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Tired? We all know the feeling.
Irritable, groggy, and exceptionally lazy.
Chances are, you didn't sleep enough last night.
Or the past few nights.
But what exactly is enough sleep?
And, more importantly, can you ever catch up on it
While the very function of sleep is still debated by scientists,
we do know that it's necessary to function efficiently and productively.
After all, we spend 24 years of our lifetime sleeping. It had better be important.
Researchers have tested how much is required each night
by assigning groups of people to four, six, and eight hours of sleep over extended periods of time.
After 14 days, those with eight hours of sleep exhibited
few attention lapses or cognitive issues.
However, those with six or four hours of sleep showed a steady decline.
In fact, after only two weeks, the six hour group showed a similar reaction time to a person with the blood alcohol concentration of 0.1%,
which is considered legally drunk.
The four hour sleepers suffered even more,
occasionally falling asleep during their cognitive test.
In both groups, brain function decreased day-by-day
almost linearly, with no sign of leveling off.
Scientists have dubbed this cumulative effect as sleep debt
So can we recover from it?
After a night or two of little sleep, studies show that the body and brain can fully recover
with a few nights of good sleep.
However, with long term sleep deprivation, on the scale of weeks to months,
the recovery of cognitive function is much slower,
requiring many more nights of quality sleep.
On the time scale of months to years,
it's unknown whether brain function could be fully repaired
or if it causes permanent damage.
Paradoxically, with chronic sleep deprivation,
your sleepiness or how tired you feel does eventually level off,
meaning that you become less and less aware of your objective impairment over time.
So how long should you sleep?
Most studies tend to show that 7-8 hours of sleep is the average ideal for humans.
Apart from the cognitive issues, individuals who consistently sleep less than seven hours a night
have an increased risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes.
Not to mention, a 12% higher risk of death.
On the flip side, studies have shown that while sleeping more than eight hours does not impair brain function,
it also carries an increased risk of heart disease, obesity,
and diabetes, and a 30% increased risk of mortality.
So too much sleep may also be a bad thing.
But variation most certainly exist, and our genetics play a large role.
In fact, individuals genuinely unaffected by only six hours of sleep were found to have a mutation of a specific gene.
When scientists genetically engineered mice to express this gene
they were able to stay awake for an extra 1.2 hours than normal mice.
It turns out these short sleepers have more biologically intense sleep sessions than the average person.
Ultimately, while it's important to know the ideal average of 7-8 hours exist,
let your body and brain help you figure out its own needs.
After all, no one shoe size fits all.
If you want to know how to get better quality sleep each night
in order to conquer the hurdles of sleep deprivation,
we have some tips and research for you over on ASAPThought.
You can find a link in the description below to that video.
Thanks to audible.com for giving you a free audio book of your choice at audible.com/asap.
Audible is the leading provider of audio books,
with over 150,000 downloadable titles across all types of literature.
We recommend the A Song of Ice and Fire series, which the Game of Thrones TV show is based off of.
It's kept us up through the nights and caused a lot of lost sleep.
You can download this audio book, or another of your choice, for free at audible.com/asap.
And with a subscription, you get one free book a month, so you can read the whole series.
Special thanks to Audible for making these videos possible.
And subscribe for more weekly science videos!



到底要睡多久才是足夠的呢?How Much Sleep Do You Actually Need?

641734 分類 收藏
Anni 發佈於 2018 年 1 月 2 日    Demi Dai 翻譯    Ariel Lee 審核



1irritable    0:02
irritable 的意思是「易怒的;急躁的」,用在醫學上來講的話,也可以表示「易感受刺激的;過敏 (性) 的」
I still get quite irritable when Africa is referred to as a country.

可以看到 irritable 的前面是 irrita,這個字根在拉丁文裡面的意思是「使發怒;激起;刺激」。相關的字還有:irritate,他是動詞,意思是「激怒;使疼痛或發炎」。
Don't wash your face too much cause that could irritate your skin.

2catch up    0:12
catch up 顧名思義,「抓上」,意思是「趕上;了解近況」。常用於商業界有人沒參加到會議需要同事幫他 catch up 一下進度,以及遇到老朋友「聊聊近況」也是用 catch up
When I work harder, I can catch up with the naturally talented.

We should catch up sometime. I'll talk to you later, okay?

這邊再介紹幾個 catch 的相關片語:
catch on 意思是「理解; 變得流行」
[Sans Serif] didn't catch on immediately, but would eventually get really big.

catch fire 「著火」
We test flame-retardant pajamas in an inferno to ensure they won't catch fire when our child reaches across the stove.

3cumulative 1:02
這個字的意思是「累積的;漸增的;(紅利、利息等) 累計的」
Try to avoid getting 7143 abdominal X-rays back-to-back, which is enough cumulative radiation to kill you.
試著不要連續照 7143 張腹部 X 光,那已經可以累積足夠殺死你的的輻射量。

4level off 1:32
這個片語的意思是「(升或跌之後) 呈平穩狀態, 做水平運動」
Once it is full make sure [the chocolate] is going right into the corners, and then level off the top.

拆開來看,level 除了我們平常在打電動遊戲時可以當作「關卡」,還可以當作「水平、平等」。比方說,level crossing,照字面上的意思是「平面交叉」,實際上的意思是「平交道」。

【聽音樂學英文】可愛力量大:笨笨的死法 (Dumb Ways to Die) (歌詞/lyrics)

5consistently 1:46
相信大家都看得出來,這個字是由形容詞 consistent 「一致的;始終如一的」加上 ly 變成副詞的形式,意思同樣是「一致地;始終如一地」。而想說「與……一致」時可以使用片語 be consistent with
I would like to suggest a pay increase to keep my hourly rate consistent with the market rate for my services.

Progress on this journey often comes in small increments, sometimes two steps forward, one step back, propelled by the persistent effort of dedicated citizens.

insistent:「堅持的」,同樣是堅持的,這裡的堅持比較不容反對,執意要做某事的感覺。而 persistent 比較像持續一直去做。
The coach is insistent that the team is going to win the grand final.

6on the flip side    1:54  
flip 作動詞的時候意思是「輕輕地投擲和拋出;轉動;揮動」,on the flip side 的意思是「另一方面」,就好像你把硬幣或唱片之類的東西翻面,去看他背面長怎樣的感覺。
Don't worry about finding a date. Or, on the flip side, try to stridently assert the fact that you're single.

再介紹一個有關 flip 的用法。
flip out 的意思是「過度激動甚至有點發瘋」
I would bring over my friends who were like clearly gay men and my parents would like flip out that I was gonna get impregnated in the time that we were playing Wii U.
Wii U 的時候他們就會自行腦補我挺著一個大肚球的小劇場,然後對我大發飆。


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