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  • As of 2021, only sixteen of the US' fifty states have laws requiring the sex education

    截至2021年,美國50個州中只有16個州有法律要求進行性教育。

  • taught in schools to be medically accurate.

    學校裡教的是醫學上的準確性。

  • Comprehensive sex education is sadly lacking across the United States, and frankly, a lot

    全面的性教育在美國各地可悲地缺失,坦率地說,許多

  • of other nations could also stand to do better when it comes to sex ed.

    在性教育方面,其他國家也可以做得更好。

  • After all, it isn't all about the birds and the bees - it's also about better understanding

    畢竟,這不是所有的鳥類和蜜蜂 - 它也是為了更好地瞭解

  • yourself and your body.

    你自己和你的身體。

  • That's why we're here today, discussing a part of the body that rarely feels welcome

    這就是為什麼我們今天在這裡,討論身體的一個部分,它很少感覺到受歡迎

  • in average discussion: The foreskin.

    在平均討論中。包皮。

  • We're going to discuss everything you've ever wanted to know about foreskin but were

    我們將討論你曾經想知道的關於包皮的一切,但卻被

  • afraid to ask - including its composition, purpose, and any other miscellaneous questions

    害怕問--包括其組成、目的和任何其他雜項問題

  • that may be troubling you.

    這可能是困擾你的問題。

  • Let's start with what exactly a foreskin is.

    讓我們先來看看包皮到底是什麼。

  • Foreskins are present on the penises of all mammals, though for some species they're

    所有哺乳動物的陰莖上都有包皮,儘管對某些物種來說,它們是

  • referred to aspenile sheaths”, when the penis retracts all the way into the body

    被稱為 "陰莖鞘",當陰莖完全縮回體內時

  • while flaccid.

    在鬆弛的時候。

  • Technically speaking, foreskins are part of a larger organ family known as the prepuce

    從技術上講,包皮是一個更大的器官家族的一部分,被稱為包皮。

  • - which, in layman's terms, is basically skin that covers a sensitive sexual organ.

    - 通俗地說,這基本上是覆蓋敏感性器官的皮膚。

  • The clitoral hood of the vagina also falls under the prepuce umbrella.

    陰道的陰蒂罩也屬於包皮保護傘的範疇。

  • But let's get back to the foreskin.

    但讓我們回到包皮的問題上。

  • This often-misunderstood organ is deceptively complex in a structural sense; while it's

    這個經常被誤解的器官在結構上具有欺騙性的複雜性;雖然它是

  • superficially a continuation of the skin on the shaft of the penis, it's actually a

    表面上看,它是陰莖軸上皮膚的延續,實際上它是一個

  • double-layered amalgamation of skin, neurons, smooth muscle tissue, blood vessels, and mucosal

    皮膚、神經元、平滑肌組織、血管和粘膜的雙層混合體

  • membrane, developed over millions of years of evolution.

    膜,經過數百萬年的進化而形成。

  • It's what evolutionary biologists call a “complex penile morphology.”

    這就是進化生物學家所說的 "複雜的陰莖形態"。

  • And if you ask some researchers, the importance of the foreskin in an evolutionary sense can't

    而如果你問一些研究人員,包皮在進化意義上的重要性不能

  • be oversold.

    是超賣的。

  • According to a group of Dutch Sexologists from the Royal Dutch Medical Association in

    根據荷蘭皇家醫學協會的一組荷蘭性學專家在

  • 2010, the foreskin is a, quote, “complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important

    2010年,包皮是一個,引用,"複雜的,色情的結構,發揮著重要的作用。

  • role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse

    在性行為中對陰莖的機械功能的作用,如穿透性性交

  • and masturbation."

    和手淫。"

  • The inside of the foreskin houses the all-important mucus membranes, similar to the inside of

    包皮內側有非常重要的粘膜,類似於人體的內部。

  • the mouth or the eyelid - this contains the glans penis, colloquially known as the head.

    口腔或眼瞼--這裡包含了陰莖的龜頭,俗稱頭。

  • It also serves to protect the urinary meatus - which is the opening at the end of the urethra,

    它還起到保護尿道口的作用--這是尿道末端的開口。

  • sometimes colloquially called thepeehole.”

    有時被俗稱為 "小便孔"。

  • The inner and outer foreskin is connected by tissue known as the mucocutaneous zone.

    內部和外部的包皮被稱為粘膜區的組織所連接。

  • When a child is first born, the foreskin is tightly connected to the glans, but typically

    當孩子剛出生時,包皮與龜頭緊密相連,但一般來說

  • loosens up and gains mobility over the glans when you mature, normally during puberty.

    當你成熟的時候,通常在青春期,你的龜頭會鬆動並獲得流動性。

  • The piece of highly vascularized - meaning, featuring a large number of blood vessels

    這塊高度血管化--意思是,以大量的血管為特徵

  • - tissue that first connects the foreskin to the glans is known as the frenulum.

    - 首先將包皮和龜頭連接起來的組織被稱為 "陰莖頭"。

  • But that's not all that the frenulum does.

    但是,這並不是戀童癖的全部作用。

  • It also connects the two layers of the foreskin together, and when the penis isn't erect,

    它還將兩層包皮連接在一起,當陰莖沒有勃起時。

  • the frenulum tightens to narrow the opening of the foreskin.

    韌帶收緊以縮小包皮的開口。

  • It's all a very delicate process.

    這都是一個非常微妙的過程。

  • It's important to note that, as with anything involving the human body, while it's easy

    重要的是要注意,與涉及人體的任何事情一樣,雖然它很容易

  • to speak in broad generalities about the nature and behaviour of the foreskin, you'll find

    籠統地談及包皮的性質和行為,你會發現

  • there's a lot of variance between individuals.

    個人之間有很大的差異。

  • For example, as an adult, the foreskin will remain over the glans while the penis is flaccid.

    例如,作為一個成年人,當陰莖鬆弛時,包皮會留在龜頭上。

  • However, when an adult gets an erection, it's possible that the foreskin may retract back

    然而,當一個成年人勃起時,包皮有可能會縮回。

  • over the glans.

    在龜頭上。

  • The degree to which this happens tends to vary a lot between individuals - some may

    這種情況的發生程度往往因人而異--有些人可能會

  • notice very little visible retraction at all, and some may retract entirely, leaving the

    注意到很少有明顯的回縮,有些可能完全回縮,留下了

  • glans fully uncovered.

    龜頭完全未被覆蓋。

  • Finally, on the subject of the foreskin's physical composition, it contains a thin sheath

    最後,關於包皮的物理成分問題,它包含一個薄薄的包皮鞘

  • of muscle tissue known as the dartos fascia.

    的肌肉組織,被稱為達託斯筋膜。

  • This muscle tissue exists within the foreskin, the penile shaft, and the scrotum.

    這種肌肉組織存在於包皮、陰莖軸和陰囊內。

  • Crucially for the foreskin in particular, though, the dartos fascia contains elastic

    不過,對包皮來說,至關重要的是,達託斯筋膜包含彈性的

  • fibers that form what is known as a whorl at the opening of the foreskin.

    纖維,在包皮開口處形成所謂的輪迴。

  • In infants, this can be used as a kind of sphincter that prevents urine from leaking

    在嬰兒中,這可以作為一種括約肌,防止尿液滲漏。

  • out of the aforementioned urinary meatus at inappropriate times.

    在不適當的時候從上述尿道口出來。

  • That's probably everything you needed to know about what exactly a foreskin is, but

    這可能就是你需要知道的關於包皮到底是什麼的一切,但

  • the beauty of evolution is that every enduring biological feature is there for a reason - well,

    進化的魅力在於,每一個持久的生物特徵都是有原因的--好吧。

  • mostly, but we'll get to that later.

    主要是,但我們稍後會討論這個問題。

  • Let's talk about why people have foreskins.

    讓我們來談談為什麼人們有包皮。

  • The exact nature of the foreskin's benefits are a surprisingly controversial subject.

    包皮的好處的確切性質是一個令人驚訝的有爭議的話題。

  • Like everything, it's a question of weighing the advantages against the costs.

    像所有事情一樣,這是一個權衡優勢和成本的問題。

  • The World Health Organization says that possible purposes include keeping the glans moist,

    世界衛生組織說,可能的目的包括保持龜頭溼潤。

  • protecting the developing penis in utero, or enhancing sexual pleasure due to the presence

    保護子宮內正在發育的陰莖,或由於存在的原因提高性快感。

  • of nerve receptors.

    的神經受體。

  • If you're at the legal age of consent, it's likely that you found the last one on that

    如果你到了法定的同意年齡,很可能你在那上面找到了最後一個

  • list particularly appealing.

    列表特別吸引人。

  • The science behind this is equally as intriguing.

    這背後的科學也同樣耐人尋味。

  • Due to its highly concentrated cluster of sensory neurons, the foreskin is incredibly

    由於其高度集中的感覺神經元群,包皮的作用令人難以置信。

  • sensitive to touch.

    對觸摸敏感。

  • It contains as many as 20,000 sensory receptors, and some studies have even shown that the

    它包含多達20,000個感覺感受器,一些研究甚至表明

  • least sensitive part of the foreskin is often more sensitive than the rest of the penis.

    包皮中最不敏感的部分往往比陰莖的其他部分更敏感。

  • To be more specific, the foreskin contains a special kind of sensory receptor known as

    更具體地說,包皮含有一種特殊的感覺感受器,稱為

  • Meissner's Corpuscles, involved in fine-touch sensitivity.

    邁斯納氏體,參與細微的觸摸敏感性。

  • However, Meissner's Corpuscles are pretty much irrelevant in adults, as their concentration

    然而,邁斯納氏體在成人中幾乎是不相關的,因為它們的濃度

  • decreases following adolescence.

    青春期過後就會減少。

  • And the concentration of Meissner's Corpuscles in the foreskin is actually lower than the

    而包皮中的邁斯納氏體的濃度實際上低於

  • concentration in the fingertips.

    濃度在指尖。

  • It may actually surprise you to know that there isn't a broad consensus on the benefits

    實際上,你可能會驚訝地發現,在利益方面並沒有一個廣泛的共識。

  • of foreskin in adulthood.

    成年後的包皮過長。

  • A number of studies have provided evidence contrary to the idea that keeping your foreskin

    一些研究提供了與保留包皮的觀點相反的證據

  • provides increased sexual sensitivity.

    提供更多的性敏感度。

  • A 1998 study from scientists Moses and Bailey said, “it has not been demonstrated that

    科學家摩西和貝利1998年的一項研究說,"還沒有證明

  • [the foreskin] is associated with increased male sexual pleasure.”

    [包皮]與男性性快感的增加有關"。

  • Even more damningly, in 2017, a study by researchers Morris and Krieger concluded, quote, “Thus,

    更具破壞性的是,2017年,研究人員Morris和Krieger的一項研究得出結論,引用如下:"是以。

  • speculation and outdated opinion pieces claiming special properties of the foreskin, such as

    聲稱包皮具有特殊性能的猜測和過時的意見書,如

  • in penile function and masturbation, should be viewed with skepticism.”

    在陰莖功能和手淫方面,應該以懷疑的態度看待。"

  • None of this is good news for people with foreskins.

    這對有包皮的人來說都不是什麼好消息。

  • While some will swear by the sexually advantageous properties of foreskin, others argue that

    雖然有些人發誓說包皮具有性方面的優勢,但其他人認為

  • its function is actually vestigial.

    它的功能實際上是殘缺的。

  • What does vestigial mean, exactly?

    遺蹟的確切含義是什麼?

  • To keep it simple, it basically means that it's a physical quality that was once evolutionary

    簡單地說,它基本上意味著它是一種曾經進化的物理品質

  • advantageous, but no longer has any real function.

    有好處,但不再有任何實際功能。

  • It just hasn't been bred out by natural selection just yet.

    它只是還沒有被自然選擇所淘汰而已。

  • In the words of the father of evolution, Charles Darwin, “An organ, when rendered useless,

    用進化論之父查爾斯-達爾文的話說,"一個器官,一旦失去作用。

  • may well be variable, for its variations cannot be checked by natural selection.”

    很可能是可變的,因為它的變化不能被自然選擇所控制"。

  • As we discussed earlier, variation is extensive in foreskins.

    正如我們前面所討論的,包皮的變異很廣泛。

  • Our friends Morris and Krieger return for what could be the death blow, stating, “The

    我們的朋友莫里斯和克里格回來了,這可能是致命的一擊,他們說

  • variability in foreskin size is consistent with the foreskin being a vestigial structure.”

    包皮大小的變化與包皮是一種遺留結構是一致的"。

  • But it's one thing to be useless, quite another to be potentially harmful.

    但無用是一回事,有潛在危害是另一回事。

  • Before we proceed, it's worth discussing some of the potential downsides of having

    在我們繼續之前,值得討論的是,有一些潛在的弊端

  • a foreskin into adulthood.

    包皮過長的人到了成年後。

  • Foreskins increase the risk of urinary tract infections across the board, which can result

    包皮會全面增加尿路感染的風險,這可能導致

  • in painful inflammation and extreme discomfort for the sufferer.

    在痛苦的發炎和極端不適的情況下,患者。

  • But that's actually the more mild end of the spectrum.

    但這實際上是比較溫和的一端。

  • A lot of people suffer from foreskin that's too tight to retract, a condition known as

    很多人患有包皮過緊而無法縮回的問題,這種情況被稱為

  • phimosis.

    包皮過長。

  • This can make the penis more difficult to clean, and lead to the accumulation of smegma,

    這可能使陰莖更難清潔,並導致汙垢的積累。

  • an unpleasant, cheese-like substance that is secreted by the penis.

    由陰莖分泌的一種不愉快的、類似奶酪的物質。

  • If unchecked, this can lead to a further condition known as balanitis, an uncomfortable and persistent

    如果不加以控制,這可能會導致進一步的情況,即禿頭炎,一種令人不舒服的持續的

  • inflammation of the glans.

    龜頭的發炎。

  • In extreme cases, this can even increase the risk of penile cancer.

    在極端情況下,這甚至會增加陰莖癌的風險。

  • Keeping your foreskin can also put you at risk of frenulum breve.

    保留包皮也會使你有罹患陰莖海綿體炎的風險。

  • This condition results from the frenulum being too short to allow the foreskin to fully retract,

    這種情況的原因是,陰莖頭太短,無法讓包皮完全縮回。

  • leading to discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse.

    導致性交時的不適和疼痛。

  • But it's not just that.

    但這並不僅僅是這樣。

  • While many have - possibly erroneously - claimed that keeping your foreskin can offer sexual

    雖然許多人聲稱--可能是錯誤的--保留你的包皮可以為你提供性生活。

  • benefits, it also offers a huge drawback: Increased transmission of sexually-transmitted

    的好處,它也提供了一個巨大的缺點。增加了性傳播疾病的傳播。

  • diseases, or STDs.

    感染疾病,或性病。

  • It puts people at particular risk of contracting HIV, due to the larger surface area of inner

    它使人們處於感染艾滋病毒的特別風險之中,因為內部的表面積較大。

  • foreskin and the high concentration of Langerhans cells giving the virus numerous opportunities

    包皮和高濃度的朗格漢斯細胞給了病毒許多機會。

  • to infect its victims.

    來感染其受害者。

  • Of course, not everybody watching this video will have a foreskin.

    當然,不是每個人在看這個視頻時都會有包皮。

  • Some of you won't even have penises, but having a penis doesn't necessarily mean

    你們中有些人甚至不會有陰莖,但有陰莖並不一定意味著

  • you have a foreskin.

    你有包皮。

  • Some people have their foreskin removed for medical reasons, like the factors we just

    有些人因醫療原因而切除包皮,就像我們剛才所說的因素一樣。

  • discussed, but a decent portion of the population were circumcised during their infancy.

    討論過,但有相當一部分人在嬰兒期就接受了割禮。

  • This is likely because they're part of a group which practices religious or cultural

    這很可能是因為他們屬於一個實行宗教或文化的團體。

  • circumcision.

    割禮。

  • The faiths that most commonly practice this are Judaism, Islam, and even some denominations

    最常見的信仰是猶太教、伊斯蘭教,甚至一些教派也是如此

  • of Christianity - including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Ethiopon Orthodox Church, and

    屬於基督教,包括厄立特里亞東正教,衣索匹亞東正教,和

  • the Coptic Orthodox Church.

    科普特東正教會。

  • If we can shift briefly from a biology lesson to a history lesson, this tradition is truly

    如果我們能從生物課短暫地轉向歷史課,這個傳統確實是

  • ancient.

    古代。

  • A 4400-year-old Egyptian bas-relief from 2400 B.C. depicts someone receiving a flint-knife

    一件公元前2400年的埃及浮雕描繪了某人接受燧石刀的情景。

  • circumcision, which is believed to be the oldest historical depiction of a circumcision.

    割禮,這被認為是歷史上最古老的割禮描寫。

  • Though to be fair, the love of foreskin is also an ancient tradition.

    儘管公平地說,對包皮的喜愛也是一種古老的傳統。

  • The Romans were great admirers of foreskin, with a roman consul even having been put to

    羅馬人是包皮的忠實崇拜者,一位羅馬執政官甚至曾被置於

  • death for getting a circumcision - though antisemitism may have been at play there,

    因為接受割禮而死亡--儘管反猶太主義可能在其中起了作用。

  • too.

    也是。

  • Some ancient Greeks also tied up their foreskins during the olympics, believing it was uncouth

    一些古希臘人在奧林匹克運動會期間也把自己的包皮綁起來,認為這樣做很不雅。

  • to show their glans.

    以顯示其龜頭。

  • Circumcision is a topic that's so loaded it's difficult to discuss in its totality

    割禮是一個內容豐富的話題,很難全面地討論它

  • in this video.

    在這個視頻中。

  • While circumcision can avert some of the disadvantages of foreskin we mentioned earlier, it can come

    雖然包皮環切術可以避免我們前面提到的包皮的一些缺點,但它也會帶來

  • with its own risks.

    有其自身的風險。

  • Circumcised people have been known to experience higher degrees of erectile dysfunction than

    眾所周知,包皮過長者的勃起功能障礙程度比一般人高。

  • those who still have foreskins, according to some studies, and losing your foreskin

    根據一些研究,那些仍有包皮的人,而失去包皮的人

  • is even said to increase your chance of developing a psychological disorder known as alexithymia

    據說甚至會增加你患上一種被稱為Alexithymia的心理障礙的機會。

  • by sixty percent.

    60%。

  • Alexithymia stunts a person's ability to recognise and express emotions, often lowering

    Alexithymia阻礙了一個人識別和表達情緒的能力,往往降低了

  • their quality of life as a result.

    他們的生活品質是以而提高。

  • But there are also considerably heavier risks on rarer occasions.

    但在更罕見的情況下也有相當重的風險。

  • It's estimated that a hundred infants die due to circumcision-related complications

    據估計,有一百個嬰兒因包皮環切術相關的併發症而死亡

  • every single year, largely thanks to issues involving blood loss and infection from botched

    每一年都是如此,主要是由於涉及到失血和感染的問題。

  • surgeries.

    手術。

  • There's even a movement of people circumcised shortly after birth that resent being given

    甚至有一種運動,在出生後不久就接受了包皮環切術的人對被給予的待遇感到不滿。

  • the surgery without their consent - this cause calls itself the Intactivist Movement, and

    在沒有得到他們同意的情況下進行手術--這一事業自稱是 "不育主義運動",並且

  • they decry penile circumcision as barbaric, on par with female genital mutilation.

    他們譴責陰莖包皮環切術是野蠻的,與切割女性生殖器的做法一樣。

  • We don't personally intend to take a side on this particular topic.

    我們個人並不打算在這個特定的話題上站隊。

  • And finally, we'd be doing you a disservice if we didn't share some strange, miscellaneous

    最後,如果我們不分享一些奇怪的、雜七雜八的東西,那就是對你的一種傷害。

  • facts about foreskin and circumcision with you.

    關於包皮和包皮環切的事實與你分享。

  • You're probably wondering what actually happens to all the foreskins removed during

    你可能很想知道,所有在手術過程中被切除的包皮究竟會怎麼樣?

  • circumcisions, and you may be surprised to know that some of it gets repurposed for use

    你可能會驚訝地發現,其中的一些被重新利用來使用

  • in medical procedures or commercial products.

    在醫療程序或商業產品中。

  • Scientists can use baby foreskins to produce acres of skin for use in transplants and skin

    科學家可以利用嬰兒的包皮來生產用於移植和皮膚的一畝三分地

  • grafts for people like severe burn patients.

    為嚴重燒傷患者等人提供移植物。

  • Baby foreskin also produces fibroblast cells, which in turn produce collagen, elastin, and

    嬰兒包皮也會產生成纖維細胞,這些細胞又會產生膠原蛋白、彈性蛋白和

  • hyaluronic acid, all skin-affirming proteins.

    透明質酸,所有的緊緻皮膚的蛋白質。

  • As such, baby foreskins are a common ingredient in anti-aging cosmetic skin creams, even some

    是以,嬰兒包皮是抗衰老美容護膚霜的一種常見成分,甚至一些

  • endorsed by the queen of television herself, Oprah.

    由電視女王奧普拉本人認可。

  • One study in the US also found that, despite the sexual benefits offered by foreskin being

    美國的一項研究還發現,儘管包皮提供的性好處是

  • called into scientific question, 85% of the women reviewed preferred uncircumcised men

    引起科學質疑的是,85%的受訪女性喜歡未受割禮的男性。

  • in the bedroom.

    在臥室裡。

  • For clarity, everyone questioned said that they had sexual experiences with both circumcised

    為明確起見,每個被問及的人都說他們與包皮過長的人都有過性經歷。

  • and uncircumcised men.

    和未受割禮的人。

  • Of course, with any individual study like this, it's always worth taking the results

    當然,對於任何像這樣的個別研究,總是值得考慮其結果。

  • with a pinch of salt.

    加一撮鹽。

  • Now check outDoes Size Matter - Why Size Differs By Species?” andWhat Happens

    現在請看 "尺寸重要嗎--為什麼各物種的尺寸不同?"和 "會發生什麼?

  • To Your Body While You Are Having Sex?” for more sex education from the Infographics

    更多的性教育資訊,請參考《資訊圖表》。

  • Show!

    展開!

As of 2021, only sixteen of the US' fifty states have laws requiring the sex education

截至2021年,美國50個州中只有16個州有法律要求進行性教育。

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關於包皮的怪異事實 (Freaky Facts About Foreskin)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 21 日
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