字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes the baby in the baby carriage. 首先是愛情，然後是婚姻，然後是嬰兒車裡的嬰兒。 At least, that's what most would-be parents are hoping for. 至少，這就是大多數未來的父母所希望的。 Sadly, it's not always as easy to get pregnant as a couple might expect, and some hopeful 可悲的是，懷孕並不總是像一對夫婦可能期望的那樣容易，而且一些充滿希望的 parents need a little help to make their family dreams come true. 父母需要一點幫助來實現他們的家庭夢想。 When fertility treatments aren't enough, some aspiring parents turn to surrogacy to 當生育治療還不夠時，一些有抱負的父母轉向代孕，以便 expand their family. 擴大他們的家庭。 So, how does baby surrogacy actually work? 那麼，嬰兒代孕究竟是如何運作的呢？ It's more complicated than you might expect. 這比你想象的要複雜得多。 There are many reasons that someone may not be able to have children of their own. 有人可能無法擁有自己的孩子，有很多原因。 Some medical issues can make pregnancy extremely risky for the mother, or there could be struggles 一些醫療問題可能會使懷孕對母親產生極大的風險，或者可能會有掙扎。 with fertility for women and men, or the prospective mother might be too old to have children naturally. 與女性和男性的生育能力，或者準媽媽可能太老而無法自然生育。 In some cases, the prospective parents are a same sex couple who need a surrogate to 在某些情況下，潛在的父母是一對同性夫婦，他們需要一個代孕者來 help them become biological parents, and for others it's simply a personal choice not 幫助他們成為親生父母，而對其他人來說，這僅僅是一種個人選擇，並不代表他們的選擇。 to carry their baby themselves. 自己懷上孩子。 Many celebrities have used a surrogate to add to their family. 許多名人都使用代孕來增加他們的家庭。 Tyra Banks and her boyfriend Erik Asla welcomed a baby boy named York to their family in 2016 泰拉-班克斯和她的男友埃裡克-阿斯拉在2016年為他們的家庭迎來了一個名叫約克的男嬰 via a gestational surrogate. 通過一個妊娠代孕者。 Grey's Anatomy star Ellen Pompeo's second child was delivered by a surrogate in 2014. 實習醫生格蕾》的明星Ellen Pompeo的第二個孩子是在2014年由代孕者分娩的。 Niel Patrick Harris and his husband David Burtka welcomed their twins in 2010 - they 尼爾-帕特里克-哈里斯和他的丈夫大衛-伯特卡在2010年迎來了他們的雙胞胎 - 他們 inserted two eggs into their surrogate's uterus, one inseminated with each of their 他們將兩個卵子插入代孕者的子宮，每個卵子都受精於他們自己的 "小弟弟"。 sperm. 精子。 In any of these cases, a surrogate can be the answer to the aspiring parents' dreams. 在任何這些情況下，代孕者都可以成為有志於做父母的人的夢想的答案。 A surrogate is a woman who carries and delivers a baby for aspiring parents who are unable 代孕是指為有抱負的父母攜帶和接生嬰兒的婦女，他們不能 or unwilling to have children of their own. 或不願意有自己的孩子。 While surrogacy seems pretty straightforward, it can raise a lot of questions, like: “Is 雖然代孕看起來很簡單，但它會引起很多問題，比如。"是否 the baby related to the surrogate?” or “Who are the 'real' parents?”. 嬰兒與代孕者的關係？"或 "誰是'真正'的父母？"。 The answers to these questions depend on what type of surrogacy is used. 這些問題的答案取決於採用何種類型的代孕。 There are two types of surrogacy available for prospective parents - traditional surrogacy 有兩種類型的代孕可供準父母選擇--傳統代孕 and gestational surrogacy. 和妊娠代孕。 In both cases, the surrogate carries and delivers the baby for the intended parents, but there 在這兩種情況下，代孕者為預期的父母攜帶和分娩嬰兒，但有 are major differences between the two types. 這兩種類型之間有很大的區別。 In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate provides both the womb and the egg, and is artificially 在傳統的代孕中，代孕者同時提供子宮和卵子，並且是人工的。 inseminated with the sperm from the prospective father or a donor. 用未來父親或捐贈者的精子進行人工授精。 In cases of traditional surrogacy, the baby will be related to the surrogate as the egg 在傳統代孕的情況下，嬰兒將與代孕者的卵子有關。 - and therefore half of the genetic material - came from the surrogate parent. - 是以，一半的遺傳物質--來自代孕父母。 In gestational surrogacy, the baby that the surrogate will carry is not related to her 在妊娠代孕中，代孕者將攜帶的嬰兒與她沒有關係。 - the embryo is created with the eggs and sperm of the parents or donors and implanted - 用父母或捐贈者的卵子和精子創造胚胎並植入體內。 in the surrogate. 在代用品中。 About 750 babies are born via gestational surrogacy in the U.S. each year. 在美國，每年約有750名嬰兒通過妊娠代孕出生。 As for the question of who the 'real' parents are, traditional surrogacy can complicate 至於誰是 "真正的 "父母的問題，傳統的代孕可能會使問題複雜化 things since the baby shares DNA with the surrogate, and for that reason it is the far 由於嬰兒與代孕者有共同的DNA，是以，這是最重要的原因。 less common option for aspiring parents looking to have a child through a surrogate. 對於希望通過代孕生孩子的有志之士來說，這是一個不太常見的選擇。 In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate is the “birth mother”, but the biological 在妊娠代孕中，代孕者是 "生母"，但親生母親則是 "生母"。 mother is the woman whose egg was used. 母親是指其卵子被使用的婦女。 In either case, as long as everything is done properly, the intended parents are the “real” 在這兩種情況下，只要一切操作得當，預期的父母就是 "真正的"。 parents, whether or not they share DNA with the baby - just like in the case of adoption. 父母，無論他們是否與嬰兒共享DNA--就像在收養的情況下。 Gestational surrogacy may seem pretty straightforward, but it's actually quite a complicated and 妊娠代孕看起來很簡單，但它實際上是一個相當複雜和複雜的過程。 expensive process. 昂貴的過程。 Once a couple has decided that gestational surrogacy is right for them, the first step 一旦一對夫婦決定妊娠代孕是適合他們的，第一步 is to find a surrogate willing to carry and deliver their baby. 是找到一個願意懷抱和分娩他們孩子的代孕者。 For Jenn and Brad Nixon, this step was one of the easiest parts of the process. 對於Jenn和Brad Nixon來說，這一步是整個過程中最容易的部分之一。 After 2 years of trying unsuccessfully for a baby, the couple finally became pregnant 在嘗試了2年未果後，這對夫婦終於懷孕了 with the help of fertility treatments, but sadly they lost the pregnancy at 16 weeks, 在生育治療的幫助下，但不幸的是，他們在16周時失去了懷孕的機會。 and Jenn discovered that she had a heart condition that would make pregnancy unsafe for her and 和Jenn發現，她有一個心臟問題，這將使她和Jenn的懷孕不安全。 her baby. 她的孩子。 They were incredibly fortunate to have a close friend who volunteered to be their surrogate, 他們非常幸運，有一位親密的朋友自願成為他們的代孕者。 and agreed to carry their baby for free. 並同意免費為他們攜帶嬰兒。 Even though they did not have to compensate their surrogate, the cost of medical bills 儘管他們不必賠償他們的代孕者，但醫療費的費用 and legal fees added up quickly. 和法律費用迅速增加。 In the end, it still cost them nearly $35,000 dollars to have a baby through surrogacy, 最後，他們通過代孕生孩子還是花了近35,000美元。 but the couple were happy to pay the price if it meant finally having a family of their 但這對夫婦很樂意付出代價，如果這意味著最終有一個屬於他們的家庭的話。 own. 擁有。 It's not always so easy to find a friend or family member willing to act as a surrogate. 要找到一個願意作為代孕者的朋友或家人並不總是那麼容易。 Being a surrogate is a huge commitment - the person has to be willing to undergo pregnancy 成為代孕者是一個巨大的承諾--當事人必須願意接受懷孕。 and delivery, understand the impact of giving up the baby after birth, and work closely 和分娩，瞭解產後放棄嬰兒的影響，並緊密合作。 with the couple for a year or more. 與這對夫婦相處了一年或更長時間。 Thankfully, there are agencies that will help match aspiring parents with willing surrogates 值得慶幸的是，有一些機構會幫助有抱負的父母與有意願的代孕者配對。 and help with every step of the process. 並幫助完成這一過程的每一步。 There are around 100 of these agencies in the U.S., and working with an agency gives 在美國有大約100個這樣的機構，與一個機構合作可以獲得 prospective parents access to willing surrogates who have usually passed the agency's rigorous 潛在的父母可以接觸到自願的代孕者，他們通常已經通過了該機構嚴格的審查。 evaluations. 評價。 There are currently no regulations for who can be a surrogate, but most agencies require 目前沒有關於誰可以成為代孕者的規定，但大多數機構要求 surrogates to be over 21 years old, to already have had at least 1 healthy baby, and to have 代孕者必須超過21歲，已經有了至少1個健康的嬰兒，並且擁有 passed psychological screening and medical evaluations, including STD screening and immunization 通過心理檢查和醫療評估，包括性病檢查和免疫接種 tests. 測試。 Jessica and Ryan Benson had tried unsuccessfully for years to have a child of their own before 傑西卡和瑞安-本森多年來一直試圖擁有一個自己的孩子，但未獲成功。 their doctor recommended gestational surrogacy. 他們的醫生建議進行妊娠代孕。 Not knowing anyone personally who could act as their surrogate, they turned to a local 由於不認識任何個人可以作為他們的代理，他們轉向了當地的一個 agency for help. 呼叫機構尋求幫助。 They met with a case manager who helped them create their surrogacy plan and had them complete 他們會見了一位個案經理，該經理幫助他們制定了代孕計劃，並讓他們完成了 a lengthy questionnaire detailing their preferences for a surrogate - everything from the surrogate's 一份冗長的調查問卷，詳細說明了他們對代孕者的偏好--從代孕者的身份和背景等各個方面。 sexual orientation and personality to her preferred level of contact throughout and 在整個過程中，她的性取向和個性與她喜歡的接觸程度和 after the process - as well as helped them complete their own profile to show to prospective 在這一過程之後--以及幫助他們完成他們自己的資料，以展示給未來的人。 surrogates. 代理人。 Their case manager then showed them 4 profiles of potential surrogates who matched their 他們的個案經理隨後向他們展示了4個符合他們要求的潛在代孕者的資料。 criteria, and after meeting with the one they liked best, the 3 agreed to work together, 標準，並在與他們最喜歡的人會面後，3人同意一起工作。 and Jessica and Ryan finally began their journey to parenthood. 而傑西卡和瑞恩終於開始了他們的父母之旅。 Choosing a surrogate was just the beginning of the process for the Bensons, though. 不過，對本森夫婦來說，選擇一個代孕者只是這個過程的開始。 Once they had found someone they liked who was willing to carry their baby and they had 一旦他們找到了自己喜歡的人，願意為他們帶孩子，而且他們已經 ensured she was medically and psychologically fit for pregnancy, there were still mountains 確保她在醫學上和心理上都適合懷孕，但仍有很多問題。 of legal paperwork to complete before they could begin their surrogacy journey. 在開始他們的代孕之旅之前，需要完成大量的法律文書工作。 Both the Bensons and their surrogate each had to get their own lawyers to help them 本森夫婦和他們的代孕者都不得不找自己的律師來幫助他們。 finalize the surrogacy contract - and the Bensons had to pay for all of the legal costs. 敲定代孕合同--而本森夫婦必須支付所有的法律費用。 The surrogacy contract covers everything from how the parties would deal with any complications 代孕合同涵蓋了從雙方將如何處理任何併發症的所有內容。 to how the surrogate would be compensated for her service. 談到代孕者的服務將如何得到補償。 The contract also outlined the plan for establishing the Bensons as the legal parents of the baby, 該合同還概述了確立本森夫婦為嬰兒合法父母的計劃。 a process that usually starts once the pregnancy has reached the second trimester. 這是一個通常在懷孕達到第二個三個月時開始的過程。 Establishing legal parenthood is usually less complicated in gestational surrogacy than 在妊娠代孕中，確立合法的父母身份通常沒有那麼複雜。 traditional surrogacy, since the baby is not related to the surrogate, but it's far from 傳統的代孕，因為嬰兒與代孕者沒有關係，但這遠遠不是代孕。 simple and parental rights are by no means guaranteed. 簡單的和父母的權利絕無保障。 There are no federal laws governing surrogacy in the U.S. - the rules vary widely from state 在美國，沒有關於代孕的聯邦法律--各州的規則差異很大 to state, and are constantly changing as more and more people turn to surrogacy. 隨著越來越多的人轉向代孕，這種情況也在不斷變化。 In some states, prospective parents are required to legally adopt the baby after birth, while 在一些州，準父母需要在嬰兒出生後合法收養，而 others allow the parents to state their intention to take over legal guardianship before the 其他國家則允許父母在接受法律監護權之前聲明他們的意圖。 baby is born. 嬰兒出生。 Gestational surrogacy is currently only legal in 10 U.S. states, and although it is practiced 妊娠代孕目前只在美國的10個州是合法的，儘管它是在美國進行的。 in many others, there are many legal hurdles and potential issues to be aware of. 在其他許多情況下，有許多法律障礙和潛在問題需要注意。 In many states, the surrogate has the right to choose to keep the baby at any point throughout 在許多州，代孕者有權在整個過程中的任何時候選擇保留嬰兒。 the process, and some states even require that prospective parents be legally married 進程，有些州甚至要求未來的父母必須是合法的婚姻。 and heterosexual to even be allowed to use a surrogate. 和異性戀，甚至被允許使用代孕。 Needless to say, lawyers and surrogacy agencies highly recommend holding off until the contracts 毋庸置疑，律師和代孕機構強烈建議在合同簽訂之前暫緩行動。 are finalized and signed by both sides before taking steps to get pregnant. 在採取懷孕措施之前，由雙方最後確定並簽署。 Once the legal hurdles have been cleared, the next step is fertilization. 一旦清除了法律障礙，下一步就是受精。 For the Bensons, this meant a trip to the fertility clinic for all 3 of them. 對於本森夫婦來說，這意味著他們三個人都要去生育診所。 After taking medications to help develop her eggs, Jessica underwent an egg retrieval procedure. 在服用藥物以幫助卵子發育後，傑西卡接受了取卵手術。 Jessica's egg was then fertilized with Ryan's sperm in the lab to create an embryo that 然後，傑西卡的卵子與瑞安的精子在實驗室中受精，創造出一個胚胎。 would be implanted in their surrogate's uterus. 將被植入其代孕者的子宮中。 The Bensons were able to use their own egg and sperm, but that's not always the case 本森夫婦能夠使用他們自己的卵子和精子，但這並不總是如此。 - some prospective parents use donor eggs or sperm to make the embryo that will become - 一些未來的父母使用捐贈的卵子或精子來製造胚胎，這將成為他們的目標。 their baby, either because they have to or because they chose to. 他們的孩子，要麼是因為他們不得不這樣做，要麼是因為他們選擇這樣做。 The Bensons' surrogate also had to take fertility medications leading up to the procedure 本森夫婦的代孕者也不得不在手術前服用生育藥物。 to increase the chances of a successful implantation. 以增加成功植入的機會。 The procedure was relatively quick and painless, and a few weeks later they returned to the 這個過程相對來說很快，而且沒有痛苦，幾周後他們回到了 clinic to find out if the implantation was successful. 診所，以瞭解植入是否成功。 Luckily for the Bensons, the procedure was a success on the first try, and 6 weeks later 對本森夫婦來說，幸運的是，手術第一次就獲得了成功，6周後 they were finally able to hear their baby's heartbeat for the first time. 他們終於能夠第一次聽到他們寶寶的心跳。 Once the pregnancy was confirmed, the Bensons' surrogate received the first of her regular 一旦確認懷孕，本森夫婦的代孕者就收到了她的第一份定期報告。 compensation payments that she would receive throughout the pregnancy. 她在整個懷孕期間將獲得的賠償金。 This was just one of the many costs related to the surrogacy process. 這只是與代孕過程有關的許多費用之一。 The Bensons were also on the hook for all medical costs, including fertility treatments 本森夫婦還承擔了所有醫療費用，包括生育治療。 and pre-natal check-ups, labor and delivery costs, as well as their own and their surrogates 和產前檢查、生產和分娩費用，以及他們自己和他們的代孕者的費用。 legal fees. 法律費用。 They also had to cover travel expenses for themselves and the surrogate, since they had 他們還必須支付自己和代孕者的旅行費用，因為他們有 travelled to another state with more favorable laws to have the procedure. 到另一個法律更有利的州去做手術。 They even had to take care of the cost of the surrogate's food during the pregnancy 他們甚至不得不承擔代孕者在懷孕期間的食物費用。 and pay for her maternity clothes. 並支付她的孕婦服裝費用。 In all, it can cost anywhere from $100,000 to $150,000 dollars or more to have a baby 總的來說，生孩子的費用從10萬美元到15萬美元或更多。 via a surrogate, but most prospective parents would tell you that it's well worth the 通過代孕，但大多數未來的父母會告訴你，這是非常值得的。 costs. 費用。 Some insurance companies offer special policies that cover the costs of surrogacy, but the 一些保險公司提供涵蓋代孕費用的特殊政策，但 premiums alone can cost 10s of 1,000s of dollars and the prospective parents are responsible 僅僅是保險費就可能花費10到1000美元，而未來的父母要負責。 for that cost, too. 也是為了這個費用。 Finally, after years of disappointment and months of waiting, the Bensons were thrilled 最後，在多年的失望和數月的等待之後，本森夫婦激動不已。 to finally welcome a healthy baby into their family. 最終歡迎一個健康的嬰兒加入他們的家庭。 They were incredibly grateful to their surrogate for helping to make their dream of becoming 他們非常感謝他們的代孕者，因為他們幫助他們實現了自己的夢想。 parents a reality. 父母成為現實。 “I think she's an amazing person who is generous beyond measure,” says Jessica of "傑西卡說："我認為她是一個了不起的人，她慷慨得無法衡量。 their surrogate. 他們的代理者。 Unfortunately, not all surrogacy stories end as happily as the Bensons' and the Nixons' 不幸的是，並不是所有的代孕故事都像本森和尼克松的故事那樣幸福地結束。 did, and there is plenty of controversy around the topic of commercial surrogacy in the U.S.. 的確，在美國，圍繞商業代孕的話題有很多爭議。 The infamous case of Baby M in the mid 1980s was the first court case in the country involving 20世紀80年代中期，臭名昭著的M嬰兒案是該國第一起涉及以下方面的法庭案件 surrogacy, and it made headlines around the world. 代孕，併成為全世界的頭條新聞。 In this case the couple had opted for traditional surrogacy, where they had used the husband's 在本案中，這對夫婦選擇了傳統的代孕方式，他們使用了丈夫的 sperm to fertilize the surrogate's own egg, meaning that the surrogate was biologically 精子使代孕者自己的卵子受精，這意味著代孕者在生物學上是一個人。 related to the baby. 與嬰兒有關。 After the baby was born and the new parents took her home, the surrogate turned up at 孩子出生後，新父母帶她回家，代孕者出現在了 their door demanding “her” baby back and threatening suicide if they didn't give 他們的門要求 "她 "的孩子回來，並威脅說如果他們不給就自殺。 her up. 她了。 The parents reluctantly handed over their baby, though the surrogate was eventually 父母不情願地交出了他們的孩子，儘管代孕者最終被 forced to give her back. 被迫把她送回去。 This case is a prime example of why gestational surrogacy is preferred over traditional surrogacy, 這個案例是一個最好的例子，說明為什麼妊娠代孕比傳統代孕更受歡迎。 and why traditional surrogacy is not even legal in many states. 以及為什麼傳統代孕在許多州甚至不合法。 Some even advocate against commercial surrogacy altogether, arguing that financial compensation 有些人甚至主張完全反對商業代孕，認為經濟補償 for carrying someone's baby is unethical. 因為懷了別人的孩子是不道德的。 There is also risk on the other side of the table. 桌子的另一邊也有風險。 In 2010, a Nova Scotia couple texted their surrogate, who was 6 months pregnant with 2010年，一對新斯科舍省的夫婦給他們的代孕者發了一條簡訊，她已經懷孕6個月了。 twins, to tell her that they were separating and no longer wanted the babies. 他告訴她，他們正在分居，不再想要孩子。 Thankfully, the surrogate gave birth to the twins and eventually found an adoptive home 值得慶幸的是，代孕者生下了這對雙胞胎，並最終找到了一個領養家庭。 for them. 為他們。 There's also the 2011 case of a Conneticut couple who offered their surrogate $10,000 還有2011年康涅狄格州的一對夫婦向他們的代孕者提供了10,000美元的案例。 dollars to have an abortion after testing revealed that the baby had severe abnormalities. 在檢測發現嬰兒有嚴重的畸形後，他用美元做了流產。 Instead, the surrogate fled to Michigan where the rights of the birth mother trump those 相反，代孕者逃到了密歇根州，在那裡，生身母親的權利高於那些。 of the prospective parents, and she gave birth to the baby there before another family adopted 她在另一個家庭收養孩子之前，在那裡生下了孩子。 it. 它。 But these stories are more like anomalies than typical. 但這些故事更像是反常現象，而不是典型。 Thanks to modern medicine and incredibly generous surrogates, families who can't have children 由於現代醫學和令人難以置信的慷慨的代孕者，那些不能生育的家庭 of their own now have options for creating the family they've always dreamed of. 現在有了創建他們一直夢想的家庭的選擇。 Surrogacy is a beautiful gift to give to someone who can't have their own children, but it 代孕是送給無法擁有自己孩子的人的一份美麗禮物，但它 is definitely not without its risks and complications. 絕對不是沒有風險和併發症。 Understanding how baby surrogacy works turns out to be more complicated than it might seem 瞭解嬰兒代孕是如何運作的，原來比看起來更復雜 at first. 起初。 If you thought learning about surrogacy was interesting, you'll definitely want to check 如果你認為學習代孕很有趣，你一定會想去看看 out our other videos, like this one called “What Happens Before You Are Born?” 請看我們的其他視頻，比如這段名為 "你出生前發生了什麼？" Or, you might like this other video instead. 或者，你可能會喜歡這個其他視頻。 As always, thanks for watching, and don't forget to like, share and subscribe! 像往常一樣，感謝您的收看，別忘了喜歡、分享和訂閱! See you next time! 下一次見!