字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 As of 2021, only sixteen of the US' fifty states have laws requiring the sex education 截至2021年，美國50個州中只有16個州有法律要求進行性教育。 taught in schools to be medically accurate. 學校裡教的是醫學上的準確性。 Comprehensive sex education is sadly lacking across the United States, and frankly, a lot 全面的性教育在美國各地可悲地缺失，坦率地說，許多 of other nations could also stand to do better when it comes to sex ed. 在性教育方面，其他國家也可以做得更好。 After all, it isn't all about the birds and the bees - it's also about better understanding 畢竟，這不是所有的鳥類和蜜蜂 - 它也是為了更好地瞭解 yourself and your body. 你自己和你的身體。 That's why we're here today, discussing a part of the body that rarely feels welcome 這就是為什麼我們今天在這裡，討論身體的一個部分，它很少感覺到受歡迎 in average discussion: The foreskin. 在平均討論中。包皮。 We're going to discuss everything you've ever wanted to know about foreskin but were 我們將討論你曾經想知道的關於包皮的一切，但卻被 afraid to ask - including its composition, purpose, and any other miscellaneous questions 害怕問--包括其組成、目的和任何其他雜項問題 that may be troubling you. 這可能是困擾你的問題。 Let's start with what exactly a foreskin is. 讓我們先來看看包皮到底是什麼。 Foreskins are present on the penises of all mammals, though for some species they're 所有哺乳動物的陰莖上都有包皮，儘管對某些物種來說，它們是 referred to as “penile sheaths”, when the penis retracts all the way into the body 被稱為 "陰莖鞘"，當陰莖完全縮回體內時 while flaccid. 在鬆弛的時候。 Technically speaking, foreskins are part of a larger organ family known as the prepuce 從技術上講，包皮是一個更大的器官家族的一部分，被稱為包皮。 - which, in layman's terms, is basically skin that covers a sensitive sexual organ. - 通俗地說，這基本上是覆蓋敏感性器官的皮膚。 The clitoral hood of the vagina also falls under the prepuce umbrella. 陰道的陰蒂罩也屬於包皮保護傘的範疇。 But let's get back to the foreskin. 但讓我們回到包皮的問題上。 This often-misunderstood organ is deceptively complex in a structural sense; while it's 這個經常被誤解的器官在結構上具有欺騙性的複雜性；雖然它是 superficially a continuation of the skin on the shaft of the penis, it's actually a 表面上看，它是陰莖軸上皮膚的延續，實際上它是一個 double-layered amalgamation of skin, neurons, smooth muscle tissue, blood vessels, and mucosal 皮膚、神經元、平滑肌組織、血管和粘膜的雙層混合體 membrane, developed over millions of years of evolution. 膜，經過數百萬年的進化而形成。 It's what evolutionary biologists call a “complex penile morphology.” 這就是進化生物學家所說的 "複雜的陰莖形態"。 And if you ask some researchers, the importance of the foreskin in an evolutionary sense can't 而如果你問一些研究人員，包皮在進化意義上的重要性不能 be oversold. 是超賣的。 According to a group of Dutch Sexologists from the Royal Dutch Medical Association in 根據荷蘭皇家醫學協會的一組荷蘭性學專家在 2010, the foreskin is a, quote, “complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important 2010年，包皮是一個，引用，"複雜的，色情的結構，發揮著重要的作用。 role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse 在性行為中對陰莖的機械功能的作用，如穿透性性交 and masturbation." 和手淫。" The inside of the foreskin houses the all-important mucus membranes, similar to the inside of 包皮內側有非常重要的粘膜，類似於人體的內部。 the mouth or the eyelid - this contains the glans penis, colloquially known as the head. 口腔或眼瞼--這裡包含了陰莖的龜頭，俗稱頭。 It also serves to protect the urinary meatus - which is the opening at the end of the urethra, 它還起到保護尿道口的作用--這是尿道末端的開口。 sometimes colloquially called the “peehole.” 有時被俗稱為 "小便孔"。 The inner and outer foreskin is connected by tissue known as the mucocutaneous zone. 內部和外部的包皮被稱為粘膜區的組織所連接。 When a child is first born, the foreskin is tightly connected to the glans, but typically 當孩子剛出生時，包皮與龜頭緊密相連，但一般來說 loosens up and gains mobility over the glans when you mature, normally during puberty. 當你成熟的時候，通常在青春期，你的龜頭會鬆動並獲得流動性。 The piece of highly vascularized - meaning, featuring a large number of blood vessels 這塊高度血管化--意思是，以大量的血管為特徵 - tissue that first connects the foreskin to the glans is known as the frenulum. - 首先將包皮和龜頭連接起來的組織被稱為 "陰莖頭"。 But that's not all that the frenulum does. 但是，這並不是戀童癖的全部作用。 It also connects the two layers of the foreskin together, and when the penis isn't erect, 它還將兩層包皮連接在一起，當陰莖沒有勃起時。 the frenulum tightens to narrow the opening of the foreskin. 韌帶收緊以縮小包皮的開口。 It's all a very delicate process. 這都是一個非常微妙的過程。 It's important to note that, as with anything involving the human body, while it's easy 重要的是要注意，與涉及人體的任何事情一樣，雖然它很容易 to speak in broad generalities about the nature and behaviour of the foreskin, you'll find 籠統地談及包皮的性質和行為，你會發現 there's a lot of variance between individuals. 個人之間有很大的差異。 For example, as an adult, the foreskin will remain over the glans while the penis is flaccid. 例如，作為一個成年人，當陰莖鬆弛時，包皮會留在龜頭上。 However, when an adult gets an erection, it's possible that the foreskin may retract back 然而，當一個成年人勃起時，包皮有可能會縮回。 over the glans. 在龜頭上。 The degree to which this happens tends to vary a lot between individuals - some may 這種情況的發生程度往往因人而異--有些人可能會 notice very little visible retraction at all, and some may retract entirely, leaving the 注意到很少有明顯的回縮，有些可能完全回縮，留下了 glans fully uncovered. 龜頭完全未被覆蓋。 Finally, on the subject of the foreskin's physical composition, it contains a thin sheath 最後，關於包皮的物理成分問題，它包含一個薄薄的包皮鞘 of muscle tissue known as the dartos fascia. 的肌肉組織，被稱為達託斯筋膜。 This muscle tissue exists within the foreskin, the penile shaft, and the scrotum. 這種肌肉組織存在於包皮、陰莖軸和陰囊內。 Crucially for the foreskin in particular, though, the dartos fascia contains elastic 不過，對包皮來說，至關重要的是，達託斯筋膜包含彈性的 fibers that form what is known as a whorl at the opening of the foreskin. 纖維，在包皮開口處形成所謂的輪迴。 In infants, this can be used as a kind of sphincter that prevents urine from leaking 在嬰兒中，這可以作為一種括約肌，防止尿液滲漏。 out of the aforementioned urinary meatus at inappropriate times. 在不適當的時候從上述尿道口出來。 That's probably everything you needed to know about what exactly a foreskin is, but 這可能就是你需要知道的關於包皮到底是什麼的一切，但 the beauty of evolution is that every enduring biological feature is there for a reason - well, 進化的魅力在於，每一個持久的生物特徵都是有原因的--好吧。 mostly, but we'll get to that later. 主要是，但我們稍後會討論這個問題。 Let's talk about why people have foreskins. 讓我們來談談為什麼人們有包皮。 The exact nature of the foreskin's benefits are a surprisingly controversial subject. 包皮的好處的確切性質是一個令人驚訝的有爭議的話題。 Like everything, it's a question of weighing the advantages against the costs. 像所有事情一樣，這是一個權衡優勢和成本的問題。 The World Health Organization says that possible purposes include keeping the glans moist, 世界衛生組織說，可能的目的包括保持龜頭溼潤。 protecting the developing penis in utero, or enhancing sexual pleasure due to the presence 保護子宮內正在發育的陰莖，或由於存在的原因提高性快感。 of nerve receptors. 的神經受體。 If you're at the legal age of consent, it's likely that you found the last one on that 如果你到了法定的同意年齡，很可能你在那上面找到了最後一個 list particularly appealing. 列表特別吸引人。 The science behind this is equally as intriguing. 這背後的科學也同樣耐人尋味。 Due to its highly concentrated cluster of sensory neurons, the foreskin is incredibly 由於其高度集中的感覺神經元群，包皮的作用令人難以置信。 sensitive to touch. 對觸摸敏感。 It contains as many as 20,000 sensory receptors, and some studies have even shown that the 它包含多達20,000個感覺感受器，一些研究甚至表明 least sensitive part of the foreskin is often more sensitive than the rest of the penis. 包皮中最不敏感的部分往往比陰莖的其他部分更敏感。 To be more specific, the foreskin contains a special kind of sensory receptor known as 更具體地說，包皮含有一種特殊的感覺感受器，稱為 Meissner's Corpuscles, involved in fine-touch sensitivity. 邁斯納氏體，參與細微的觸摸敏感性。 However, Meissner's Corpuscles are pretty much irrelevant in adults, as their concentration 然而，邁斯納氏體在成人中幾乎是不相關的，因為它們的濃度 decreases following adolescence. 青春期過後就會減少。 And the concentration of Meissner's Corpuscles in the foreskin is actually lower than the 而包皮中的邁斯納氏體的濃度實際上低於 concentration in the fingertips. 濃度在指尖。 It may actually surprise you to know that there isn't a broad consensus on the benefits 實際上，你可能會驚訝地發現，在利益方面並沒有一個廣泛的共識。 of foreskin in adulthood. 成年後的包皮過長。 A number of studies have provided evidence contrary to the idea that keeping your foreskin 一些研究提供了與保留包皮的觀點相反的證據 provides increased sexual sensitivity. 提供更多的性敏感度。 A 1998 study from scientists Moses and Bailey said, “it has not been demonstrated that 科學家摩西和貝利1998年的一項研究說，"還沒有證明 [the foreskin] is associated with increased male sexual pleasure.” [包皮]與男性性快感的增加有關"。 Even more damningly, in 2017, a study by researchers Morris and Krieger concluded, quote, “Thus, 更具破壞性的是，2017年，研究人員Morris和Krieger的一項研究得出結論，引用如下："是以。 speculation and outdated opinion pieces claiming special properties of the foreskin, such as 聲稱包皮具有特殊性能的猜測和過時的意見書，如 in penile function and masturbation, should be viewed with skepticism.” 在陰莖功能和手淫方面，應該以懷疑的態度看待。" None of this is good news for people with foreskins. 這對有包皮的人來說都不是什麼好消息。 While some will swear by the sexually advantageous properties of foreskin, others argue that 雖然有些人發誓說包皮具有性方面的優勢，但其他人認為 its function is actually vestigial. 它的功能實際上是殘缺的。 What does vestigial mean, exactly? 遺蹟的確切含義是什麼？ To keep it simple, it basically means that it's a physical quality that was once evolutionary 簡單地說，它基本上意味著它是一種曾經進化的物理品質 advantageous, but no longer has any real function. 有好處，但不再有任何實際功能。 It just hasn't been bred out by natural selection just yet. 它只是還沒有被自然選擇所淘汰而已。 In the words of the father of evolution, Charles Darwin, “An organ, when rendered useless, 用進化論之父查爾斯-達爾文的話說，"一個器官，一旦失去作用。 may well be variable, for its variations cannot be checked by natural selection.” 很可能是可變的，因為它的變化不能被自然選擇所控制"。 As we discussed earlier, variation is extensive in foreskins. 正如我們前面所討論的，包皮的變異很廣泛。 Our friends Morris and Krieger return for what could be the death blow, stating, “The 我們的朋友莫里斯和克里格回來了，這可能是致命的一擊，他們說 variability in foreskin size is consistent with the foreskin being a vestigial structure.” 包皮大小的變化與包皮是一種遺留結構是一致的"。 But it's one thing to be useless, quite another to be potentially harmful. 但無用是一回事，有潛在危害是另一回事。 Before we proceed, it's worth discussing some of the potential downsides of having 在我們繼續之前，值得討論的是，有一些潛在的弊端 a foreskin into adulthood. 包皮過長的人到了成年後。 Foreskins increase the risk of urinary tract infections across the board, which can result 包皮會全面增加尿路感染的風險，這可能導致 in painful inflammation and extreme discomfort for the sufferer. 在痛苦的發炎和極端不適的情況下，患者。 But that's actually the more mild end of the spectrum. 但這實際上是比較溫和的一端。 A lot of people suffer from foreskin that's too tight to retract, a condition known as 很多人患有包皮過緊而無法縮回的問題，這種情況被稱為 phimosis. 包皮過長。 This can make the penis more difficult to clean, and lead to the accumulation of smegma, 這可能使陰莖更難清潔，並導致汙垢的積累。 an unpleasant, cheese-like substance that is secreted by the penis. 由陰莖分泌的一種不愉快的、類似奶酪的物質。 If unchecked, this can lead to a further condition known as balanitis, an uncomfortable and persistent 如果不加以控制，這可能會導致進一步的情況，即禿頭炎，一種令人不舒服的持續的 inflammation of the glans. 龜頭的發炎。 In extreme cases, this can even increase the risk of penile cancer. 在極端情況下，這甚至會增加陰莖癌的風險。 Keeping your foreskin can also put you at risk of frenulum breve. 保留包皮也會使你有罹患陰莖海綿體炎的風險。 This condition results from the frenulum being too short to allow the foreskin to fully retract, 這種情況的原因是，陰莖頭太短，無法讓包皮完全縮回。 leading to discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse. 導致性交時的不適和疼痛。 But it's not just that. 但這並不僅僅是這樣。 While many have - possibly erroneously - claimed that keeping your foreskin can offer sexual 雖然許多人聲稱--可能是錯誤的--保留你的包皮可以為你提供性生活。 benefits, it also offers a huge drawback: Increased transmission of sexually-transmitted 的好處，它也提供了一個巨大的缺點。增加了性傳播疾病的傳播。 diseases, or STDs. 感染疾病，或性病。 It puts people at particular risk of contracting HIV, due to the larger surface area of inner 它使人們處於感染艾滋病毒的特別風險之中，因為內部的表面積較大。 foreskin and the high concentration of Langerhans cells giving the virus numerous opportunities 包皮和高濃度的朗格漢斯細胞給了病毒許多機會。 to infect its victims. 來感染其受害者。 Of course, not everybody watching this video will have a foreskin. 當然，不是每個人在看這個視頻時都會有包皮。 Some of you won't even have penises, but having a penis doesn't necessarily mean 你們中有些人甚至不會有陰莖，但有陰莖並不一定意味著 you have a foreskin. 你有包皮。 Some people have their foreskin removed for medical reasons, like the factors we just 有些人因醫療原因而切除包皮，就像我們剛才所說的因素一樣。 discussed, but a decent portion of the population were circumcised during their infancy. 討論過，但有相當一部分人在嬰兒期就接受了割禮。 This is likely because they're part of a group which practices religious or cultural 這很可能是因為他們屬於一個實行宗教或文化的團體。 circumcision. 割禮。 The faiths that most commonly practice this are Judaism, Islam, and even some denominations 最常見的信仰是猶太教、伊斯蘭教，甚至一些教派也是如此 of Christianity - including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Ethiopon Orthodox Church, and 屬於基督教，包括厄立特里亞東正教，衣索匹亞東正教，和 the Coptic Orthodox Church. 科普特東正教會。 If we can shift briefly from a biology lesson to a history lesson, this tradition is truly 如果我們能從生物課短暫地轉向歷史課，這個傳統確實是 ancient. 古代。 A 4400-year-old Egyptian bas-relief from 2400 B.C. depicts someone receiving a flint-knife 一件公元前2400年的埃及浮雕描繪了某人接受燧石刀的情景。 circumcision, which is believed to be the oldest historical depiction of a circumcision. 割禮，這被認為是歷史上最古老的割禮描寫。 Though to be fair, the love of foreskin is also an ancient tradition. 儘管公平地說，對包皮的喜愛也是一種古老的傳統。 The Romans were great admirers of foreskin, with a roman consul even having been put to 羅馬人是包皮的忠實崇拜者，一位羅馬執政官甚至曾被置於 death for getting a circumcision - though antisemitism may have been at play there, 因為接受割禮而死亡--儘管反猶太主義可能在其中起了作用。 too. 也是。 Some ancient Greeks also tied up their foreskins during the olympics, believing it was uncouth 一些古希臘人在奧林匹克運動會期間也把自己的包皮綁起來，認為這樣做很不雅。 to show their glans. 以顯示其龜頭。 Circumcision is a topic that's so loaded it's difficult to discuss in its totality 割禮是一個內容豐富的話題，很難全面地討論它 in this video. 在這個視頻中。 While circumcision can avert some of the disadvantages of foreskin we mentioned earlier, it can come 雖然包皮環切術可以避免我們前面提到的包皮的一些缺點，但它也會帶來 with its own risks. 有其自身的風險。 Circumcised people have been known to experience higher degrees of erectile dysfunction than 眾所周知，包皮過長者的勃起功能障礙程度比一般人高。 those who still have foreskins, according to some studies, and losing your foreskin 根據一些研究，那些仍有包皮的人，而失去包皮的人 is even said to increase your chance of developing a psychological disorder known as alexithymia 據說甚至會增加你患上一種被稱為Alexithymia的心理障礙的機會。 by sixty percent. 60%。 Alexithymia stunts a person's ability to recognise and express emotions, often lowering Alexithymia阻礙了一個人識別和表達情緒的能力，往往降低了 their quality of life as a result. 他們的生活品質是以而提高。 But there are also considerably heavier risks on rarer occasions. 但在更罕見的情況下也有相當重的風險。 It's estimated that a hundred infants die due to circumcision-related complications 據估計，有一百個嬰兒因包皮環切術相關的併發症而死亡 every single year, largely thanks to issues involving blood loss and infection from botched 每一年都是如此，主要是由於涉及到失血和感染的問題。 surgeries. 手術。 There's even a movement of people circumcised shortly after birth that resent being given 甚至有一種運動，在出生後不久就接受了包皮環切術的人對被給予的待遇感到不滿。 the surgery without their consent - this cause calls itself the Intactivist Movement, and 在沒有得到他們同意的情況下進行手術--這一事業自稱是 "不育主義運動"，並且 they decry penile circumcision as barbaric, on par with female genital mutilation. 他們譴責陰莖包皮環切術是野蠻的，與切割女性生殖器的做法一樣。 We don't personally intend to take a side on this particular topic. 我們個人並不打算在這個特定的話題上站隊。 And finally, we'd be doing you a disservice if we didn't share some strange, miscellaneous 最後，如果我們不分享一些奇怪的、雜七雜八的東西，那就是對你的一種傷害。 facts about foreskin and circumcision with you. 關於包皮和包皮環切的事實與你分享。 You're probably wondering what actually happens to all the foreskins removed during 你可能很想知道，所有在手術過程中被切除的包皮究竟會怎麼樣？ circumcisions, and you may be surprised to know that some of it gets repurposed for use 你可能會驚訝地發現，其中的一些被重新利用來使用 in medical procedures or commercial products. 在醫療程序或商業產品中。 Scientists can use baby foreskins to produce acres of skin for use in transplants and skin 科學家可以利用嬰兒的包皮來生產用於移植和皮膚的一畝三分地 grafts for people like severe burn patients. 為嚴重燒傷患者等人提供移植物。 Baby foreskin also produces fibroblast cells, which in turn produce collagen, elastin, and 嬰兒包皮也會產生成纖維細胞，這些細胞又會產生膠原蛋白、彈性蛋白和 hyaluronic acid, all skin-affirming proteins. 透明質酸，所有的緊緻皮膚的蛋白質。 As such, baby foreskins are a common ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic skin creams, even some 是以，嬰兒包皮是抗衰老美容護膚霜的一種常見成分，甚至一些 endorsed by the queen of television herself, Oprah. 由電視女王奧普拉本人認可。 One study in the US also found that, despite the sexual benefits offered by foreskin being 美國的一項研究還發現，儘管包皮提供的性好處是 called into scientific question, 85% of the women reviewed preferred uncircumcised men 引起科學質疑的是，85%的受訪女性喜歡未受割禮的男性。 in the bedroom. 在臥室裡。 For clarity, everyone questioned said that they had sexual experiences with both circumcised 為明確起見，每個被問及的人都說他們與包皮過長的人都有過性經歷。 and uncircumcised men. 和未受割禮的人。 Of course, with any individual study like this, it's always worth taking the results 當然，對於任何像這樣的個別研究，總是值得考慮其結果。 with a pinch of salt. 加一撮鹽。 Now check out “Does Size Matter - Why Size Differs By Species?” and “What Happens 現在請看 "尺寸重要嗎--為什麼各物種的尺寸不同？"和 "會發生什麼？ To Your Body While You Are Having Sex?” for more sex education from the Infographics 更多的性教育資訊，請參考《資訊圖表》。 Show! 展開!