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  • There's a scene in Game of Thrones where  Viserys, a man not exactly well known for his  

    權力的遊戲》中有一個場景,韋賽里斯這個人並不完全以他的

  • moral compass, gets his arm snapped by a couple  of Khal Drogo's bare-chested men. He shouts,  

    道德指南針,被卓戈卡奧的幾個赤膊大漢折斷了手臂。他喊道。

  • Ah! No, no! You cannot touch me. I am the  dragon, I am the dragon. I want my crown!” 

    "啊!不,不!你不能碰我。我是龍,我是龍。我想要我的王冠!"

  • And a crown he gets, although  it's not what he really wanted

    他得到了一個王冠,雖然這不是他真正想要的。

  • A bunch of gold is quickly heated up and meltedand his sister, Daenerys, who's also there,  

    一堆黃金很快被加熱熔化,他的妹妹丹妮莉絲也在那裡。

  • is told to look away. This aint gonna be prettyThe incredibly hot liquid gold is then poured  

    被告知要看開。這不會是件好事。 然後,令人難以置信的熱金液被倒入

  • over his head. He didn't look too good after that. What you might not know is this scene was partly  

    在他的頭上。在那之後,他看起來不太好。你可能不知道的是,這一幕有一部分是

  • based on real life. Death by molten metal  was a terrible punishment, and as you'll  

    基於現實生活。被熔化的金屬殺死是一種可怕的懲罰,正如你所看到的那樣

  • see today, it happened all over the place. Ok, so some of you are calling BS on this one,  

    看到今天,它發生在所有地方。好吧,所以你們中的一些人在這個問題上說是BS。

  • but we guess you have never heard of the Battle of  Tucapel. This took place in the town of Tucapel in  

    但我們猜你從未聽說過圖卡佩爾之戰。這場戰役發生在位於美國的圖卡佩爾鎮。

  • Chile on December 25, 1553, and was fought between  the Spanish conquistador, Pedro de Valdivia,  

    1553年12月25日,在西班牙征服者佩德羅-德-巴爾迪維亞之間展開了戰鬥。

  • and the indigenous Mapuche people. As you can understand, the Mapuche  

    和土著馬普切人。正如你可以理解的那樣,馬普切人

  • folks weren't too pleased about the Spanish coming  over and trying to run things and steal all their  

    鄉親們對西班牙人過來並試圖管理事物和竊取他們所有的東西不太滿意。

  • gold. To cut a long story short, there was a warthe Arauco War, and at some point in that war,  

    黃金。長話短說,有一場戰爭,即阿勞科戰爭,在那場戰爭的某個時刻。

  • the Mapuche forces tried to take the Tucapel  fort where the Spanish had a stronghold

    馬普切人的部隊試圖攻佔西班牙人的據點--圖卡佩爾堡。

  • The Indians, who by that time had learnedthing or two about war tactics from the Spanish,  

    印第安人,當時已經從西班牙人那裡學到了一兩件關於戰爭戰術的事情。

  • killed just about every Spaniard. Valdivia, who  of course had the best horse, got away. Everyone  

    幾乎殺死了所有的西班牙人。當然,巴爾迪維亞有最好的馬,他逃脫了。每個人

  • else was killed. Still, his horse didn't much  like the thick bog it walked into, and that was  

    其他的都被殺了。不過,他的馬並不太喜歡它走進的厚厚的沼澤地,而這是

  • the end of the getaway. The Indians got hold of  Valdivia and he was brought before the leaders

    逃亡的結束。印第安人抓住了巴爾迪維亞,他被帶到了上司面前。

  • Now, what kind of horrific punishment should be  the order of the day for a damned conquistador  

    現在,對於一個可惡的征服者來說,應該是什麼樣的恐怖懲罰呢?

  • that had brutalized a people? Well, a mere  decapitation wouldn't well do, would it

    殘害了一個民族?那麼,僅僅是斬首是不行的,不是嗎?

  • There are some different tales as to what actually  happened, but as a man once famously said,  

    關於實際發生的情況,有一些不同的傳說,但正如一個人曾經說過的名言。

  • When the legend becomes fact, print the  legend.” Did Valdivia offer the Indians a  

    "當傳說變成事實時,就把傳說印出來"。巴爾迪維亞是否向印第安人提供了一個

  • bunch of animals and promise to leave their  land only to get his arms lopped off? Maybe.  

    一群動物,並承諾離開他們的土地,但卻被砍掉了手臂?也許吧。

  • Were those arms roasted and eaten in front of  him? Perhaps. Was he tortured for three days  

    那些手臂是在他面前被烤著吃的嗎?也許吧。他是否被折磨了三天

  • which ended with him getting his heart pulled  out and eaten by the Mapuche leaders? Possibly

    最後他的心臟被馬普切族領導人掏出來吃掉了?有可能。

  • But we'd like to believe a story told by another  conquistador at the time, Pedro Mariño de Lobera,  

    但我們願意相信當時另一位征服者佩德羅-馬裡諾-德-洛貝拉講的一個故事。

  • a story that was very popular in Chile in  those days. It goes that since the Spanish  

    這個故事在當時的智利非常流行。它說,自從西班牙人

  • were so desperate to have all that Chilean  gold, they could bloody well have it. Well,  

    他們如此急切地想要得到所有的智利黃金,他們可以血淋淋地得到它。好吧。

  • at least some. It was melted down  and given to Valdivia via his throat

    至少是一些。它被融化了,並通過他的喉嚨給了巴爾迪維亞。

  • Before we tell how this would have gone down and  how it might have felt, let's see if there are  

    在我們講述這件事會如何進行以及可能的感受之前,讓我們看看是否有

  • other instances in history of a person getting  a bucket of molten gold thrown down their neck

    歷史上還有其他一些人被一桶熔化的黃金扔到脖子上的例子。

  • You're in luck viewers because  we found another story

    你是幸運的觀眾,因為我們發現了另一個故事。

  • This story is about a Roman Emperor that  ran things back in the mid-200s. His name  

    這個故事是關於200年代中期的一個羅馬皇帝管理的事情。他的名字是

  • was Valerian, and it's said he didn't  exactly root for the Christians. In fact,  

    是瓦勒裡安,據說他並不完全支持基督教徒。事實上。

  • he demanded that the Christian clergy kill their  own flock to propitiate the Roman Gods. Under  

    他要求基督教神職人員殺死自己的羊群來祭祀羅馬神。在

  • Valerian, just about anyone talking about one big  omniscient God that created everything, suffered

    瓦勒裡安,只要是談論一個創造一切的全知全能的大神的人,都會受到影響。

  • A Christian writer back then named Lactantius  wrote about Valerian, saying that after he was  

    當年一位名叫Lactantius的基督教作家寫了關於Valerian的文章,說他在被

  • roundly beaten by Shapur, the king of Persia, he  was subjected to years of humiliating treatment.  

    他被波斯國王沙普爾(Shapur)輪番毆打,遭受了多年的屈辱。

  • For one thing, he became a human footstool for  the king. Let's remember that the Persians along  

    首先,他成了國王的人腳凳。讓我們記住,波斯人沿著

  • with the Romans were predisposed to torturing  their enemies in the most horrific ways. They  

    與羅馬人傾向於以最可怕的方式折磨他們的敵人。他們

  • invented scaphism for God's sake, or at  least according to the ancient Greeks

    為了上帝的緣故發明了scaphism,或者至少根據古希臘人的說法。

  • So, as the story goes, Valerian offered all  kinds of goodies to the king for his release,  

    是以,正如故事所言,瓦勒裡安向國王提供了各種好東西,以換取他的釋放。

  • but old Shapur, like the Terminator, couldn't  be bargained with. The ancient Iranian already  

    但老沙普爾,就像終結者一樣,是無法討價還價的。這個古老的伊朗人已經

  • had enough gold and silver and whatever  else Valerian could offer, so instead of  

    有足夠的金銀和其他瓦勒裡安能提供的東西,所以,與其說是

  • making a deal, he gave his people a treat. Ok, so one version has it that Shapur merely  

    達成交易,他給了他的人民一個待遇。好吧,那麼有一個版本說沙普爾只是

  • flayed Valerian and had his skin stuffed with  straw so his body could sit in a temple like a  

    剝去瓦勒裡安的皮,用稻草塞住他的皮膚,這樣他的屍體就可以像一個人一樣坐在廟裡。

  • very well-made piñata. There's another story  that Valerian was released after some amount  

    做得非常好的皮納塔。還有一種說法是,《瓦萊裡安》是在某種程度上被釋放的

  • of tactful negotiations, but we'd like  to believe the tale that he was killed  

    巧妙的談判,但我們願意相信他被殺的傳說。

  • by being forced to swallow molten gold. As for the person that pretty much put an  

    被迫吞下熔化的黃金。至於那個幾乎是把一個

  • end to Christian persecution in the Roman EmpireConstantine the Great, he was also said to approve  

    康斯坦丁大帝結束了羅馬帝國對基督教的迫害,據說他還準許了

  • of death by molten metal. He might have created  some new laws that weren't quite as brutal as his  

    的熔化金屬死亡。他可能創造了一些新的法律,這些法律並不像他的法律那樣殘酷。

  • predecessors' laws, but he didn't exactly embrace  human rights full-on. He'd read Christian texts,  

    但他並沒有完全接受人權,而是完全接受了前輩的法律。他讀過基督教文本。

  • so he had a thing about sexual purity. That's why he created a new edict,  

    所以他對性的純潔性有意見。這就是為什麼他創造了一個新的詔書。

  • one which was about slave girls and women  being stolen by men. Those girls were  

    其中一個是關於奴隸女孩和婦女被男人偷走的故事。這些女孩是

  • under the protection of chaperones, women called  nurses, who were supposed to protect the slaves  

    在陪護者的保護下,這些婦女被稱為護士,她們應該保護奴隸。

  • from being abducted. The law came under the  “raptusstatutes, a word related to seizing  

    不被綁架。該法屬於 "raptus "法規,這個詞與扣押有關

  • something without permission. This could mean  forcing a slave to have sex or bride kidnapping

    未經允許的事情。這可能意味著強迫奴隸進行性行為或綁架新娘。

  • Constantine had it written into law that ifchaperone should help with this kind of activity,  

    康斯坦丁把它寫進了法律,規定如果有陪護者應該幫助進行這種活動。

  • she should have molten lead, not gold, poured  down her throat. It was also decreed that any  

    她應該被灌入熔化的鉛,而不是金子,她的喉嚨。還規定,任何

  • man forcing himself on a girl should be burned  at the stake, and any slave girl who willingly  

    逼迫自己的男人應該被燒死在火刑柱上,而任何自願的女奴都應該被燒死。

  • ran off with a guy should also be burned. This is what he wrote in one edict

    和一個人跑了,也應該被燒死。這是他在一份詔書中寫的內容。

  • And since often the watchfulness of parents is  frustrated by the stories and wicked persuasions  

    "由於父母的警惕性經常被故事和邪惡的勸說所挫敗

  • of nurses, these nurses first of all, whose  service is proved to have been hateful and  

    的護士,這些護士首先,他們的服務被證明是可恨的和

  • whose talk is proved to have been bought, this  punishment shall threaten: that the opening  

    其談話被證明是被收買的,這種懲罰將威脅到:開

  • of their mouth and of their throat, which  brought forth destructive encouragements,  

    他們的嘴和他們的喉嚨,帶來了破壞性的鼓勵。

  • shall be closed by the swallowing of molten lead.” Ok, so there are umpteen historical texts that  

    將被吞下熔化的鉛而關閉"。好的,所以有無數的歷史文獻表明

  • say this happened, so now we should  ask what it would have felt like or  

    說這件事發生了,所以現在我們應該問它會是什麼感覺或

  • at least how the person would have died. We are in luck here, because after a bunch of  

    至少這個人本來是怎麼死的。我們在這裡很幸運,因為在一堆

  • modern scientists from the Netherlands heard the  story of the 1599 case of a Spanish governor in  

    來自荷蘭的現代科學家們聽說了1599年西班牙總督的案件的故事。

  • Ecuador dying this way, again because he upset  the locals, they investigated the matter. They  

    厄瓜多爾這樣死亡,又是因為他惹惱了當地人,他們調查了這件事。他們

  • wrote what you've already heard, that the  punishment was reserved for the gold-hungry  

    寫道:"你已經聽說過了,這種懲罰是為那些貪婪的金主準備的。

  • Spaniards as a symbolic kind of execution. The story of the governor says that soon after  

    西班牙人作為一種象徵性的處決。州長的故事說,不久之後

  • he swallowed the gold his internal organs  burst. The scientists wrote in a paper,  

    他吞下黃金後,他的內部器官就會爆裂。科學家們在一篇論文中寫道。

  • The question remains whether this is actually the  case and, also, what the cause of death would be.” 

    "問題是,情況是否真的如此,還有,死亡的原因會是什麼。"

  • We'd test this ourselves at the Infographics Showbut we are too stingy to spare any of our gold,  

    我們想在資訊圖表展上親自測試一下,但我們太小氣了,不願意放過任何一個金子。

  • but luckily the Dutch academics did  a test for us. They took the larynx  

    但幸運的是,荷蘭學術界為我們做了一個測試。他們把喉部

  • from a cow. The cow was already dead,  a casualty of human steak consumption

    從一頭牛身上。這頭牛已經死了,是人類食用牛排的犧牲品。

  • They then took the larynx and stood it uprightand instead of using molten gold they heated up  

    然後他們拿起喉部,將其豎立起來,沒有使用熔化的黃金,而是加熱了

  • some lead to 450 degrees and used thatTissue paper was shoved into the bottom  

    一些鉛的溫度為450度,並使用了這個。 紙巾被塞進了底部

  • so there was a kind of end to the larynx. In their own words, this is what happened

    是以,喉部出現了某種程度的結束。用他們自己的話說,這就是所發生的事情。

  • Immediately, large amounts of steam appeared  at both ends of the specimen, and the clot  

    "立即,試樣的兩端出現了大量的蒸汽,而且凝塊

  • of tissue paper was expelled with force by  the steam. Within 10 seconds, the lead had  

    在蒸汽的作用下,紙巾被強力排出。在10秒鐘內,鉛已經

  • congealed again, completely filling the larynx.” There's a lot of academic speech in the paper,  

    再次凝固,完全充滿了喉部"。文中有很多學術性的言論。

  • so we'll employ laymen's language here. In  conclusion, they said all that steam could  

    所以我們在此採用外行人的語言。總之,他們說所有的蒸汽可以

  • rupture the organs, so yes, a good old  bursting could definitely have happened  

    臟器破裂,所以是的,一個好的舊的爆裂肯定會發生。

  • when the gold was poured into those victims. They said that if bursting didn't occur, then  

    當黃金被倒入那些受害者的時候。他們說,如果爆裂沒有發生,那麼

  • the thermal injury to the lungs would pretty much  cause instant death from pulmonary dysfunction and  

    對肺部的熱損傷幾乎會導致肺部功能障礙而立即死亡。

  • shock. They also said that there is the minute  possibility that instant death wouldn't occur,  

    震驚。他們還說,有一分鐘的可能性,即期死亡不會發生。

  • but then since the liquid would congeal in about  10 seconds, the airways would block, and the  

    但是,由於液體會在大約10秒內凝固,呼吸道會被堵塞,而

  • person would suffocate in not too many seconds. Therefore, this kind of death in the past would  

    人會在不多的幾秒鐘內窒息而死。是以,在過去,這種死亡會

  • have been over just as the person swallowed  the first mouthful of gold. Of course,  

    就在這個人吞下第一口金子的時候就已經結束了。當然了。

  • the initial contact with the mouth would have  stung a bit, but as soon as the pain was felt,  

    最初接觸到的嘴巴會有一點刺痛,但只要一有疼痛感。

  • the person, as Londoners might have once saidwould bebrown bread”, dead. By that time,  

    這個人,就像倫敦人曾經說過的那樣,將是 "棕色麵包",死了。到那個時候。

  • the throat mucus would have been burned  off and the muscles would have been cooked

    喉嚨裡的粘液會被燒掉,肌肉會被烤熟。

  • There is more to this story, though. What  if someone just swallowed a tiny bit,  

    不過,這個故事還有更多的內容。如果有人只是吞下了一丁點。

  • a few spoonfuls? You are in luck again  

    幾勺子?你又走運了

  • viewers because there is a story about a man  that was unfortunate enough to do just that,  

    觀眾,因為有一個關於一個人的故事,他很不幸地做到了這一點。

  • and guess what, he didn't immediately die. Ok, so this wasn't a punishment, but the  

    你猜怎麼著,他沒有立即死亡。好吧,所以這不是一種懲罰,但

  • story still might serve to give you an idea  of what swallowing molten gold might be like

    這個故事仍然可以讓你瞭解吞下熔化的黃金可能是什麼樣子。

  • The story is of a lighthouse keeper named Henry  Hall who worked in the picturesque countryside at  

    這個故事講述的是一位名叫亨利-霍爾的燈塔看守人在風景如畫的鄉村工作的故事。

  • the southern end of England. On 2 December 1755,  he had a bit of a bad day. There was a fire at his  

    英國的南端。1755年12月2日,他的日子有點不好過。他家發生了一場火災

  • lighthouse so he did the right thing and threw  water on it, only the fire was above his head

    於是他做了一件正確的事,向燈塔潑水,只是火勢在他頭上。

  • At one point, he looked up to assess the  damage, and molten lead from the roof fell  

    有一次,他抬頭評估損失,屋頂上的熔化的鉛掉了下來。

  • on his poor head. If that wasn't painful enoughbecause his mouth was wide open, he swallowed  

    在他可憐的頭上。如果這還不夠痛苦,因為他的嘴大張著,他吞下了

  • a load of the stuff. These were his exact  words, “My God, I'm on fire inside!” 

    一堆東西。這是他的原話:"我的上帝,我的內心正在燃燒!"

  • Not surprisingly, he suffered terrible burns  over his face, shoulders, and arms. But this  

    毫不奇怪,他的臉、肩膀和手臂都被嚴重燒傷。但這

  • was a lighthouse in a very remote areaso Hall was pretty much stuck there. He  

    是一個非常偏遠地區的燈塔,所以霍爾幾乎是被困在那裡。他

  • was fortunate enough in a few days to flag  down a passing ship, and later Mr. Hall told  

    幾天後,他很幸運地給一艘過往的船隻掛上了旗幟,後來霍爾先生告訴他

  • a shocked Dr. Henry Spry what had happened. All this is on record, with Spry writing that  

    震驚的亨利-斯普利博士說發生了什麼事。所有這些都被記錄在案,斯普利寫道

  • Hall said: “with a hoarse voice, scarce to  be heard, that melted lead had run down his  

    霍爾說。"用嘶啞的聲音說,幾乎聽不見,融化的鉛已經流到了他的身上。

  • throat into his body.” The doctor actually didn't  believe Hall's story, only because he thought,  

    喉嚨進入他的身體"。醫生其實並不相信霍爾的故事,只是因為他認為。

  • like anyone would, that if you swallowed molten  lead, you'd be dead in a matter of seconds,  

    像任何人一樣,如果你吞下熔化的鉛,你會在幾秒鐘內死亡。

  • or maybe hours if the serving was small. Hall was 94 at the time, which was nothing  

    或者,如果上菜量小的話,也許是幾個小時。霍爾當時是94歲,這不算什麼

  • short of a miracle back in the 1700s. For  the reason of old age, the doctor said Hall  

    早在1700年代,這還不是一個奇蹟。由於年老的原因,醫生說霍爾

  • must have lost his mind and that was why he  was going on about swallowing lead and fires  

    他一定是失去了理智,所以才會說什麼吞下了鉛和火。

  • in his stomach. Spry noted that he didn't  have any other symptoms besides the burns.  

    在他的胃裡。斯普利指出,除了燒傷,他沒有任何其他症狀。

  • The doctor was having none of it. A few days later Hall was dead

    醫生對此毫無辦法。幾天後,霍爾就死了。

  • An autopsy was performed given Hall's  claims about what had happened. This is  

    鑑於霍爾對所發生的事情的說法,進行了屍檢。這就是

  • what was written in the report: “The diaphragmatic upper mouth of the stomach  

    報告中寫了什麼。"胃的橫膈膜上口

  • greatly inflamed and ulcerated, and the tunica in  the lower part of the stomach burnt; and from the  

    大幅發炎和潰爛,胃下部的隧道被燒燬;並且從

  • great cavity of it took out a great piece of  lead ... which weighed exactly seven ounces.” 

    巨大的腔體中取出了一塊巨大的鉛......這塊鉛正好有七盎司重。"

  • That bit of lead in his stomach is now  in a museum, and if you go to a certain  

    他肚子裡的那點鉛現在在一個博物館裡,如果你去某個

  • pub in Plymouth today, nearby you'll see  a plaque dedicated to the brave Mr. Hall

    今天在普利茅斯的酒館裡,在附近你會看到一個獻給勇敢的霍爾先生的牌匾。

  • So, yes, you could swallow some molten metal and  survive, but you'd likely end up dying with some  

    是以,是的,你可以吞下一些熔化的金屬並存活下來,但你很可能最終會死於一些

  • of the hardened stuff inside of you. One thing  is for sure, if those ancients did perform this  

    的堅硬的東西在你體內。有一件事是肯定的,如果那些古人確實進行了這種

  • kind of groovy execution, they would not be out of  pocket, because they could just take the hardened  

    在這樣的情況下,他們就不會有任何損失,因為他們可以把那些已經硬化了的東西拿出來。

  • gold back once they'd opened the guy up. For this  reason and more, there's absolutely no reason  

    一旦他們把這傢伙打開,黃金就會回來。由於這個原因和其他原因,絕對沒有理由

  • to think this kind of punishment didn't exist. Was molten lead ever a real punishment outside  

    認為這種懲罰並不存在。熔化的鉛曾經是外面真正的懲罰嗎?

  • of Constantine's God-fearing empire? Well, if you read the Old Testament  

    的君士坦丁的敬畏上帝的帝國?好吧,如果你閱讀《舊約》的話

  • you might believe that to be true because  in Leviticus 20:14 there's a part about  

    你可能相信這是真的,因為在《利未記》20:14中,有一段關於

  • someone being punished for having close  relations with both his wife and daughter, i.e,  

    有人因與妻子和女兒關係密切而受到懲罰,即

  • an incestual melange-et-trois. It was the bible  that probably inspired Constantine to do the same

    亂倫的混合物。可能是《聖經》啟發了康斯坦丁做同樣的事。

  • The Holy Book says that the criminal man was  first made to kneel down in a pile of dung,  

    聖書中說,罪犯首先被逼跪在一堆糞便中。

  • after which a cloth was tied around his throatThe executioners then pulled that cloth tight so  

    之後,一塊布被綁在他的喉嚨上。 劊子手們隨後拉緊那塊布,以便

  • the man had no choice but to open his mouth very  wide. After that, they poured in the molten lead,  

    那人別無選擇,只能把嘴張得很大。之後,他們倒入了熔化的鉛。

  • thus doing the right thing in the eyes  of God by burning the man to death

    是以,在上帝的眼中,燒死這個人是正確的事情。

  • Now you need to watch, “Choke Pear - Worst  Punishments in the History of Mankind.” Or,  

    現在你需要觀看,"窒息梨--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰"。或者。

  • get down with more pain with, “Head CrusherWorst Punishments in the History of Mankind.”

    用更多的痛苦來獲得,"頭部破碎機--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰"。

There's a scene in Game of Thrones where  Viserys, a man not exactly well known for his  

權力的遊戲》中有一個場景,韋賽里斯這個人並不完全以他的

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被迫吃熔化的黃金--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰 (Forced to Eat Molten Gold - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 09 日
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