this show

    來聽到更糟糕的事情。對不起,這個節目就是這樣的。

  • 2. Surgery Surgery,  

    2.外科 手術。

  • it's an important thing during a time when many  men are being shot to pieces on the battlefield.  

    在許多人在戰場上被射成碎片的時候,這是一件重要的事情。

  • The best surgeons practice of course, but who do  you practice on besides victims on your own side

    最好的外科醫生當然要練習,但除了自己一方的受害者,你還對誰練習?

  • The answer for the Nazis was prisoners at the  Ravensbrück concentration camp. Without any  

    納粹的答案是拉文斯布呂克集中營的囚犯。在沒有任何

  • anesthesia at all, people had their bones removedtheir nerves pulled out, their muscles plundered,  

    在完全沒有麻醉的情況下,人們的骨頭被切除,神經被拔出,肌肉被掠奪。

  • all in the name of medical experimentation. The Nazis had two reasons for this. Firstly,  

    所有這些都是以醫學實驗的名義進行的。納粹這樣做有兩個原因。首先。

  • they wanted to know if you remove something how  does it regenerate, if at all. Secondly, they were  

    他們想知道,如果你移除一些東西,它是如何再生的,如果有的話。其次,他們是

  • interested in seeing how transplants worked. They  didn't seem to give a damn about making people  

    有興趣看看移植手術是如何進行的。他們似乎並不關心讓人

  • disabled and putting them through what must have  been the worst kind of pain. Just imagine being  

    殘障人士,並讓他們經歷一定是最糟糕的那種痛苦。試想一下,作為

  • tied down and having parts of you removedThat happened to a woman two times and she  

    綁住你的身體,並將你的一部分切除......這發生在一個女人身上兩次,她

  • survived to tell the story. Her name was Jadwiga  Kamińska, and she said as a young girl she was  

    她倖存下來並講述了這個故事。她的名字叫雅德維加-卡曼斯卡,她說她在年輕時就已經

  • sent into surgery and they did something to  her leg that led to crippling pain. She didn't  

    她被送進手術室,他們對她的腿做了一些處理,導致了癱瘓性的疼痛。她並沒有

  • know exactly what they did but said after she was  grievously injured and suffered from infections

    知道他們到底做了什麼,但在她受了重傷並遭受感染後說。

  • It's hard to say how many people were mutilated  like this, but research shows there were a lot  

    很難說有多少人像這樣被殘害,但研究表明有很多人

  • of victims trying to claim compensation after the  war. There are photos, too, such as the one of a  

    試圖在戰後要求賠償的受害者的照片。也有一些照片,如一張關於

  • Polish woman named Bogumiła Babińska-DobrowskaShe'd had a bit of her leg removed.

    波蘭婦女名叫博古米瓦-巴比安斯卡-多布羅斯卡。 她的腿被切除了一點。

  • The National Institutes of Health wrote  that in all there were 27,759 known victims,  

    美國國家衛生研究院寫道,總共有27,759名已知受害者。

  • made up of many nationalities, with about twice as  many male victims as female victims. These people  

    由許多國籍的人組成,男性受害者約為女性受害者的兩倍。這些人

  • suffered all manner of injuries and many died. Reports state that the victims were called  

    遭受各種形式的傷害,許多人死亡。報告指出,受害者被稱為

  • 'rabbitsby the Nazis, given the nature of the  experiments. Some were cut deeply so it could be  

    鑑於實驗的性質,"兔子 "被納粹選中。一些人被深深地切開,以便可以

  • seen how quickly infections ensued. Sometimes the  Nazis would rub dirt, cloth fibers, wood shavings,  

    看到感染是如何迅速發生的。有時,納粹會摩擦汙垢、布纖維、木屑。

  • and even broken glass into the open wound. This  was to accelerate the speed of infection. The  

    甚至是碎玻璃進入開放的傷口。這是為了加快感染的速度。在這一過程中

  • victims were then given experimental drugs  to see if the infection could be dealt with

    然後,受害者被給予實驗性藥物,看看是否能處理好感染問題。

  • The NIH wrote, “They operated on Barbara  Pietrzyk five times in 1942 alone causing  

    NIH寫道:"僅在1942年,他們就為Barbara Pietrzyk做了五次手術,導致

  • left lower limb paralysis. At 16 years of  age, she was the youngest of therabbits.” 

    左下肢癱瘓。16歲的她是 "兔子 "中最年輕的。

  • In another account, Nazi Professor Gebhardt used  24 Polish women for an experiment. He wanted to  

    在另一種說法中,納粹教授格布哈特用24名波蘭婦女做了一個實驗。他想

  • see what would happen if you cut off blood flow  in a limb, so he just tied something really tight  

    看看切斷肢體的血液流動會發生什麼,所以他只是把東西綁得很緊。

  • around part of the limb. The result of course  was the area became necrotic. Experimental drugs  

    部分肢體的周圍。其結果當然是該區域變得壞死了。實驗性藥物

  • were subsequently administered to the women. Nazi reports that were unearthed said in one  

    隨後對這些婦女進行了治療。出土的納粹報告中說,在一個

  • experiment 13 people died from gangrene, while six  others were taken out and shot so they couldn't  

    實驗中,有13人死於壞疽,另有6人被帶出去槍殺,所以他們無法

  • ever tell anyone about what had happened  to them. There is data to back all this up,  

    曾經把發生在他們身上的事情告訴過任何人。有數據可以支持這一切。

  • so as unbelievable as it sounds, it happenedThere are names and photographs of survivors

    是以,儘管聽起來難以置信,但它確實發生了。 這裡有倖存者的名字和照片。

  • Another NIH report stated, “The surviving  victims were permanently disabled,  

    另一份NIH報告指出,"倖存的受害者都是永久性殘疾。

  • both physically and psychologically. Four of  the surviving Polish women, Maria Broel-Plater,  

    在身體上和心理上都是如此。四名倖存的波蘭婦女,瑪麗亞-布羅爾-普拉特。

  • Jadwiga Dzido, Wladyslawa Karolewska, and  Maria Kusmierczuk testified during the Doctors'  

    Jadwiga Dzido、Wladyslawa Karolewska和Maria Kusmierczuk在《醫生》雜誌上作證。

  • Trial and exhibited the scars on their legs.” Then there was Dr. Ludwig Stumpfegger. He was  

    審判,並展示了他們腿上的疤痕。"然後是路德維希-斯坦普費格博士。他是

  • partly responsible for bone graft experiments  using the tibias of victims. In some cases,  

    部分原因是利用受害者的脛骨進行的骨移植實驗。在某些情況下。

  • the tibia would be harvested and  then transplanted to another victim  

    脛骨將被收割,然後移植到另一個受害者身上。

  • who had also had their tibia removed. During those same experiments,  

    他們的脛骨也被切除了。在這些相同的實驗中。

  • they did something called a myomectomy. That's  removing the skeletal muscle, and as you know,  

    他們做了一個叫做肌瘤切除術的手術。這就是切除骨骼肌,如你所知。

  • nerves were also taken out. Again there  are names or survivors and photographs.

    神經也被取出來了。同樣有幸存者的名字和照片。

  • One such person was named Wladislawa  Karolewska. She went through six  

    其中一個人名叫弗拉迪斯拉瓦-卡羅萊夫斯卡。她經歷了六次

  • separate surgeries each involving the  removal of bone, muscles, and nerves

    獨立的手術,每個手術都涉及骨骼、肌肉和神經的切除。

  • She testified later, describing how people were  slaughtered and how she was experimented on.  

    她後來作證,描述了人們是如何被屠殺的,以及她是如何被實驗的。

  • This is what she said happened to  her after she passed out from pain

    這是她說在她因疼痛而昏迷後發生的事情。

  • “I regained my consciousness in the morning and  then I noticed that my leg was in a cast from the  

    "我在早上恢復了意識,然後我注意到我的腿被打上了石膏。

  • ankle up to the knee and I felt a very strong  pain in this leg and the high temperature. I  

    我的腳踝一直到膝蓋,我感覺到這條腿非常強烈的疼痛,而且溫度很高。I

  • noticed also that my leg was swollen from the  toes up to the groin. The pain was increasing  

    我還注意到,我的腿從腳趾到腹股溝都腫了起來。疼痛在增加

  • and the temperature, too, and the next daynoticed that some liquid was flowing from my leg.” 

    和溫度也是如此,第二天我注意到有些液體從我的腿上流出來。"

  • One day, she and other rabbits stood in line  to be executed. A German officer asked her,  

    有一天,她和其他兔子排著隊等待被處決。一位德國軍官問她。

  • Why do you stand so in line as if you were to be  executed?” She replied, “The operations are worse  

    "你為什麼這麼排隊,好像要被處決一樣?"她回答說:"行動更糟糕

  • for us than executions and we would prefer to be  executed rather than to be operated on again.” 

    對我們來說,比起處決,我們更願意被處決,而不是再次接受手術。"

  • She explained in her testimony what  happened after the final operation

    她在證詞中解釋了最後手術後的情況。

  • “I stayed in the hospital six months. I was  in bed. I could not stretch my legs. I could  

    "我在醫院呆了六個月。我躺在床上。我不能伸展我的腿。我可以

  • not move them. I could not walk either.” A doctor named Fischer later admitted to  

    不能移動它們。我也無法行走。"一位名叫費舍爾的醫生後來承認

  • taking off entire limbs, saying he was just  following orders. He wrote of one limb removal

    他說他只是服從命令。他寫道:"一個肢體的切除。

  • “I was ordered to go to Ravensbrück and perform  the operation of removal on that evening. I asked  

    "我奉命前往拉文斯布呂克,並在當天晚上進行清除手術。我問

  • Doctors Gebhardt and Schulze to describe exactly  the technique which they wished me to follow.” 

    Gebhardt和Schulze醫生準確地描述了他們希望我遵循的技術。"

  • In a sworn affidavit, a Czech doctor  named Dr. Zdenka Nedvedova-Nejedla, wrote

    一位名叫Zdenka Nedvedova-Nejedla博士的捷克醫生在一份宣誓證詞中寫道。

  • High amputations were performed; for  example, even whole arms with shoulder  

    "進行了高度截肢;例如,甚至整個手臂和肩部都進行了截肢。

  • blades or legs were amputated. These operations  were performed mostly on insane women who were  

    刀片或腿被截斷。這些手術主要是在精神錯亂的婦女身上進行的,她們是

  • immediately killed after the operation byquick injection of Evipan.” That is a kind  

    手術後立即通過快速注射Evipan來殺死"。這是一種

  • of barbiturate that can kill in high doses. She said eleven people died or were killed  

    大劑量的巴比妥類藥物會導致死亡。她說有11人死亡或被殺

  • during these operations, and she also stated  that pain relievers weren't administered to  

    她還說,在這些手術中,沒有給病人使用止痛劑。

  • the victims. We know this because she wrote: “After operations, no one except SS nurses was  

    我們知道這一點是因為她寫道:"在手術後,除了黨衛軍的護士外,沒有人能夠得到任何幫助。我們知道這一點,因為她寫道:"在手術後,除了黨衛軍護士外,沒有人被送往醫院。

  • admitted to the persons operated on, whole nights  they lay without any assistance and it was not  

    接受手術的人,整個晚上都在沒有任何援助的情況下躺著,這不是

  • permitted to administer sedatives even against  the most intensive post-operational pains.” 

    允許使用鎮靜劑,即使是針對最強烈的術後疼痛"。

  • Ok, so this is a really depressing show, but  you all know the expression that history is  

    好吧,這是一個非常令人沮喪的節目,但你們都知道這樣的說法:歷史是

  • doomed to repeat itself if we don't study itWe need to know the facts. You need to know  

    如果我們不研究它,就註定要重蹈覆轍。 我們需要了解事實。你需要知道

  • that the Nazis purposefully gave people malariaThey tested mustard gas on prisoners. They gave  

    納粹黨人故意讓人們感染瘧疾。 他們在囚犯身上試驗芥子氣。他們給

  • tetanus to others, and they conducted many awful  experiments to see how people could be sterilized

    他們進行了許多可怕的實驗,看看如何對人進行絕育。

  • They even poisoned people to the point of death  or actual death, and they burned people to see  

    他們甚至給人下毒,使其死亡或實際死亡,他們還燒死人,看

  • how bomb blasts work out for victims... but  even after hearing all that, there's one thing  

    炸彈爆炸對受害者的影響......但即使聽到這些,有一件事

  • that sticks out. 1. Twins 

    突出的是。1.雙胞胎

  • These were called the Twin experiments. The  Nazis were obsessed with twins, and so they  

    這些實驗被稱為雙胞胎實驗。納粹對雙胞胎很著迷,是以他們

  • captured about 1,500 sets and imprisoned them  at Auschwitz. About 200 of them survived,  

    捕獲了大約1500套,並將他們囚禁在奧斯威辛。其中約有200人倖存下來。

  • so that's how we know about what happened. They separated them so they could monitor  

    是以,我們才知道發生了什麼。他們把他們分開,以便他們能夠監測

  • what happened to each twin without them knowing  the same was happening to their sibling. Again,  

    在每個雙胞胎身上發生的事情,他們不知道同樣的事情發生在他們的兄弟姐妹身上。再來。

  • they did ad hoc surgeries on them, even trying  to change their eye color using dyes. This was  

    他們對他們做了特別的手術,甚至試圖用染料來改變他們的眼睛顏色。這就是

  • mostly the work of doctors Josef Mengele  and Karin Magnussen. The latter made it  

    主要是醫生約瑟夫-門格勒和卡琳-馬格努森的作品。後者使之成為

  • clear how she thought, writing this in 1943: “This war is not just about the preservation  

    明確了她的想法,在1943年寫下了這樣的話。"這場戰爭不僅僅是為了維護

  • of the German people, but is about the questionwhich races and peoples should live in the future  

    這也是德國人民的問題,而是關於哪些種族和民族應該生活在未來的問題。

  • on European soilthe Jew who enjoys life ashost in our country, is our enemy, even if he does  

    在歐洲土地上......在我們國家享受主人生活的猶太人,是我們的敵人,即使他是

  • not actively engage with weapons in this fight.” But why change the eye color, which was very