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自動翻譯
  • War

    戰爭

  • on

    關於

  • an industrial scale.

    工業規模。

  • The first truly global conflict.

    第一場真正的全球衝突。

  • World War I was a dark turning point for humanity, and unleashed the full might of modern science

    第一次世界大戰是人類的一個黑暗轉捩點,它釋放了現代科學的全部力量

  • and industry on the battlefield for the first time in history with these 3 deadliest weapons

    歷史上第一次在戰場上使用這3種最致命的武器,和工業。

  • of World War I. Number Three: Tanks

    第一次世界大戰的第三號。坦克

  • German infantry hunkers in a trench, awaiting an enemy attack they know is coming.

    德軍步兵蜷縮在戰壕裡,等待著他們知道即將到來的敵人的攻擊。

  • It's hard to see past the mists of steam and gunpowder that swathe no-man's land

    很難看清籠罩在無人區的蒸汽和火藥的迷霧。

  • after the last enemy bombardment, but machine gunners train their weapons on the fog knowing

    在敵人的最後一次轟炸之後,但機槍手將他們的武器訓練在霧中,知道

  • that sooner or later, the attack will come.

    攻擊遲早會到來。

  • Suddenly, there's an odd, mechanical rumbling sound.

    突然,有一種奇怪的、機械的隆隆聲。

  • German infantrymen look to each other in confusion.

    德軍步兵困惑地相互對視。

  • The sound grows in intensity, becoming a dull roar, and then- something in the fog.

    聲音越來越強烈,變成了沉悶的吼聲,然後--霧中有什麼東西。

  • Something big, a mass of metal, black smoke, and gun barrels lumbering down on the German

    一個巨大的、由金屬、黑煙和槍管組成的群體向德國人撲來。

  • position.

    位置。

  • There are few weapons as synonymous with World War One as the tank.

    很少有武器能像坦克一樣成為第一次世界大戰的代名詞。

  • These armored beasts received their first serious testing during this conflict, and

    在這次衝突中,這些裝甲獸得到了第一次認真的測試,並且

  • the challenges they faced would lay the foundation for tank design and tactics for generations

    他們所面臨的挑戰將為幾代人的坦克設計和戰術奠定基礎。

  • to come.

    要來。

  • However, these fascinating weapons are shrouded in mystique and there are a lot of rumors

    然而,這些迷人的武器被籠罩在神祕的氣氛中,有很多傳言

  • to dispel not only about their creation but their use or disuse by each side in the war.

    這不僅是為了消除他們的創造,而且是為了消除戰爭中每一方對他們的使用或不使用。

  • Though it is commonly stated that the impetus for tanks came about in 1916, the idea came

    儘管人們通常說坦克的動力來自於1916年,但這一想法來自於

  • from Winston Churchill's appointed Landship Committee in February of 1915.

    1915年2月,溫斯頓-丘吉爾任命的陸運委員會提出了這一建議。

  • In fact, the word 'tank' was not even part of the vocabulary back then for these

    事實上,"坦克 "一詞在當時甚至不屬於這些詞彙。

  • weapons since this was the code word used to describe the project, instead early designs

    由於這是用來描述項目的代號,相反,早期的設計

  • were called landships, and were supposed to be the equivalent of a battleship on land.

    被稱為陸地艦,應該相當於陸地上的戰艦。

  • However, early versions of the landship were less than stellar.

    然而,早期版本的陸地飛船並不那麼出色。

  • The first prototype, Little Willie, was prone to mechanical failure and was painfully slow,

    第一臺原型機 "小威利 "很容易出現機械故障,而且速度慢得令人痛苦。

  • with infantrymen easily able to outpace it.

    與步兵很容易就能超越它。

  • Additionally, this prototype and later models had little armor, which would prove to be

    此外,該原型機和後來的型號幾乎沒有裝甲,這將被證明是

  • a death sentence for many crews.

    對許多船員來說,這是一個死亡判決。

  • Once the British figured out the engine and mobility problems, they designed a tank with

    一旦英國人解決了發動機和機動性的問題,他們就設計了一種帶有

  • the now well-known rhombus shape that became known as the Mark I.

    現在眾所周知的菱形形狀,被稱為馬克一號。

  • The Mark I was designed to cross trenches and spearhead the advance of infantry waves.

    馬克一型被設計用來穿越戰壕並作為步兵波的先鋒。

  • However, the tanks were designed to work with other tanks to support one another.

    然而,這些坦克的設計是為了與其他坦克一起工作,相互支持。

  • British designers made two versions: a male and female version.

    英國設計師製作了兩個版本:男性和女性版本。

  • The male version was equipped with a six pounder cannon and several machine guns while the

    雄性版本配備了一門六磅大炮和幾挺機槍,而

  • female version was equipped with five machine guns only.

    雌性版本只裝備了五挺機槍。

  • The goal of the two tanks was the female tank would support the male tank's advance by

    這兩輛坦克的目標是女坦克將通過以下方式支持男坦克的前進

  • pinning down attacking infantry, machine gun nests, and artillery observers.

    鉗制進攻的步兵、機槍窩和炮兵觀察員。

  • As the war dragged on, the British would expand on their initial Mark I design with the Mark

    隨著戰爭的深入,英國人將在他們最初的馬克一世設計基礎上,擴大了馬克

  • II through V tanks with the Mark IV model being the most widely produced British tank

    II至V型坦克,其中Mark IV型坦克是生產最廣泛的英國坦克。

  • of the war.

    的戰爭。

  • The tanks definitely served a great tactical advantage in its early uses starting at the

    坦克在早期的使用中絕對發揮了巨大的戰術優勢,從開始到現在。

  • Somme Offensive in 1916, but the Germans quickly designed ways to defeat them.

    1916年的索姆河攻勢,但德國人很快就設計出擊敗他們的方法。

  • The Germans built larger trenches, funneled tanks with minefields, created armor piercing

    德國人建造了更大的戰壕,用雷區漏斗式的坦克,製造了穿甲彈

  • artillery rounds, and built the world's first anti-tank rifle.

    炮彈,並製造了世界上第一支反坦克步槍。

  • All of these weapons and tactics degraded the effectiveness of the tank and it was the

    所有這些武器和戰術都降低了坦克的效能,而它是最重要的。

  • French that would step in to save the idea with their own design.

    會出面用自己的設計來拯救這個想法的法國人。

  • The French, inspired by British successes in 1916, started designing their own tank

    法國人在1916年受到英國成功的啟發,開始設計他們自己的坦克

  • in 1917 called the Renault FT-17.

    1917年,被稱為雷諾FT-17。

  • The FT tank was much smaller than the Mark series tanks, sporting a crew of just two

    FT坦克比馬克系列坦克小得多,只有兩名乘員。

  • men and a single cannon or two machine guns, but it was much faster.

    人和一門大炮或兩挺機槍,但它的速度要快得多。

  • It was also much smaller than the British tanks and for these reasons it was a much

    它也比英國的坦克小得多,由於這些原因,它是一個非常重要的工具。

  • more effective weapon on the battlefield.

    在戰場上更有效的武器。

  • Since both the British and French tanks lacked effective armor, a direct artillery round

    由於英國和法國的坦克都缺乏有效的裝甲,所以直接用炮彈進行攻擊

  • and even machine gun bullets could penetrate the skin of the tank.

    甚至機槍子彈也能穿透坦克的皮膚。

  • Combine that with rough terrain and one could see how speed and maneuverability were what

    結合粗糙的地形,人們可以看到速度和可操作性是如何實現的。

  • was going to make a tank survive.

    是要讓坦克生存下去。

  • The FT-17 quickly became the most widely produced and popular tank of the war.

    FT-17迅速成為戰爭中生產最廣泛和最受歡迎的坦克。

  • Debuting in May of 1918, it was a battlefield success instantly and was used not only by

    它於1918年5月首次亮相,立即在戰場上取得了成功,不僅被用於

  • the French but by the Americans and British as well.

    雖說是法國人,但美國人和英國人也是如此。

  • The FT-17 was not the only tank that saw widespread combat on the Western front.

    FT-17並不是唯一在西線廣泛作戰的坦克。

  • The Sain-Chramond heavy tank was the rarely seen duckboat model produced by the French

    聖克萊蒙德重型坦克是法國生產的很少見的鴨子船型。

  • with a heavy 75mm gun protruding from the front.

    有一門75毫米重炮從前面伸出來。

  • This tank had a production run of several hundred models by the summer of 1918 and was

    到1918年夏天,這種坦克的生產量達到了幾百輛,並且是

  • used extensively from the spring of 1917 onwards.

    從1917年春天開始廣泛使用。

  • The main problem with this tank was the difficulty it had in traversing trenches since it was

    這種坦克的主要問題是它難以穿越戰壕,因為它是

  • quite top heavy.

    相當於頭重腳輕。

  • As a result, it went from a direct attack kind of vehicle to a mobile assault gun role

    是以,它從一種直接攻擊的車輛變成了一種移動的突擊炮角色

  • which it served quite well, being able to reposition itself quickly on the battlefield

    它的作用相當好,能夠在戰場上迅速調整自己的位置

  • to engage new targets and evade German counter fire.

    來對付新的目標並躲避德軍的反擊。

  • We have talked a lot about the French and British tanks but what about the famous German

    我們已經談了很多關於法國和英國坦克的情況,但著名的德國坦克呢?

  • A7V Heavy tank?

    A7V重型坦克?

  • This tank was Germany's response to the thousands of enemy tanks they faced on the

    這種坦克是德國對他們在戰場上面臨的數以千計的敵人坦克的迴應。

  • Western Front.

    西線。

  • Debuting in 1918, only about 20 of these vehicles entered service and had limited use on the

    這些車輛在1918年首次亮相,只有大約20輛進入服役,並在以下方面發揮了有限的作用

  • battlefield due to their low numbers.

    由於他們的數量少,所以在戰場上。

  • The Germans produced so few due to a variety of factors, the main reason being a lack of

    由於各種因素,德國人的產量如此之低,主要原因是缺乏

  • industry and raw materials, since by this stage in the war the British blockade of Germany

    工業和原材料,因為在戰爭的這一階段,英國對德國的封鎖已經結束。

  • had done a number on German capacity to produce war material.

    對德國生產戰爭物資的能力造成了一定的影響。

  • Additionally, by this late in the war, German leadership was less focused on wonder weapons

    此外,到了戰爭後期,德國領導層對神奇武器的關注度降低了

  • then on ways to realistically win the war with what they had.

    然後再討論如何以他們所擁有的東西來現實地贏得戰爭。

  • Despite these views, that did not stop the Germans from employing at least several dozen

    儘管有這些觀點,但這並沒有阻止德國人僱用至少幾十名

  • if not several hundred captured British and French tanks on the battlefield.

    如果不是幾百輛繳獲的英國和法國坦克在戰場上。

  • It was quite common for these tanks to become bogged down in the mud or be broken down and

    這些坦克在泥濘中陷落或被擊潰是很常見的事。

  • abandoned after a battle.

    戰後被遺棄。

  • The Germans took advantage of this and pressed an untold number into service.

    德國人利用了這一點,並將難以計數的數量壓入了部隊。

  • Though little concrete information exists on how extensive this practice was, the photographic

    雖然關於這種做法有多廣泛的具體資訊不多,但照片中的

  • evidence suggests it was actually fairly common.

    證據表明,這實際上是相當普遍的。

  • However, while a lumbering landship may have been a terrifying sight to behold, nothing

    然而,雖然一艘笨重的飛船可能是一個可怕的景象,但沒有什麼

  • struck fear in the heart of an infantryman more than the thought of being incinerated

    比起被焚燒的想法,更讓步兵感到恐懼

  • alive.

    活著。

  • Number Two: Flamethrowers The enemy attack comes as expected, but as

    第二:火焰噴射器 敵人的攻擊如期而至,但由於

  • the infantrymen scramble to their firing positions they're met by walls of flame.

    步兵們爭先恐後地奔向他們的射擊位置,他們遇到的是火焰牆。

  • Men are consumed alive by sheets of fire as the trenches fill with red-hot death.

    當戰壕裡充滿赤熱的死亡時,人們被成片的火光活活吞噬。

  • The defender's nerve is broken, and men scramble out of their trenches- better to

    防守者的神經被打破了,人們爭先恐後地離開他們的戰壕--最好是

  • meet death with a bullet than be incinerated alive.

    與其被活活燒死,不如被子彈打死。

  • Unlike the landships, the flamethrowers of World War One were spearheaded by the Germans

    與陸地艦艇不同,第一次世界大戰中的火焰噴射器是由德國人率先推出的。

  • in both development and application.

    在開發和應用方面。

  • Being first designed in 1901 by German engineer Richard Fiedler, the early prototypes of the

    1901年由德國工程師理查德-菲德勒首次設計,其早期原型為

  • Flamenwerfer were large and unwieldy.

    弗拉門威夫的體型龐大而笨重。

  • Despite this, the German army accepted his first design into regular service by 1906,

    儘管如此,德國軍隊還是在1906年之前接受了他的第一款設計,並將其投入常規服役。

  • though Fiedler did not stop working to produce a smaller and more practicable model.

    儘管費德勒並沒有停止工作,以生產出更小、更實用的模型。

  • He did this by shrinking the overall size of the flamethrower but still kept the same

    他通過縮小噴火器的整體尺寸來做到這一點,但仍然保持了相同的

  • two canister and rubber hose design.

    兩個罐子和橡膠管設計。

  • This model, known as the Kleif model, could shoot flames only about half as long as its

    這種模型被稱為Kleif模型,可以發射的火焰只有它的一半那麼長。

  • previous counterpart, with a range of about 60 feet.

    以前的同類產品,射程約為60英尺。

  • Nonetheless, this model was soon adopted by the German army as well in 1912 into the special

    儘管如此,這種模式很快就被德國軍隊採用,並在1912年被納入特殊的

  • pioneer regiments but would take several years before seeing active service.

    先鋒團,但需要幾年的時間才能看到現役。

  • When deployed, the German Kleif flamethrower was operated by two men.

    在部署時,德國克萊夫火焰噴射器由兩個人操作。

  • One man would carry the unwieldy apparatus itself, weighing in at about 70 pounds before

    一名男子將攜帶笨重的儀器本身,重量約為70磅。

  • firing, and the other would direct the flow of fire from the weapon at the end of the

    炮,而另一個人則負責指揮武器的火力流動。

  • nozzle.

    噴嘴。

  • These men obviously faced a very dangerous existence on the battlefield, which is why

    這些人在戰場上顯然面臨著非常危險的生存環境,這就是為什麼

  • they never travelled alone and usually had at least two soldiers as bodyguards to accompany

    他們從不單獨旅行,通常至少有兩名阿兵哥作為保鏢陪同。

  • them.

    他們。

  • The flamethrower teams were designed to be employed in groups of four to six teams in

    火焰噴射器小組被設計成四至六組,在

  • cases of major offensives, whereby their goal would be to push ahead of the first wave of

    在重大攻勢的情況下,他們的目標將是在第一波攻勢之前推進。

  • infantry to scare the enemy into the open with shock and awe.

    步兵,以震懾的方式將敵人嚇到。

  • The reason why this is was because the flamethrowers of World War One did not have the binding

    之所以如此,是因為第一次世界大戰的火焰噴射器沒有約束力。

  • agent inside the propellant like the flamethrowers of World War Two and beyond would have.

    像第二次世界大戰及以後的噴火器那樣,推進劑內有藥劑。

  • Rather, the flames produced by these weapons were more similar to starting an actual fire

    相反,這些武器產生的火焰更類似於啟動一個實際的火災

  • and would be effective for drawing enemies into the open to escape the intense heat and

    並能有效地將敵人吸引到空曠的地方,以躲避強烈的熱量和壓力。

  • suffocation from lack of oxygen rather than direct injuries from being burned alive.

    因缺氧而窒息,而不是被活活燒死的直接傷害。

  • This tactic was employed to a tee by the Germans for the first time in a major combat operation

    德國人在一次重大的作戰行動中首次將這種戰術運用到了極致。

  • against British troops on the Western front in July of 1915 but had been used intermittently

    1915年7月在西線對英軍作戰時,曾斷斷續續地使用過。

  • in the Vosges mountains of the Alsace-Lorraine region of France since 1914.

    自1914年以來,在法國阿爾薩斯-洛林地區的孚日山脈。

  • When employed en masse against British positions, the weapon absolutely frightened the bewildered

    在對英軍陣地大規模使用時,這種武器絕對會嚇壞那些不知所措的人。

  • and unprepared defenders.

    和毫無準備的保衛者。

  • The attack was a roaring success and over 700 British troops died in this assault that

    這次攻擊取得了轟轟烈烈的成功,有700多名英軍在這次攻擊中喪生,而這次攻擊是

  • took control of several trench lines.

    控制了幾條戰壕線。

  • However, British medical data from autopsies of recovered British soldiers in this attack

    然而,在這次襲擊中,英國對找回的英國阿兵哥進行屍檢的醫學數據顯示

  • found that true to German military planning, the vast majority of the British casualties

    發現,按照德國的軍事計劃,絕大多數英國人的傷亡都是

  • did not die as a direct result of burns, but had instead been pushed out into the open

    並非直接死於燒傷,而是被推到了戶外

  • from the security of their trenches and shot to pieces.

    從他們安全的戰壕裡出來,被射成碎片。

  • As the war progressed, both the British and French decided they too wanted to develop

    隨著戰爭的進行,英國和法國都決定他們也要發展

  • their own models of man-portable flamethrowers.

    他們自己的便攜式火焰噴射器的模型。

  • The British were quick to abandon the idea all together by 1916 with only four prototypes

    到1916年,英國人很快就完全放棄了這一想法,只有四臺原型機。

  • produced and two of these being destroyed in combat test trials.

    生產,其中兩個在戰鬥測試試驗中被摧毀。

  • The French were much more successful and developed their own similar flamethrowers based off

    法國人則更為成功,他們根據 "火炬 "開發了自己的類似火焰噴射器。

  • of captured German models.

    捕獲的德國模型。

  • However, data for their use is quite limited and though they were certainly used frequently

    然而,有關其使用的數據相當有限,儘管它們肯定被頻繁使用。

  • by the end of the war it is unknown to what extent.

    到戰爭結束時,不知道其程度如何。

  • The Germans on the other hand were undeterred to produce better and better flamethrowers.

    另一方面,德國人毫不畏懼,生產出越來越好的噴火器。

  • In 1917, they came out with their latest version, the Wechselapparat or Wex for short.

    1917年,他們推出了最新版本,即Wechselapparat或簡稱Wex。

  • This made the Kleif model even smaller and enabled a single man to carry and fire the

    這使得Kleif模型變得更小,並使一個人能夠攜帶和發射。

  • weapon.

    武器。

  • Data for this weapon too is sparse but it certainly was popular with the Entente forces

    這種武器的數據也很稀少,但它肯定受到了協約國部隊的歡迎。

  • since the British based their post war models off captured versions of this flamethrower.

    因為英國人的戰後模型是根據繳獲的這種火焰噴射器的版本製作的。

  • By the end of the war, the Germans had used flamethrowers in at least 650 recorded attacks.

    到戰爭結束時,德國人至少在650次有記錄的攻擊中使用了火焰噴射器。

  • Despite this rather large number, this does not take into account attacks conducted by

    儘管這個數字相當大,但這還沒有考慮到由下列機構進行的攻擊

  • the Germans on the eastern front against the Russians or attacks by their Austro-Hungarian

    在東線,德國人對俄國人的攻擊或他們的奧匈帝國的攻擊。

  • allies who used the weapon extensively on both the Italian and Eastern fronts.

    盟友在意大利和東部戰線上廣泛使用這種武器。

  • It was undoubtedly a popular weapon by Central Powers forces and was used to great effect

    毫無疑問,它是一種深受各中央大國部隊歡迎的武器,並被使用得非常有效。

  • by them.

    由他們。

  • Why the Entente powers failed to fully appreciate a flamethrower program similar to the German

    為什麼協約國未能充分認識到類似於德國的火焰噴射器計劃?

  • one has begged the questions of historians for many years, but the consensus is that

    這一點多年來一直是歷史學家的疑問,但一致認為

  • the weapon yielded too much risk for its users with little tactical advantage.

    該武器為其使用者帶來了太多的風險,但卻沒有什麼戰術優勢。

  • The fact that the German army had already been practicing with flamethrowers for years

    事實上,德國軍隊已經用火焰噴射器練習了多年

  • before World War One also gave them more confidence and experienced personnel that could use it

    在第一次世界大戰之前,也給了他們更多的信心和有經驗的人員,可以使用它。

  • better than their enemy counterparts.

    比他們的敵方同行更好。

  • Our deadliest weapon of World War I would go on into global infamy, prompting the banning

    我們在第一次世界大戰中最致命的武器將在全球範圍內聲名狼藉,促使人們禁止使用這些武器。

  • of its use in any future war by civilized nations.

    在文明國家的任何未來戰爭中使用它。

  • Number One: Poison Gas It's a quiet night on the western front.

    第一:毒氣 這是西線的一個寧靜之夜。

  • The enemy hasn't attacked in days- not even a customary bombardment to keep the men pinned

    敵人已經好幾天沒有進攻了--甚至沒有按慣例進行轟炸,讓阿兵哥們被壓制住。

  • down in their filthy trenches and demoralized, killing the unwary.

    他們倒在骯髒的戰壕裡,士氣低落,殺死不小心的人。

  • It's been a welcome break in the fighting.

    這是在戰鬥中的一個令人歡迎的休息。

  • Across hundreds of meters of no-man's land however, the enemy prepares a brand new kind

    然而,在數百米的無人區中,敵人準備了一種全新的方式

  • of attack.

    的攻擊。

  • Large metal canisters are pushed into position outside of friendly lines, and with the wind

    大型金屬罐被推到友軍防線外的位置,並隨著風

  • finally just right, knobs are turned and the canisters unleash their deadly cargo.

    最後恰到好處,旋鈕被轉動,罐子釋放出致命的貨物。

  • It'll float invisibly on the air, pushed along by the brisk breeze before settling

    它將無形地漂浮在空氣中,被輕快的微風推著走,然後落下。

  • into the opposing side's trenches.

    進入對方的戰壕。

  • The only clue the defenders will have they are under attack is a light fog creeping across

    守衛者受到攻擊的唯一線索是爬過的輕霧。

  • no-man's land and washing over their positions.

    無人區和沖刷他們的位置。

  • Many will die never knowing what killed them.

    許多人死後將永遠不知道是什麼殺了他們。

  • Most of the poison gases were already known substances to mankind long before the war

    大多數毒氣在戰前早已是人類已知的物質。

  • started, such as chlorine which was discovered in the late 1700s, and whose harmful effects

    開始,例如在17世紀末發現的氯氣,其有害影響

  • to humans were already well documented.

    對人類的影響已經有很好的記錄。

  • However, weaponizing these kinds of chemicals for military use had not been thought of before.

    然而,將這些種類的化學品武器化用於軍事用途在以前是沒有想到的。

  • Though poisons had been used on battlefields throughout ancient history, militaries around

    儘管在整個古代歷史中,戰場上一直在使用毒藥,但世界各地的軍隊都在使用毒藥。

  • the world were hesitant to use them in the modern era such as during the US Civil War

    在近代,世界各國都對使用這些武器猶豫不決,例如在美國內戰期間。

  • and Crimean War where these proposals were immediately shut down.

    和克里米亞戰爭中,這些建議立即被關閉。

  • However, World War One was different.

    然而,第一次世界大戰則不同。

  • Both sides used the logic that even if the weapons were absolutely horrible, if they

    雙方都使用了這樣的邏輯:即使武器是絕對可怕的,如果他們

  • could be used to achieve a decisive military victory sooner, then more lives would be saved

    可以用來更早地取得決定性的軍事勝利,那麼就可以挽救更多的生命

  • in the long run.

    從長遠來看。

  • However, contrary to popular belief, the French were the first to use chemical weapons in

    然而,與人們的普遍看法相反,法國人是第一個使用化學武器的國家。

  • August of 1914.

    1914年8月。

  • These first attacks did not use the deadly gases created later in the war but rather

    這些最初的攻擊沒有使用戰爭中後來產生的致命氣體,而是使用了

  • used tear gas which had already been in service with police forces several years earlier.

    他們使用了幾年前就已經在警察部隊中使用的催淚瓦斯。

  • The Germans would be the next belligerent to use gases but on a much larger scale.

    德國人將是下一個使用氣體的交戰國,但規模要大得多。

  • In October of 1914, they fired several thousand shells of a non-deadly irritant gas similar

    1914年10月,他們發射了幾千發類似於非致命刺激性氣體的炮彈。

  • to tear gas against the British.

    以催淚瓦斯對付英國人。

  • However, the British did not even know that they were being attacked with chemical weapons

    然而,英國人甚至不知道他們正受到化學武器的攻擊

  • since the explosive charges inside the artillery shells destroyed the gas before it could deploy.

    因為炮彈內的炸藥在氣體展開之前就將其摧毀了。

  • The next time the Germans tried to use gas on a large scale was in Poland in January

    德國人下一次試圖大規模使用毒氣是在1月的波蘭。

  • of 1915.

    1915年。

  • While the shells were able to deploy the gas this time, they were not effective due to

    雖然這次炮彈能夠展開氣體,但由於以下原因,炮彈並不有效

  • the extreme cold preventing the gas from vaporizing..

    極端寒冷使氣體無法汽化。

  • Delivering the gas required the creation of special artillery shells that had enough explosive

    輸送毒氣需要製造特殊的炮彈,這些炮彈有足夠的爆炸力。

  • in them to spread the gas but would not destroy it.

    他們中的人可以傳播氣體,但不會破壞它。

  • Additionally, they would need to account for factors such as temperature, rain, and, most

    此外,他們還需要考慮到溫度、雨水等因素,以及最重要的

  • importantly, wind direction.

    重要的是,風向。

  • If any of these conditions were not favorable, then the gas could not be fired since it would

    如果這些條件中的任何一個不合適,那麼氣體就不能被燃燒,因為它將會

  • not work- or worse, blow back onto their own lines.

    不起作用--或者更糟糕的是,吹回他們自己的線路上。

  • After some more experimenting, the Germans decided to use a deadlier gas called chlorine

    經過一些更多的實驗,德國人決定使用一種叫做氯氣的更致命的氣體

  • gas.

    氣體。

  • This was a dramatic step forward; even though chlorine gas was only fatal in extreme doses,

    這是一個巨大的進步;儘管氯氣只有在極端劑量下才會致命。

  • it was the first time that true poison gas would be used.

    這是第一次使用真正的毒氣。

  • That day was April 22, 1915 on the Ypres (pronounced ee-pruh) battlefield against French and colonial

    這一天是1915年4月22日,在伊普爾(讀作ee-pruh)戰場上,與法國和殖民地的軍隊對峙。

  • Algerian troops.

    阿爾及利亞部隊。

  • The gas attack came as a surprise since the soldiers had never once before seen or experienced

    由於阿兵哥們以前從未見過或經歷過毒氣攻擊,是以感到十分驚訝。

  • such a horrifying weapon.

    這樣一種可怕的武器。

  • The men also did not know what to do when they saw the clouds of noxious gases coming

    當他們看到有毒氣體的雲層湧來時,他們也不知道該怎麼做。

  • towards them.

    對他們。

  • Thinking that this gas was simply an irritant like tear gas, the men opted to stand their

    以為這種氣體只是像催淚瓦斯一樣的刺激物,這些人選擇了站在他們的

  • ground and fight.

    地和戰鬥。

  • However, that would prove to be a fatal error... before long hundreds of men were wheezing

    然而,這將被證明是一個致命的錯誤......不久,數以百計的人在喘息著。

  • and coughing blood and fluids before losing consciousness.

    並在失去知覺前咳出血液和液體。

  • Thousands of French soldiers retreated in panic and caused an almost eight mile sector

    數以千計的法國阿兵哥驚慌失措地撤退,造成了近8英里的區域

  • of their line to open up.

    他們的生產線打開了。