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  • The Black Death surged unstoppably throughout Eurasia for years, killing people in painful,

    黑死病在整個歐亞大陸不可阻擋地湧動了好幾年,使人們痛苦地死去。

  • excruciating ways within days of infection.

    感染後的幾天內就會出現令人痛不欲生的情況。

  • Almost no one who caught it stood a chance.

    幾乎沒有人抓住它的機會。

  • By the time it was done, about a third of the world's population lay dead.

    當它完成時,世界上大約三分之一的人口已經死亡。

  • So how did this deadly widespread contagion finally end?

    那麼,這種致命的大範圍傳染病最終是如何結束的呢?

  • Europe in 1347: famines, tuberculosis, smallpox, beheadings, STDs…[pause]...old age seemed

    1347年的歐洲:饑荒、肺結核、天花、砍頭、性病......[停頓]......老年似乎是

  • like the least common way for anyone to die at the time.

    像是當時最不常見的死亡方式。

  • Even giving birth gave you good odds of ending up in a grave.

    即使是生孩子,你也有很好的機會落入墳墓。

  • In this time of generally widespread disease and danger, no one could have imagined that

    在這個普遍存在疾病和危險的時代,沒有人能夠想象到

  • a plague which would outdo all the other plagues thus far was about to make its horrific entrance.

    一場將超過迄今為止所有其他瘟疫的瘟疫即將可怕地登場。

  • Of course, Europeans had heard of theGreat Pestilencethat was spreading through the

    當然,歐洲人已經聽說了正在蔓延的 "大瘟疫"。

  • Middle East and Asia.

    中東和亞洲。

  • However, in a situation that thankfully would never be repeated again, they just kept going

    然而,在一個幸好不會再發生的情況下,他們只是繼續前進。

  • on about their business hoping the problem would fix itself before really affecting them.

    繼續他們的業務,希望問題在真正影響到他們之前能自行解決。

  • And yet one day, undeterred by state lines, the bubonic plague made its European debut.

    然而有一天,不受州界的影響,鼠疫在歐洲首次出現。

  • 12 ships from the Black Sea docked in the sunny Sicilian port of Messina, and people

    12艘來自黑海的船隻停靠在陽光明媚的西西里島的墨西拿港,人們

  • working on the docks went to greet the sailors and get the cargo.

    在碼頭上工作的人去迎接水手,去拿貨物。

  • That's when they noticed something odd.

    這時他們注意到一些奇怪的事情。

  • Most of the sailors were dead, and the few who remained alive were covered in disgusting

    大多數水手都死了,少數活著的人渾身都是令人作嘔的

  • black boils hemorrhaging blood and pus.

    黑癤子出血和流膿。

  • No one knew exactly what was going on, but getting the ships and boil-covered sailors

    沒有人知道到底發生了什麼,但讓船隻和被沸騰覆蓋的水手們

  • as far away from Messina as possible seemed like a good call.

    儘可能遠離墨西拿似乎是個好主意。

  • To where, they didn't really care.

    在哪裡,他們並不真正關心。

  • Sicilian authorities told thedeath shipsto leave the port.

    西西里當局告訴 "死亡之船 "離開港口。

  • Unfortunately, it was already too late.

    不幸的是,這已經太晚了。

  • Not only was the bubonic plague one of the most virulent, contagious diseases known to

    鼠疫不僅是已知的最劇烈、最具有傳染性的疾病之一,而且也是最重要的疾病。

  • man, and thus had probably already spread to some dockworkers in the brief contact they

    是以,在他們短暫的接觸中,可能已經傳播給一些碼頭工人。

  • had with the sailors; the flea-ridden rats that had originally infected the sailors had

    與水手的關係;最初感染水手的帶跳蚤的老鼠已經

  • already abandoned ship.

    已經棄船了。

  • Scurrying their way right into the cobblestone streets of Messina.

    他們直接竄入墨西拿的鵝卵石街道。

  • From Messina, the plague spread through Italy, up into France, Germany, and even London within

    從墨西拿開始,瘟疫在意大利蔓延,一直到法國、德國,甚至是倫敦。

  • the year.

    年。

  • Even in a time of such slow, arduous travel, the Black Death tore its way through the continent

    即使在這樣一個緩慢、艱苦的旅行時代,黑死病也在大陸上肆虐。

  • with unimaginable force and speed.

    以難以想象的力量和速度。

  • Between 1346 and 1353, the Black Death killed a higher proportion of the world population

    1346年至1353年期間,黑死病使世界人口的比例更高

  • than any other singular event in history.

    比歷史上任何其他單一的事件都要重要。

  • It killed 25 million people in Europe in a period of four years, and over this climax

    在四年的時間裡,它在歐洲殺死了2500萬人,而在這個高潮中

  • of its spread, is estimated to have destroyed 75 million lives worldwide.

    據估計,在其傳播過程中,全世界有7500萬人的生命被毀。

  • Keep in mind, this was during a time when the entire global population was estimated

    請記住,這是在整個全球人口被估計的時期。

  • to be around 380 million.

    約為3.8億。

  • Some estimates even put the Plague's total death toll higher, at around 200 million,

    一些估計甚至認為瘟疫的總死亡人數更高,約為2億人。

  • and global population estimates higher as well.

    和全球人口估計也更高。

  • However, even the minimum death count is horrifying to comprehend.

    然而,即使是最低限度的死亡人數也是令人恐怖的,難以理解。

  • It took 200 years for the world to rebuild its population to pre-plague levels.

    世界花了200年時間才將其人口重建到瘟疫前的水準。

  • We assume part of the reason for the lengthy repopulating process was that seeing boil-covered

    我們認為,冗長的重新填充過程的部分原因是,看到被癤子覆蓋的

  • humans and death all around you for years is bound to have an effect on your sex drive.

    多年來,人類和死亡圍繞著你,這必然會對你的性慾產生影響。

  • But for the world population to bounce back that meant...the Black Plague had to end.

    但是為了讓世界人口反彈,這意味著......黑死病必須結束。

  • So how did it?

    那麼它是如何做到的呢?

  • Did it just run its course?

    它是否剛剛走完它的歷程?

  • Or did people start getting better at stopping the spread and fighting it?

    還是人們開始在阻止傳播和對抗它方面變得更好?

  • The answer is actually nuanced, as most scientific and medical issues are, despite what your

    答案其實是有細微差別的,就像大多數科學和醫學問題一樣,儘管你的

  • self-diagnosis via WebMD may tell you.

    通過WebMD進行的自我診斷可能會告訴你。

  • Many experts have an explanation they favor most, but they also agree that the Black Plague

    許多專家有一個他們最贊成的解釋,但他們也同意,黑死病

  • ended as a result of a combination of factors.

    由於各種因素的綜合作用而結束。

  • First of all, the extreme deadliness of the Black Plague proved to be part of its eventual

    首先,黑死病的極端致命性被證明是其最終的一部分

  • undoing.

    破壞。

  • The disease killed so many people so quickly, that at some point, it ran out of victims.

    這種疾病如此迅速地殺死了許多人,以至於在某個時候,它的受害者已經用完了。

  • When the bubonic plague struck a person, they quickly fell grievously ill.

    當鼠疫襲擊一個人時,他們很快就病得很嚴重。

  • Symptoms included fevers of 100 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 41 degrees Celsius), nausea,

    症狀包括華氏100至106度(攝氏38至41度)的發燒,噁心。

  • vomiting, severe joint pain, and headaches.

    嘔吐、嚴重的關節疼痛和頭痛。

  • The most unique symptoms to the plague were thebuboes'' that gave it its name: large

    鼠疫最獨特的症狀是 "氣泡",它的名字由此而來:大的

  • egg-shaped boils that oozed pus and blood.

    雞蛋狀的癤子,滲出膿液和血。

  • Charming.

    迷人。

  • People who fell ill usually became confined to their homes and died within three to eight

    患病的人通常被限制在家中,並在三至八天內死亡。

  • days.

    天。

  • Over 80% of all those infected, died.

    在所有被感染的人中,超過80%的人死亡。

  • Thus the odds once you caught the disease were….not great.

    是以,一旦你染上這種疾病,機率....,不是很大。

  • This is why highly deadly pathogens have a way of wiping themselves out.

    這就是為什麼高度致命的病原體有辦法將自己消滅掉。

  • A disease that kills so many so fast eventually reduces its own chances of spreading, and

    一種疾病如此快速地殺死這麼多人,最終會減少其自身的傳播機會,而且

  • therefore, surviving.

    是以,生存下來。

  • At some point, there were literally just not many people left to kill, and not that dense

    在某些時候,簡直就是沒有多少人可以殺了,也沒有那麼密集的人

  • a population to work through.

    一個人口的工作。

  • Especially when people wised up to the fact that staying away from the sick would help

    特別是當人們清醒地認識到遠離病人將有助於

  • them survive.

    他們的生存。

  • See, the second reason the plague ended was because people started trying to prevent its

    看,瘟疫結束的第二個原因是人們開始試圖防止其

  • transmission.

    傳送。

  • Doctors initially had no good advice to give the population.

    醫生們最初沒有好的建議給民眾。

  • This was a previously unknown disease, and also, most doctors at the time thought leeches

    這是一種以前未知的疾病,而且,當時大多數醫生認為水蛭

  • helped depression.

    幫助抑鬱症。

  • Unless Gwyneth Paltrow is your medical professional, we generally expect better medical advice

    除非格溫妮絲-帕特洛是你的醫療專家,否則我們一般會期待更好的醫療建議

  • and treatment these days.

    和治療這些天。

  • For an example of doctors' opinions about the disease during that era, one plague doctor

    關於那個時代的醫生對疾病的看法,一位瘟疫醫生舉了一個例子

  • stated his belief that, “instantaneous death occurs when the aerial spirit escaping from

    他說,他相信,"當空中的靈魂逃離時,就會發生瞬間死亡。

  • the eyes of the sick man strikes the healthy person standing near and looking at the sick”.

    病者的眼睛打擊了站在附近看病的健康人"。

  • He wasn't exactly wrong [emphasis] about the ease [emphasis] of transmission, and the

    他對傳播的便利性[強調]並沒有完全錯誤,而

  • fact that the bubonic plague could be spread via the air.

    鼠疫可以通過空氣傳播的事實。

  • But his reasoning as to how and why was…[pause]...suspect.

    但他關於如何和為什麼的推理是......[停頓]......可疑的。

  • However, despite the horrific state of medicine at the time, people eventually realized that

    然而,儘管當時的醫學狀況很可怕,但人們最終意識到

  • the more they came into contact with others, the more likely they would be to catch this

    他們與其他人接觸得越多,就越有可能感染這種疾病。

  • deadly new disease.

    致命的新疾病。

  • So people started escaping the big, dense cities of Europe and going to the countryside.

    是以,人們開始逃離歐洲密集的大城市,到農村去。

  • However, the plague, carried by fleas on rats and livestock, followed them out there as

    然而,由老鼠和牲畜身上的跳蚤所攜帶的鼠疫,隨著他們來到了那裡。

  • well.

    好的。

  • So more stringent measures were taken.

    所以採取了更嚴格的措施。

  • Storeowners closed up shops and stayed home.

    店主們關閉了商店,呆在家裡。

  • Priests wouldn't administer last rites.

    牧師不會主持最後的儀式。

  • Doctors refused to see patients; given our previous statements, this was probably for

    醫生拒絕為病人看病;鑑於我們以前的陳述,這可能是為了

  • the best.

    最好的。

  • And cremation became extremely popular in order to both minimize the existence of plague-carrying

    為了儘量減少攜帶瘟疫的人的存在,火葬變得極為流行。

  • bodies, and also save space as corpses quickly filled up mass graves.

    屍體,而且還可以節省空間,因為屍體很快就填滿了亂葬崗。

  • Tragically, people were even forced to leave their sick and suffering family members behind

    可悲的是,人們甚至被迫離開他們生病和痛苦的家人

  • to have a shot at escaping the plague.

    以便有機會逃過瘟疫。

  • Thomas Mockaitis, a history professor at DePaul University, explains that, “people had no

    德保羅大學的歷史教授Thomas Mockaitis解釋說,"人們沒有

  • real understanding of how to fight it other than trying to avoid sick people”.

    除了試圖避開生病的人之外,對如何與之鬥爭有真正的瞭解"。

  • That's why in Italy, where the disease had first infected Europe, they decided to start

    這就是為什麼在意大利,即該疾病首次感染歐洲的地方,他們決定開始

  • a new practice.

    一個新的做法。

  • In the Venetian-controlled port city of Ragusa, incoming sailors were kept on their ships

    在威尼斯人控制的港口城市拉古薩,入境的水手們被留在船上

  • in isolation for 30 days.

    隔離30天。

  • Eventually, the isolation period increased to 40 days, which in Italian was calledquarantino”.

    最終,隔離期增加到40天,在意大利被稱為 "quarantino"。

  • This led to the origin of our current word that we've become way too depressingly familiar

    這導致了我們現在這個詞的起源,我們已經變得太令人沮喪地熟悉了

  • with: “quarantine”.

    與。"檢疫"。

  • The practice worked, as incoming cases of bubonic plague were greatly reduced.

    這種做法很有效,因為傳入的鼠疫病例大大減少。

  • Even with quarantine procedures, however, what was to be done about the fleas and rats

    然而,即使有檢疫程序,也要對跳蚤和老鼠採取什麼措施呢?

  • transmitting the disease?

    傳播疾病?

  • These two animals still carried the bacteria, known as Yersina pestis, that spread the plague.

    這兩隻動物仍然攜帶傳播鼠疫的細菌,即耶爾森氏菌。

  • Well, most European cities decided that greatly improving their sanitation procedures would

    那麼,大多數歐洲城市決定,大大改善他們的衛生程序將

  • help in this regard - as it does in most regards, actually.

    在這方面有幫助--實際上在大多數方面都是如此。

  • It turns out the cleaner a place is, the less fleas and rats tend to congregate there, as

    事實證明,一個地方越乾淨,跳蚤和老鼠就越少聚集在那裡,因為

  • most students discover after freshman year in their college dorms.

    大多數學生在大一之後在他們的大學宿舍發現。

  • People also strived to improve their personal hygiene, which helped keep even more fleas

    人們還努力改善他們的個人衛生,這有助於保持更多的跳蚤。

  • at bay.

    在海灣。

  • Again, we're unsure why this wasn't a thing before, but apparently people learning

    同樣,我們不確定為什麼以前沒有這個東西,但顯然,人們在學習

  • to wash their hair more than once a month was the tiniest of silver linings to the horrific

    每月洗一次以上的頭髮,是可怕的 "銀線 "的一小部分。

  • mass death of the plague.

    瘟疫的大規模死亡。

  • So the deadliness of the plague itself, combined with quarantine procedures and better sanitation,

    所以瘟疫本身的致命性,加上檢疫程序和更好的衛生條件。

  • helped curb the spread of the Black Death.

    幫助遏制了黑死病的蔓延。

  • What was the final factor that put a stop to it?

    阻止它的最後因素是什麼?

  • In 2010, researchers collected DNA from mass graves of Black Plague victims, and found

    2010年,研究人員從黑死病患者的集體墳墓中收集DNA,發現

  • that the DNA of the bacteria was vastly different from the current form of the plague.

    該細菌的DNA與目前的鼠疫形式有很大的不同。

  • It was a far deadlier strain of the disease.

    那是一種更致命的疾病菌株。

  • As we said before, highly fatal pathogens must eventually find a way to be less deadly,

    正如我們之前所說,高度致命的病原體最終必須找到一種不那麼致命的方法。

  • in order to keep their own reproduction going.

    以保持他們自己的繁殖。

  • So the evolution of bacterial DNA helped lessen the deadliness of the bacteria, but that's

    是以,細菌DNA的進化有助於減輕細菌的致命性,但這是

  • not the only way DNA transformation helped stop the plague.

    這並不是DNA轉化幫助阻止瘟疫的唯一方式。

  • It turns out, human DNA mutations also helped it lose momentum.

    事實證明,人類的DNA變異也幫助它失去了動力。

  • Apparently, a certain DNA mutation that has been shown to help protect against HIV in

    顯然,某種DNA突變已被證明有助於防止艾滋病毒在

  • humans today first appeared in a widespread way in the population in the 1300s.

    今天的人類第一次以廣泛的方式出現在人群中是在13世紀。

  • The most likely reason?

    最有可能的原因是什麼?

  • “A widespread fatal epidemic”.

    "一種廣泛的致命性流行病"。

  • The disease didn't cause the mutation; it simply disproportionately affected those without

    這種疾病並沒有引起突變;它只是不成比例地影響了那些沒有突變的人。

  • it, leading more of those with [emphasis] the mutation to pass down their genes.

    它導致更多具有[強調]突變的人將他們的基因傳遞下去。

  • A combination of all these factors stopped the plague in its tracks.

    所有這些因素的結合阻止了瘟疫的發生。

  • Unfortunately, people at the time also tried to end the Black Death in several ill-advised

    不幸的是,當時的人們也試圖通過幾種不明智的方式來結束黑死病。

  • and horrifying ways.

    和可怕的方式。

  • Many believed the plague was, in fact, God punishing the population for their sins.

    許多人相信瘟疫實際上是上帝在懲罰民眾的罪過。

  • Therefore, they would have to demonstrate repentance and devotion to God in order to

    是以,他們必須表現出對上帝的悔改和奉獻,以便

  • escape this curse.

    擺脫這種詛咒。

  • For some reason, some believed the best way to do this was to hunt down and kill anyone

    出於某種原因,一些人認為最好的辦法是追捕並殺死任何一個人。

  • they deemed sinful or heretic.

    他們認為是有罪的或異端的。

  • When these people asked themselveswhat would Jesus do”, their answer apparently

    當這些人問自己 "耶穌會怎麼做 "時,他們的答案顯然是

  • was massacring large groups of people, especially Jewish populations.

    正在屠殺大群人,特別是猶太人口。

  • Demonstrating that they clearly missed the entire point of their religion.

    表明他們顯然錯過了他們宗教的全部意義。

  • Other less terrifying but equally ineffective remedies involved doctors telling plague patients

    其他不那麼可怕但同樣無效的補救措施包括醫生告訴瘟疫患者

  • to bathe in rosewater or vinegar to help cleanse the disease out.

    用玫瑰水或醋洗澡,以幫助將疾病清洗掉。

  • This worked about as well as anyone would expect, which is to say, not at all.

    這和任何人期望的一樣好,也就是說,一點都不好。

  • Turns out rosewater does little to stop bacteria with an 80% kill rate.

    事實證明,玫瑰花水對阻止細菌的作用不大,其殺傷率為80%。

  • Though the Black Death peaked in the years of 1346 and 1353, it by no means went away

    儘管黑死病在1346年和1353年達到頂峰,但它決不會消失。

  • after that.

    在這之後。

  • Smaller outbreaks would resurge for hundreds of years, with the last notable one being

    小規模的爆發將在數百年內再次出現,最後一次顯著的爆發是

  • the Great Plague of London in 1665.

    1665年的倫敦大瘟疫。

  • Some believe the Great Fire of London in 1666 helped put a stop to the disease's spread,

    一些人認為,1666年的倫敦大火幫助制止了疾病的傳播。

  • as it burned many of the rats and fleas carrying it, but most historians and medical experts

    因為它燒死了許多攜帶它的老鼠和跳蚤,但大多數歷史學家和醫學專家

  • dispute that story.

    對這個故事提出異議。

  • However, this last big iteration of the disease did inspire the well-known childrens' nursery

    然而,這種疾病的最後一次大迭代確實激發了著名的兒童保育園

  • rhymering-a-ring of roses”.

    押韻的 "玫瑰花環"。

  • Londoners thought holding a posy of flowers up to their nose would help protect them from

    倫敦人認為把花束舉到鼻子上有助於保護他們不受傷害。

  • the plague.

    瘟疫。

  • This explains the lyrics “a pocket full of posies”.

    這就解釋了 "滿滿一口袋的花 "這句歌詞。

  • “A tissue, a tissue, we all fall downrefers to people falling ill and needing tissues...and

    "一張紙巾,一張紙巾,我們都倒下了 "指的是人們生病了,需要紙巾......以及

  • then dropping dead.

    然後掉下來死了。

  • The original lyrics, in fact, were, “we all fall down dead”.

    事實上,原來的歌詞是:"我們都倒下了,死了"。

  • In case you needed further proof that the original versions of childrens' stories

    如果你需要進一步證明,兒童故事的原始版本

  • and rhymes were all deranged.

    和韻律都是喪心病狂的。

  • Today, the bacteria that caused the Black Death still exists, but it is now treatable

    今天,導致黑死病的細菌仍然存在,但現在可以治療了

  • with antibiotics.

    用抗生素。

  • About 7 cases of bubonic plague are reported in the US every year, and around 1,000 to

    美國每年報告約有7起鼠疫病例,約有1,000至2,000起鼠疫。

  • 3,000 worldwide, mostly on the African continent.

    全世界有3,000人,大部分在非洲大陸。

  • Meaning you have a higher chance of dying by lightning strike than the plague these

    意味著你死於雷擊的機率比死於瘟疫的機率高,這些

  • days.

    天。

  • And now that we know how the Black Death ended and never have to worry about a pandemic tearing

    現在我們知道了黑死病是如何結束的,而且再也不用擔心大流行病會撕裂我們的生活。

  • through the world again, why not click on this funny video, or this one right here?!

    再次穿越世界,為什麼不點擊這個有趣的視頻,或這個就在這裡?

The Black Death surged unstoppably throughout Eurasia for years, killing people in painful,

黑死病在整個歐亞大陸不可阻擋地湧動了好幾年,使人們痛苦地死去。

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B2 中高級 中文 瘟疫 黑死病 水手 傳播 人口 細菌

鼠疫(黑死病)實際上是如何結束的? (How Did Bubonic Plague (Black Death) Actually End?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 23 日
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