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  • First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes the baby in the baby carriage.

    首先是愛情,然後是婚姻,然後是嬰兒車裡的嬰兒。

  • At least, that's what most would-be parents are hoping for.

    至少,這就是大多數未來的父母所希望的。

  • Sadly, it's not always as easy to get pregnant as a couple might expect, and some hopeful

    可悲的是,懷孕並不總是像一對夫婦可能期望的那樣容易,而且一些充滿希望的

  • parents need a little help to make their family dreams come true.

    父母需要一點幫助來實現他們的家庭夢想。

  • When fertility treatments aren't enough, some aspiring parents turn to surrogacy to

    當生育治療還不夠時,一些有抱負的父母轉向代孕,以便

  • expand their family.

    擴大他們的家庭。

  • So, how does baby surrogacy actually work?

    那麼,嬰兒代孕究竟是如何運作的呢?

  • It's more complicated than you might expect.

    這比你想象的要複雜得多。

  • There are many reasons that someone may not be able to have children of their own.

    有人可能無法擁有自己的孩子,有很多原因。

  • Some medical issues can make pregnancy extremely risky for the mother, or there could be struggles

    一些醫療問題可能會使懷孕對母親產生極大的風險,或者可能會有掙扎。

  • with fertility for women and men, or the prospective mother might be too old to have children naturally.

    與女性和男性的生育能力,或者準媽媽可能太老而無法自然生育。

  • In some cases, the prospective parents are a same sex couple who need a surrogate to

    在某些情況下,潛在的父母是一對同性夫婦,他們需要一個代孕者來

  • help them become biological parents, and for others it's simply a personal choice not

    幫助他們成為親生父母,而對其他人來說,這僅僅是一種個人選擇,並不代表他們的選擇。

  • to carry their baby themselves.

    自己懷上孩子。

  • Many celebrities have used a surrogate to add to their family.

    許多名人都使用代孕來增加他們的家庭。

  • Tyra Banks and her boyfriend Erik Asla welcomed a baby boy named York to their family in 2016

    泰拉-班克斯和她的男友埃裡克-阿斯拉在2016年為他們的家庭迎來了一個名叫約克的男嬰

  • via a gestational surrogate.

    通過一個妊娠代孕者。

  • Grey's Anatomy star Ellen Pompeo's second child was delivered by a surrogate in 2014.

    實習醫生格蕾》的明星Ellen Pompeo的第二個孩子是在2014年由代孕者分娩的。

  • Niel Patrick Harris and his husband David Burtka welcomed their twins in 2010 - they

    尼爾-帕特里克-哈里斯和他的丈夫大衛-伯特卡在2010年迎來了他們的雙胞胎 - 他們

  • inserted two eggs into their surrogate's uterus, one inseminated with each of their

    他們將兩個卵子插入代孕者的子宮,每個卵子都受精於他們自己的 "小弟弟"。

  • sperm.

    精子。

  • In any of these cases, a surrogate can be the answer to the aspiring parents' dreams.

    在任何這些情況下,代孕者都可以成為有志於做父母的人的夢想的答案。

  • A surrogate is a woman who carries and delivers a baby for aspiring parents who are unable

    代孕是指為有抱負的父母攜帶和接生嬰兒的婦女,他們不能

  • or unwilling to have children of their own.

    或不願意有自己的孩子。

  • While surrogacy seems pretty straightforward, it can raise a lot of questions, like: “Is

    雖然代孕看起來很簡單,但它會引起很多問題,比如。"是否

  • the baby related to the surrogate?” orWho are the 'real' parents?”.

    嬰兒與代孕者的關係?"或 "誰是'真正'的父母?"。

  • The answers to these questions depend on what type of surrogacy is used.

    這些問題的答案取決於採用何種類型的代孕。

  • There are two types of surrogacy available for prospective parents - traditional surrogacy

    有兩種類型的代孕可供準父母選擇--傳統代孕

  • and gestational surrogacy.

    和妊娠代孕。

  • In both cases, the surrogate carries and delivers the baby for the intended parents, but there

    在這兩種情況下,代孕者為預期的父母攜帶和分娩嬰兒,但有

  • are major differences between the two types.

    這兩種類型之間有很大的區別。

  • In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate provides both the womb and the egg, and is artificially

    在傳統的代孕中,代孕者同時提供子宮和卵子,並且是人工的。

  • inseminated with the sperm from the prospective father or a donor.

    用未來父親或捐贈者的精子進行人工授精。

  • In cases of traditional surrogacy, the baby will be related to the surrogate as the egg

    在傳統代孕的情況下,嬰兒將與代孕者的卵子有關。

  • - and therefore half of the genetic material - came from the surrogate parent.

    - 是以,一半的遺傳物質--來自代孕父母。

  • In gestational surrogacy, the baby that the surrogate will carry is not related to her

    在妊娠代孕中,代孕者將攜帶的嬰兒與她沒有關係。

  • - the embryo is created with the eggs and sperm of the parents or donors and implanted

    - 用父母或捐贈者的卵子和精子創造胚胎並植入體內。

  • in the surrogate.

    在代用品中。

  • About 750 babies are born via gestational surrogacy in the U.S. each year.

    在美國,每年約有750名嬰兒通過妊娠代孕出生。

  • As for the question of who the 'real' parents are, traditional surrogacy can complicate

    至於誰是 "真正的 "父母的問題,傳統的代孕可能會使問題複雜化

  • things since the baby shares DNA with the surrogate, and for that reason it is the far

    由於嬰兒與代孕者有共同的DNA,是以,這是最重要的原因。

  • less common option for aspiring parents looking to have a child through a surrogate.

    對於希望通過代孕生孩子的有志之士來說,這是一個不太常見的選擇。

  • In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate is thebirth mother”, but the biological

    在妊娠代孕中,代孕者是 "生母",但親生母親則是 "生母"。

  • mother is the woman whose egg was used.

    母親是指其卵子被使用的婦女。

  • In either case, as long as everything is done properly, the intended parents are thereal

    在這兩種情況下,只要一切操作得當,預期的父母就是 "真正的"。

  • parents, whether or not they share DNA with the baby - just like in the case of adoption.

    父母,無論他們是否與嬰兒共享DNA--就像在收養的情況下。

  • Gestational surrogacy may seem pretty straightforward, but it's actually quite a complicated and

    妊娠代孕看起來很簡單,但它實際上是一個相當複雜和複雜的過程。

  • expensive process.

    昂貴的過程。

  • Once a couple has decided that gestational surrogacy is right for them, the first step

    一旦一對夫婦決定妊娠代孕是適合他們的,第一步

  • is to find a surrogate willing to carry and deliver their baby.

    是找到一個願意懷抱和分娩他們孩子的代孕者。

  • For Jenn and Brad Nixon, this step was one of the easiest parts of the process.

    對於Jenn和Brad Nixon來說,這一步是整個過程中最容易的部分之一。

  • After 2 years of trying unsuccessfully for a baby, the couple finally became pregnant

    在嘗試了2年未果後,這對夫婦終於懷孕了

  • with the help of fertility treatments, but sadly they lost the pregnancy at 16 weeks,

    在生育治療的幫助下,但不幸的是,他們在16周時失去了懷孕的機會。

  • and Jenn discovered that she had a heart condition that would make pregnancy unsafe for her and

    和Jenn發現,她有一個心臟問題,這將使她和Jenn的懷孕不安全。

  • her baby.

    她的孩子。

  • They were incredibly fortunate to have a close friend who volunteered to be their surrogate,

    他們非常幸運,有一位親密的朋友自願成為他們的代孕者。

  • and agreed to carry their baby for free.

    並同意免費為他們攜帶嬰兒。

  • Even though they did not have to compensate their surrogate, the cost of medical bills

    儘管他們不必賠償他們的代孕者,但醫療費的費用

  • and legal fees added up quickly.

    和法律費用迅速增加。

  • In the end, it still cost them nearly $35,000 dollars to have a baby through surrogacy,

    最後,他們通過代孕生孩子還是花了近35,000美元。

  • but the couple were happy to pay the price if it meant finally having a family of their

    但這對夫婦很樂意付出代價,如果這意味著最終有一個屬於他們的家庭的話。

  • own.

    擁有。

  • It's not always so easy to find a friend or family member willing to act as a surrogate.

    要找到一個願意作為代孕者的朋友或家人並不總是那麼容易。

  • Being a surrogate is a huge commitment - the person has to be willing to undergo pregnancy

    成為代孕者是一個巨大的承諾--當事人必須願意接受懷孕。

  • and delivery, understand the impact of giving up the baby after birth, and work closely

    和分娩,瞭解產後放棄嬰兒的影響,並緊密合作。

  • with the couple for a year or more.

    與這對夫婦相處了一年或更長時間。

  • Thankfully, there are agencies that will help match aspiring parents with willing surrogates

    值得慶幸的是,有一些機構會幫助有抱負的父母與有意願的代孕者配對。

  • and help with every step of the process.

    並幫助完成這一過程的每一步。

  • There are around 100 of these agencies in the U.S., and working with an agency gives

    在美國有大約100個這樣的機構,與一個機構合作可以獲得

  • prospective parents access to willing surrogates who have usually passed the agency's rigorous

    潛在的父母可以接觸到自願的代孕者,他們通常已經通過了該機構嚴格的審查。

  • evaluations.

    評價。

  • There are currently no regulations for who can be a surrogate, but most agencies require

    目前沒有關於誰可以成為代孕者的規定,但大多數機構要求

  • surrogates to be over 21 years old, to already have had at least 1 healthy baby, and to have

    代孕者必須超過21歲,已經有了至少1個健康的嬰兒,並且擁有

  • passed psychological screening and medical evaluations, including STD screening and immunization

    通過心理檢查和醫療評估,包括性病檢查和免疫接種

  • tests.

    測試。

  • Jessica and Ryan Benson had tried unsuccessfully for years to have a child of their own before

    傑西卡和瑞安-本森多年來一直試圖擁有一個自己的孩子,但未獲成功。

  • their doctor recommended gestational surrogacy.

    他們的醫生建議進行妊娠代孕。

  • Not knowing anyone personally who could act as their surrogate, they turned to a local

    由於不認識任何個人可以作為他們的代理,他們轉向了當地的一個

  • agency for help.

    呼叫機構尋求幫助。

  • They met with a case manager who helped them create their surrogacy plan and had them complete

    他們會見了一位個案經理,該經理幫助他們制定了代孕計劃,並讓他們完成了

  • a lengthy questionnaire detailing their preferences for a surrogate - everything from the surrogate's

    一份冗長的調查問卷,詳細說明了他們對代孕者的偏好--從代孕者的身份和背景等各個方面。

  • sexual orientation and personality to her preferred level of contact throughout and

    在整個過程中,她的性取向和個性與她喜歡的接觸程度和

  • after the process - as well as helped them complete their own profile to show to prospective

    在這一過程之後--以及幫助他們完成他們自己的資料,以展示給未來的人。

  • surrogates.

    代理人。

  • Their case manager then showed them 4 profiles of potential surrogates who matched their

    他們的個案經理隨後向他們展示了4個符合他們要求的潛在代孕者的資料。

  • criteria, and after meeting with the one they liked best, the 3 agreed to work together,

    標準,並在與他們最喜歡的人會面後,3人同意一起工作。

  • and Jessica and Ryan finally began their journey to parenthood.

    而傑西卡和瑞恩終於開始了他們的父母之旅。

  • Choosing a surrogate was just the beginning of the process for the Bensons, though.

    不過,對本森夫婦來說,選擇一個代孕者只是這個過程的開始。

  • Once they had found someone they liked who was willing to carry their baby and they had

    一旦他們找到了自己喜歡的人,願意為他們帶孩子,而且他們已經

  • ensured she was medically and psychologically fit for pregnancy, there were still mountains

    確保她在醫學上和心理上都適合懷孕,但仍有很多問題。

  • of legal paperwork to complete before they could begin their surrogacy journey.

    在開始他們的代孕之旅之前,需要完成大量的法律文書工作。

  • Both the Bensons and their surrogate each had to get their own lawyers to help them

    本森夫婦和他們的代孕者都不得不找自己的律師來幫助他們。

  • finalize the surrogacy contract - and the Bensons had to pay for all of the legal costs.

    敲定代孕合同--而本森夫婦必須支付所有的法律費用。

  • The surrogacy contract covers everything from how the parties would deal with any complications

    代孕合同涵蓋了從雙方將如何處理任何併發症的所有內容。

  • to how the surrogate would be compensated for her service.

    談到代孕者的服務將如何得到補償。

  • The contract also outlined the plan for establishing the Bensons as the legal parents of the baby,

    該合同還概述了確立本森夫婦為嬰兒合法父母的計劃。

  • a process that usually starts once the pregnancy has reached the second trimester.

    這是一個通常在懷孕達到第二個三個月時開始的過程。

  • Establishing legal parenthood is usually less complicated in gestational surrogacy than

    在妊娠代孕中,確立合法的父母身份通常沒有那麼複雜。

  • traditional surrogacy, since the baby is not related to the surrogate, but it's far from

    傳統的代孕,因為嬰兒與代孕者沒有關係,但這遠遠不是代孕。

  • simple and parental rights are by no means guaranteed.

    簡單的和父母的權利絕無保障。

  • There are no federal laws governing surrogacy in the U.S. - the rules vary widely from state

    在美國,沒有關於代孕的聯邦法律--各州的規則差異很大

  • to state, and are constantly changing as more and more people turn to surrogacy.

    隨著越來越多的人轉向代孕,這種情況也在不斷變化。

  • In some states, prospective parents are required to legally adopt the baby after birth, while

    在一些州,準父母需要在嬰兒出生後合法收養,而

  • others allow the parents to state their intention to take over legal guardianship before the

    其他國家則允許父母在接受法律監護權之前聲明他們的意圖。

  • baby is born.

    嬰兒出生。

  • Gestational surrogacy is currently only legal in 10 U.S. states, and although it is practiced

    妊娠代孕目前只在美國的10個州是合法的,儘管它是在美國進行的。

  • in many others, there are many legal hurdles and potential issues to be aware of.

    在其他許多情況下,有許多法律障礙和潛在問題需要注意。

  • In many states, the surrogate has the right to choose to keep the baby at any point throughout

    在許多州,代孕者有權在整個過程中的任何時候選擇保留嬰兒。

  • the process, and some states even require that prospective parents be legally married

    進程,有些州甚至要求未來的父母必須是合法的婚姻。

  • and heterosexual to even be allowed to use a surrogate.

    和異性戀,甚至被允許使用代孕。

  • Needless to say, lawyers and surrogacy agencies highly recommend holding off until the contracts

    毋庸置疑,律師和代孕機構強烈建議在合同簽訂之前暫緩行動。

  • are finalized and signed by both sides before taking steps to get pregnant.

    在採取懷孕措施之前,由雙方最後確定並簽署。

  • Once the legal hurdles have been cleared, the next step is fertilization.

    一旦清除了法律障礙,下一步就是受精。

  • For the Bensons, this meant a trip to the fertility clinic for all 3 of them.

    對於本森夫婦來說,這意味著他們三個人都要去生育診所。

  • After taking medications to help develop her eggs, Jessica underwent an egg retrieval procedure.

    在服用藥物以幫助卵子發育後,傑西卡接受了取卵手術。

  • Jessica's egg was then fertilized with Ryan's sperm in the lab to create an embryo that

    然後,傑西卡的卵子與瑞安的精子在實驗室中受精,創造出一個胚胎。

  • would be implanted in their surrogate's uterus.

    將被植入其代孕者的子宮中。

  • The Bensons were able to use their own egg and sperm, but that's not always the case

    本森夫婦能夠使用他們自己的卵子和精子,但這並不總是如此。

  • - some prospective parents use donor eggs or sperm to make the embryo that will become

    - 一些未來的父母使用捐贈的卵子或精子來製造胚胎,這將成為他們的目標。

  • their baby, either because they have to or because they chose to.

    他們的孩子,要麼是因為他們不得不這樣做,要麼是因為他們選擇這樣做。

  • The Bensons' surrogate also had to take fertility medications leading up to the procedure

    本森夫婦的代孕者也不得不在手術前服用生育藥物。

  • to increase the chances of a successful implantation.

    以增加成功植入的機會。

  • The procedure was relatively quick and painless, and a few weeks later they returned to the

    這個過程相對來說很快,而且沒有痛苦,幾周後他們回到了

  • clinic to find out if the implantation was successful.

    診所,以瞭解植入是否成功。

  • Luckily for the Bensons, the procedure was a success on the first try, and 6 weeks later

    對本森夫婦來說,幸運的是,手術第一次就獲得了成功,6周後

  • they were finally able to hear their baby's heartbeat for the first time.

    他們終於能夠第一次聽到他們寶寶的心跳。

  • Once the pregnancy was confirmed, the Bensons' surrogate received the first of her regular

    一旦確認懷孕,本森夫婦的代孕者就收到了她的第一份定期報告。

  • compensation payments that she would receive throughout the pregnancy.

    她在整個懷孕期間將獲得的賠償金。

  • This was just one of the many costs related to the surrogacy process.

    這只是與代孕過程有關的許多費用之一。

  • The Bensons were also on the hook for all medical costs, including fertility treatments

    本森夫婦還承擔了所有醫療費用,包括生育治療。

  • and pre-natal check-ups, labor and delivery costs, as well as their own and their surrogates

    和產前檢查、生產和分娩費用,以及他們自己和他們的代孕者的費用。

  • legal fees.

    法律費用。

  • They also had to cover travel expenses for themselves and the surrogate, since they had

    他們還必須支付自己和代孕者的旅行費用,因為他們有

  • travelled to another state with more favorable laws to have the procedure.

    到另一個法律更有利的州去做手術。

  • They even had to take care of the cost of the surrogate's food during the pregnancy

    他們甚至不得不承擔代孕者在懷孕期間的食物費用。

  • and pay for her maternity clothes.

    並支付她的孕婦服裝費用。

  • In all, it can cost anywhere from $100,000 to $150,000 dollars or more to have a baby

    總的來說,生孩子的費用從10萬美元到15萬美元或更多。

  • via a surrogate, but most prospective parents would tell you that it's well worth the

    通過代孕,但大多數未來的父母會告訴你,這是非常值得的。

  • costs.

    費用。

  • Some insurance companies offer special policies that cover the costs of surrogacy, but the

    一些保險公司提供涵蓋代孕費用的特殊政策,但

  • premiums alone can cost 10s of 1,000s of dollars and the prospective parents are responsible

    僅僅是保險費就可能花費10到1000美元,而未來的父母要負責。

  • for that cost, too.

    也是為了這個費用。

  • Finally, after years of disappointment and months of waiting, the Bensons were thrilled

    最後,在多年的失望和數月的等待之後,本森夫婦激動不已。

  • to finally welcome a healthy baby into their family.

    最終歡迎一個健康的嬰兒加入他們的家庭。

  • They were incredibly grateful to their surrogate for helping to make their dream of becoming

    他們非常感謝他們的代孕者,因為他們幫助他們實現了自己的夢想。

  • parents a reality.

    父母成為現實。

  • “I think she's an amazing person who is generous beyond measure,” says Jessica of

    "傑西卡說:"我認為她是一個了不起的人,她慷慨得無法衡量。

  • their surrogate.

    他們的代理者。

  • Unfortunately, not all surrogacy stories end as happily as the Bensons' and the Nixons'

    不幸的是,並不是所有的代孕故事都像本森和尼克松的故事那樣幸福地結束。

  • did, and there is plenty of controversy around the topic of commercial surrogacy in the U.S..

    的確,在美國,圍繞商業代孕的話題有很多爭議。

  • The infamous case of Baby M in the mid 1980s was the first court case in the country involving

    20世紀80年代中期,臭名昭著的M嬰兒案是該國第一起涉及以下方面的法庭案件

  • surrogacy, and it made headlines around the world.

    代孕,併成為全世界的頭條新聞。

  • In this case the couple had opted for traditional surrogacy, where they had used the husband's

    在本案中,這對夫婦選擇了傳統的代孕方式,他們使用了丈夫的

  • sperm to fertilize the surrogate's own egg, meaning that the surrogate was biologically

    精子使代孕者自己的卵子受精,這意味著代孕者在生物學上是一個人。

  • related to the baby.

    與嬰兒有關。

  • After the baby was born and the new parents took her home, the surrogate turned up at

    孩子出生後,新父母帶她回家,代孕者出現在了

  • their door demandingherbaby back and threatening suicide if they didn't give

    他們的門要求 "她 "的孩子回來,並威脅說如果他們不給就自殺。

  • her up.

    她了。

  • The parents reluctantly handed over their baby, though the surrogate was eventually

    父母不情願地交出了他們的孩子,儘管代孕者最終被

  • forced to give her back.

    被迫把她送回去。

  • This case is a prime example of why gestational surrogacy is preferred over traditional surrogacy,

    這個案例是一個最好的例子,說明為什麼妊娠代孕比傳統代孕更受歡迎。

  • and why traditional surrogacy is not even legal in many states.

    以及為什麼傳統代孕在許多州甚至不合法。

  • Some even advocate against commercial surrogacy altogether, arguing that financial compensation

    有些人甚至主張完全反對商業代孕,認為經濟補償

  • for carrying someone's baby is unethical.

    因為懷了別人的孩子是不道德的。

  • There is also risk on the other side of the table.

    桌子的另一邊也有風險。

  • In 2010, a Nova Scotia couple texted their surrogate, who was 6 months pregnant with

    2010年,一對新斯科舍省的夫婦給他們的代孕者發了一條簡訊,她已經懷孕6個月了。

  • twins, to tell her that they were separating and no longer wanted the babies.

    他告訴她,他們正在分居,不再想要孩子。

  • Thankfully, the surrogate gave birth to the twins and eventually found an adoptive home

    值得慶幸的是,代孕者生下了這對雙胞胎,並最終找到了一個領養家庭。

  • for them.

    為他們。

  • There's also the 2011 case of a Conneticut couple who offered their surrogate $10,000

    還有2011年康涅狄格州的一對夫婦向他們的代孕者提供了10,000美元的案例。

  • dollars to have an abortion after testing revealed that the baby had severe abnormalities.

    在檢測發現嬰兒有嚴重的畸形後,他用美元做了流產。

  • Instead, the surrogate fled to Michigan where the rights of the birth mother trump those

    相反,代孕者逃到了密歇根州,在那裡,生身母親的權利高於那些。

  • of the prospective parents, and she gave birth to the baby there before another family adopted

    她在另一個家庭收養孩子之前,在那裡生下了孩子。

  • it.

    它。

  • But these stories are more like anomalies than typical.

    但這些故事更像是反常現象,而不是典型。

  • Thanks to modern medicine and incredibly generous surrogates, families who can't have children

    由於現代醫學和令人難以置信的慷慨的代孕者,那些不能生育的家庭

  • of their own now have options for creating the family they've always dreamed of.

    現在有了創建他們一直夢想的家庭的選擇。

  • Surrogacy is a beautiful gift to give to someone who can't have their own children, but it

    代孕是送給無法擁有自己孩子的人的一份美麗禮物,但它

  • is definitely not without its risks and complications.

    絕對不是沒有風險和併發症。

  • Understanding how baby surrogacy works turns out to be more complicated than it might seem

    瞭解嬰兒代孕是如何運作的,原來比看起來更復雜

  • at first.

    起初。

  • If you thought learning about surrogacy was interesting, you'll definitely want to check

    如果你認為學習代孕很有趣,你一定會想去看看

  • out our other videos, like this one calledWhat Happens Before You Are Born?”

    請看我們的其他視頻,比如這段名為 "你出生前發生了什麼?"

  • Or, you might like this other video instead.

    或者,你可能會喜歡這個其他視頻。

  • As always, thanks for watching, and don't forget to like, share and subscribe!

    像往常一樣,感謝您的收看,別忘了喜歡、分享和訂閱!

  • See you next time!

    下一次見!

First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes the baby in the baby carriage.

首先是愛情,然後是婚姻,然後是嬰兒車裡的嬰兒。

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嬰兒代孕是如何實際運作的? (How Does Baby Surrogacy ACTUALLY Work?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 26 日
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