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  • Los Angeles, 1942, just a few months after the devastating attack on Pearl Harbor.

    1942年的洛杉磯,就在對珍珠港進行毀滅性襲擊的幾個月後。

  • Panic was in the air.

    空氣中瀰漫著恐慌。

  • People imagined another attack, but this time on the city of angels, a place which was churning

    人們想象著另一次攻擊,但這次是對天使之城的攻擊,這個地方正在洶湧澎湃。

  • out aircraft with impressive speed.

    出的飛機,速度令人印象深刻。

  • Folks envisioned the Hollywood hills on fire, people fighting in the streets, and then it

    人們設想好萊塢的山丘著火了,人們在街上戰鬥,然後它

  • came, the fateful day.

    來了,那是一個決定性的日子。

  • February 25.

    2月25日。

  • Coastal radar picks up an unidentified flying object about 125 miles west of Los Angeles.

    沿海雷達在洛杉磯以西約125英里處發現一個不明飛行物。

  • Oh God,” the radar technician thinks, “It's heading straight for the city.”

    "哦,上帝,"雷達技術員想,"它正直奔城市而去。"

  • Half an hour later and more radars pick up the object.

    半小時後,更多的雷達發現了該物體。

  • Air-raid sirens fill the air.

    防空警報聲充滿了空氣。

  • Citizens of LA watch in horror as anti-air artillery and .50 caliber rounds fire above

    洛杉磯市民驚恐地看著防空炮和.50口徑的子彈在上面開火。

  • their heads.

    他們的頭。

  • The Japanese are here, they think.

    日本人在這裡,他們認為。

  • They imagine their houses on fire.

    他們想象自己的房子著火了。

  • Their windows being shot to pieces.

    他們的窗戶被射成碎片。

  • This was the Battle of Los Angeles, and we imagine many of you have never even heard

    這就是洛杉磯之戰,我們想象你們中的許多人甚至從未聽說過

  • of it.

    的。

  • It's just one fact of many you are going to hear today, part of a history lesson that

    這只是你今天要聽到的許多事實中的一個,是歷史課的一部分。

  • will blow you away.

    將使你大吃一驚。

  • Settle in, secure your position and watch the facts fly by.

    安定下來,確保你的位置,看著事實飛逝。

  • 50.

    50.

  • Battle of Los Angeles: Continued.

    洛杉磯之戰。繼續。

  • Ok, so we couldn't just leave it there.

    好吧,所以我們不能把它放在那裡。

  • You're thinking, there was a Battle of Los Angeles and no one even told me about it.

    你在想,有一場洛杉磯之戰,甚至沒有人告訴我這件事。

  • I must have missed that bit in my high school history class.

    我一定是在我的高中歷史課上錯過了那一段。

  • It's not quite as it seems.

    這並不像看起來那樣。

  • It is certainly true that people feared that the Japanese might move an aircraft carrier

    當然,人們擔心日本人可能會動用航空母艦,這是事實。

  • closer to the USA and start an invasion from there.

    靠近美國並從那裡開始入侵。

  • In Oakland schools were closed because of this fear.

    在奧克蘭,學校因為這種恐懼而被關閉。

  • There were blackouts, too.

    也有停電的情況。

  • In Seattle businesses were smashed up by angry mobs because they left their lights on, making

    在西雅圖,企業被憤怒的暴徒打砸,因為他們沒有關燈,使得

  • them a bullseye for fearsome Japanese bombers.

    他們是可怕的日本轟炸機的靶心。

  • The situation got hairier on February 24, 1942, when U.S. Naval Intelligence warned

    1942年2月24日,情況變得更加棘手,美國海軍情報局警告說

  • that an attack might be imminent.

    攻擊可能迫在眉睫。

  • At 2.25 am the next day the sirens sounded, and a blackout was ordered.

    第二天凌晨2點25分,警報聲響起,並下令停電。

  • The 37th Coast Artillery Brigade started firing .50-caliber machine guns and anti-aircraft

    第37海岸炮兵旅開始發射.50口徑的機槍和防空炮。

  • shells.

    炮彈。

  • Imagine being there, imagine seeing that as you rubbed your sleepy eyes early in the morning.

    想象一下在那裡,想象一下在清晨揉著惺忪的眼睛時看到的情景。

  • But nothing came.

    但什麼也沒來。

  • Not one Japanese plane was spotted.

    沒有一架日本飛機被發現。

  • Buildings and cars were damaged, and five people died, three in car accidents related

    建築物和汽車被損壞,5人死亡,其中3人死於車禍。

  • to the chaos and another two people's hearts gave out during that very stressful hour of

    混亂中,又有兩個人的心臟在那非常緊張的一小時內壞掉了。

  • hearing gunfire.

    聽到槍聲。

  • The next day the headlines were all about this Los Angeles attack, or non-attack.

    第二天的頭條新聞都是關於這次洛杉磯的襲擊,或者說非襲擊。

  • But what had actually happened?

    但實際上發生了什麼?

  • Some media saidwar nervesand others called it a false alarm.

    一些媒體說是 "戰爭神經",另一些媒體則稱這是一場虛驚。

  • But the people, the people were rightly concerned.

    但是,人民,人民的擔憂是正確的。

  • Was there something the government wasn't telling them?

    政府是否有什麼事情沒有告訴他們?

  • They had to wait to get answers.

    他們不得不等待,以獲得答案。

  • After the war ended the Japanese stood up and said, “Hey guys, we never went anywhere

    戰爭結束後,日本人站起來說,"嘿,夥計們,我們從未去過任何地方。

  • near Los Angeles.

    靠近洛杉磯。

  • You were all tripping.”

    你們都被絆倒了。"

  • To cut a long story short, that flying object that had been picked up by radar was an off-course

    長話短說,那個被雷達發現的飛行物是一個偏離航線的

  • weather balloon.

    氣象氣球。

  • The Battle of Los Angeles had been part-panic, part missing balloon.

    洛杉磯之戰的部分原因是恐慌,部分原因是氣球丟失。

  • Some folks said the object was an alien UFO, but we won't get into that today.

    有些人說這個物體是外星UFO,但我們今天不談這個。

  • 49.

    49.

  • So, that was more of a story than a hard fact, and there will be many more insane stories,

    是以,這更像是一個故事,而不是一個鐵的事實,而且還會有更多瘋狂的故事。

  • but let's have a look at some facts, too.

    但讓我們也看一下一些事實。

  • The U.S. army is massive, absolutely massive.

    美國的軍隊是龐大的,絕對龐大。

  • In total, it contains around 1.4 million personnel, a few more people than the country of Estonia.

    它總共有大約140萬人員,比愛沙尼亞國家的人數多一些。

  • But it's not the biggest army.

    但這並不是最大的軍隊。

  • That would be the North Korean army, at around 2.2 million personnel.

    這將是北韓軍隊,大約有220萬人員。

  • 48.

    48.

  • Believe it or not, the U.S army is actually older than the U.S. Americans celebrate the

    信不信由你,美國軍隊的歷史其實比美國人的歷史還要悠久。

  • birth of their nation on July 4.

    他們的國家在7月4日誕生。

  • The year the nation was established was 1776, but the date that the army was established

    國家成立的年份是1776年,但軍隊成立的日期是

  • was June 14, 1775.

    是1775年6月14日。

  • It makes sense really.

    這真的很有意義。

  • If they were gonna kick out those damned imperialist Brits they needed an army to do it, well the

    如果他們要趕走那些該死的帝國主義英國人,他們需要一支軍隊來做這件事,好吧。

  • French helped a bit, too, as did some heroic foreign military leaders that we'll talk

    法國人也幫了點忙,還有一些英雄的外國軍事領導人也幫了點忙,我們將談談這些人。

  • about later.

    關於以後。

  • 47.

    47.

  • We just said that the army employs about 1.4 million people, with some of them being in

    我們剛才說,軍隊僱用了大約140萬人,其中一些人在

  • the reserves.

    儲備金。

  • Still, that means it is the second largest employer in the USA behind Walmart, which

    然而,這意味著它是美國第二大僱主,僅次於沃爾瑪。

  • employs around 2.3 million people.

    僱用了大約230萬人。

  • Amazon is a long way behind, employing something close to 800,000 people.

    亞馬遜落後很多,僱傭了接近80萬名員工。

  • 46.

    46.

  • 16 of the 45 U.S. presidents have served in the U.S. army.

    45位美國總統中有16位曾在美國軍隊中服役。

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower served in the army in both world war one and world war two.

    德懷特-D-艾森豪威爾在第一次世界大戰和第二次世界大戰中都曾在軍隊服役。

  • Theodore Roosevelt is the only president to have won the distinguished Medal of Honor

    西奧多-羅斯福是唯一獲得傑出榮譽勳章的總統。

  • for his service in the army.

    因為他在軍隊中的服務。

  • During the Spanish-American War heled a desperate and gallant charge up San Juan

    在美西戰爭期間,他 "上司了一次不顧一切的英勇衝鋒,衝上了聖胡安。

  • Hill”, risked life and limb under a barrage of enemy fire, and then he jumped into a trench

    山",在敵人的炮火下冒著生命危險,然後他跳入戰壕

  • and killed a man, making it possible for the boys behind him to advance.

    並殺死了一個人,使他身後的男孩們有可能前進。

  • 45.

    45.

  • We guess some of you have at one point have owned a pair of Ray-Ban sunglasses, but we

    我們猜想你們中的一些人曾經擁有過一副雷朋太陽鏡,但是我們

  • also guess that you didn't know they were the brainchild of the U.S. army.

    我猜你也不知道他們是美國軍隊的創意。

  • That's right.

    這就對了。

  • There used to be a thing called the United States Army Air Corps, which was the flying

    過去有一種東西叫美國陸軍航空隊,是飛行的。

  • part of the army before the US Air Force was created.

    在美國空軍成立之前,是軍隊的一部分。

  • In 1929, there was a guy that was tasked with working with a glasses producer to make glasses

    1929年,有一個人受命與一個眼鏡生產商合作,製作眼鏡

  • that would make life easier for pilots.

    這將使飛行員的生活更容易。

  • His name was John A. Macready, Colonel John Macready.

    他的名字是約翰-A-麥克雷迪,約翰-麥克雷迪上校。

  • He was up to the task, and he got working on some glasses that wouldn't fog-up like

    他能勝任這項工作,他開始著手製作一些不會起霧的眼鏡,像

  • goggles and at the same time would reduce the glare from the bright blue sky.

    護目鏡,同時會減少來自明亮藍天的眩光。

  • In the late thirties the Ray-Ban Aviator glasses were patented, and the rest is history.

    在三十年代末,雷朋飛行員眼鏡獲得了專利,剩下的就是歷史了。

  • 44.

    44.

  • The U.S. army created the world's first submarine.

    美國軍隊創造了世界上第一艘潛水艇。

  • This was called the Turtle, and it was introduced in 1774 when the army was fighting the British

    這被稱為 "烏龜",它是在1774年軍隊與英國人作戰時推出的。

  • during the American Revolutionary War.

    在美國革命戰爭期間。

  • While the vehicle looked pretty cool, it never really did what it was supposed to do.

    雖然這輛車看起來非常酷,但它從未真正做到它應該做的事情。

  • That was to affix explosives to British warships in New York Harbor.

    那就是在紐約港的英國軍艦上粘貼炸藥。

  • They never pulled that off, and then poor old Turtle sank into the sea when it was aboard

    他們從來沒有成功過,然後可憐的老海龜在上船的時候就沉入了大海。

  • a vessel.

    一個容器。

  • 43.

    43.

  • It's thought that about 2.1 million soldiers fought for The Union during the Civil War.

    人們認為,在內戰期間,大約有210萬阿兵哥為聯邦而戰。

  • What's maybe quite surprising is that about one quarter of them were immigrants.

    也許相當令人驚訝的是,其中大約四分之一的人是移民。

  • If you count the sons of immigrants that fought, then it is closer to half the army's population.

    如果算上參戰的移民之子,那麼就接近軍隊的一半人口。

  • 42.

    42.

  • During the Second World War the brand Coca-Cola was already a kind of symbol that represented

    在第二次世界大戰期間,可口可樂這個品牌已經是一種象徵,代表著

  • the American Way.

    美國的方式。

  • And you know what, American soldiers fighting abroad really pined for stuff.

    而且你知道嗎,在國外作戰的美國士兵真的很渴望得到東西。

  • Most of them couldn't get their hands on Coke.

    他們中的大多數人都拿不到可樂。

  • Coca-Cola Company president Robert W. Woodruff heard about this and decided it wasn't good

    可口可樂公司總裁Robert W. Woodruff聽說了這件事,認為這不是好事

  • enough, so he made a promise.

    足夠了,所以他做了一個承諾。

  • He told soldiers that wherever they were, they would be able to get a Coke for the cost

    他告訴阿兵哥們,無論他們在哪裡,他們都能以成本價獲得一杯可樂。

  • of five cents.

    五分錢。

  • But he needed the help of General Dwight Eisenhower to get the Cokes to them.

    但他需要德懷特-艾森豪威爾將軍的幫助才能把可樂送到他們手中。

  • Together they cooked up a plan to get those addictive cans of tooth-rotting liquid to

    他們一起制定了一個計劃,將那些令人上癮的蛀牙液罐頭送到

  • the soldiers.

    的阿兵哥。

  • Coca-Cola opened up a bunch of plants overseas, but it went one step further when it introduced

    可口可樂公司在海外開設了一批工廠,但它更進一步,推出了

  • people calledTechnical Observers”.

    被稱為 "技術觀察員 "的人。

  • These Coke workers wore army uniforms and looked the part, but they weren't actually

    這些可樂公司的工人穿著軍裝,看起來很像,但實際上他們並不是

  • military.

    軍隊。

  • They were only there to make sure the plants were built and those soldiers got their fix.

    他們在那裡只是為了確保工廠的建設和那些阿兵哥得到他們的幫助。

  • It actually boosted morale a lot, with one soldier writing this in a letter:

    這實際上極大地鼓舞了士氣,一位阿兵哥在信中這樣寫道。

  • Dear Folks, You'll never guess what I had to drink this evening.

    "親愛的朋友們,你們絕對猜不到我今天晚上喝了什麼。

  • Not whiskey, not gin, not Calvados, not beer, but good old fashionedCoca-Colain

    不是威士忌,不是杜松子酒,不是卡爾瓦多斯酒,不是啤酒,而是老式的 "可口可樂"。

  • the bottle that's made to fit the hand.”

    的瓶子,是為了適應手的。"

  • Suffice to say, Coca-Cola did ok out of the deal, too.

    可以說,可口可樂公司在這筆交易中也做得不錯。

  • It had entered Europe and it wasn't about to leave.

    它已經進入歐洲,而且不打算離開。

  • 41.

    41.

  • There are some sources that will tell you that the US army pioneered modern guerrilla

    有一些消息來源會告訴你,美軍是現代游擊隊的先驅。

  • warfare, but that's debatable.

    戰,但這是值得商榷的。

  • A lot of armies could claim that, but it is certainly true that the man named General

    很多軍隊都可以這樣說,但肯定的是,名為將軍的人

  • Francis "Swamp Fox" Marion was an excellent guerrilla warfare tactician.

    弗朗西斯-"沼澤之狐 "馬里昂是一位出色的游擊戰戰術家。

  • This guy, also credited with being the man that led the first special forces in the US,

    這個人,也被認為是上司美國第一批特種部隊的人。

  • got his nickname because he'd take militiamen into the swamps where they'd wait in hiding

    他的綽號是因為他把民兵帶進沼澤地,在那裡躲藏起來等待。

  • for Loyalists and British regulars.

    為保皇黨人和英國正規軍。

  • They didn't fight the regular way, but would jump out of the swamps and kill.

    他們不以常規方式作戰,而是從沼澤地裡跳出來殺人。

  • His men, who weren't paid and supplied their own arms and sometimes food, frightened the

    他的手下沒有工資,自己提供武器,有時還提供食物,這使他們感到害怕。

  • hell out of their enemy.

    他們的敵人的地獄。

  • So we don't get in trouble, we should add that he was despised by many and criticized

    為了不給我們帶來麻煩,我們應該補充說,他被許多人鄙視,被責備

  • for being more than harsh to his men and someone who committed many atrocities.

    因為他對自己的部下過於苛刻,而且犯下了許多暴行。

  • 40.

    40.

  • From the years 2006 to 2020, 17,645 active-duty personnel died serving in the U.S. Armed Forces.

    從2006年到2020年,有17,645名現役人員在美國武裝部隊中死亡。

  • 39.

    39.

  • 53,402 U.S. soldiers died in combat during World War One, and most of those served in

    第一次世界大戰期間,有53,402名美國士兵在戰鬥中死亡,其中大部分人在以下地點服役

  • the army.

    軍隊。

  • 38.

    38.

  • The war that saw the most deaths in the U.S. was the Civil War.

    在美國,死亡人數最多的戰爭是內戰。

  • When you count Union soldiers as well as Confederate soldiers the number of deaths is between 755,000

    當你計算聯邦阿兵哥和南方阿兵哥時,死亡人數在755,000人之間。

  • - 800,000 victims, which was about 449 per day.

    - 800,000名受害者,大約每天449人。

  • That makes it the worst war that U.S. soldiers have ever fought in.

    這使得它成為美國士兵所參加過的最糟糕的戰爭。

  • Ok, now for something even more surprising.

    好了,現在是更令人驚訝的事情。

  • 37.

    37.

  • The U.S. army used to use the Swastika as a symbol.

    美國軍隊曾經使用 "卍 "字作為標誌。

  • You heard that right.

    你沒聽錯。

  • The 45th Infantry used to pin it on their sleeves, but they only did that to honor their

    第45步兵隊曾經把它別在袖子上,但他們這樣做只是為了紀念他們的

  • native American brothers in arms.

    美國本土的兄弟們在戰鬥。

  • What you have to remember is that before Adolf Hitler hijacked that symbol, it was used for

    你必須記住的是,在阿道夫-希特勒劫持這個符號之前,它被用於

  • thousands of years in many different cultures and was a symbol of good luck.

    幾千年來,在許多不同的文化中,它是好運的象徵。

  • For instance, in Sanskrit it means, “conducive to well-being.”

    例如,在梵語中,它的意思是 "有利於安康"。

  • That's why you can still see it today all over Asia, something that surprises less educated

    這就是為什麼你今天仍然可以在亞洲各地看到它,這是一個讓教育程度較低的人感到驚訝的事情。

  • travelers.

    旅行者。

  • It won't surprise you, though, because now you know where it came from.

    不過,這不會讓你感到驚訝,因為現在你知道它來自哪裡了。

  • Needless to say, when Hitler started using it the 45th Infantry dropped it.

    不用說,當希特勒開始使用它時,第45步兵團就放棄了它。

  • 36.

    36.

  • Batteries, the US army needs them, and any soldier will tell you that they weigh quite

    電池,美國軍隊需要它們,任何阿兵哥都會告訴你,它們的重量相當大。

  • a bit.

    一點點。

  • You see, if you want to go on a mission you need to power stuff.

    你看,如果你想去執行任務,你需要給東西供電。

  • It takes around 400 pounds (181 kg) of batteries for 30 men going on a 3-day mission.

    30人執行3天的任務需要大約400磅(181公斤)的電池。

  • You can actually find a slew of articles talking about the army's battery problem.

    實際上,你可以找到一連串的文章來談論軍隊的電池問題。

  • 35.

    35.

  • In the late 1960s, the army introduced something called the Walking Truck, or if you want to

    在20世紀60年代末,軍隊推出了一種叫做步行卡車的東西,或者如果你想

  • get technical, the Cybernetic Anthropomorphous Machine.

    技術上來說,就是控制論的擬人機器。

  • The giant robot had four big legs and while it looked like something from a sci-fi movie

    這個巨大的機器人有四條大腿,雖然它看起來像科幻電影中的東西

  • it wasn't exactly nimble.

    它並不完全靈活。

  • The plodding machine was designed to solve the army's age-old problem of carrying stuff.

    這臺步履蹣跚的機器被設計用來解決軍隊攜帶物品這一古老的問題。

  • Like in the movie Alien, a person would sit inside it and control with their feet and

    就像電影《異形》中那樣,一個人坐在裡面,用他們的腳和手控制。

  • hands.

    手。

  • It weighed 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) and travelled at 5 miles per hour (8 km/h).

    它重達3,000磅(1,400公斤),以每小時5英里(8公里)的速度行駛。

  • While it looked like a good idea, it wasn't.

    雖然這看起來是個好主意,但事實並非如此。

  • It was so tiring to operate that a person could only move for a short amount of time.

    操作起來非常累,一個人只能在很短的時間內移動。

  • 34.

    34.

  • Only 28 percent of folks aged 17-23 in the US qualify to serve in the army.

    在美國,17-23歲的人中只有28%的人有資格在軍隊服役。

  • It has high standards.

    它有很高的標準。

  • One recruiting commander said this about those standards, “We don't want to sacrifice

    一位新兵指揮官對這些標準是這樣說的:"我們不希望犧牲

  • quality.

    品質。

  • If we lower the quality, yes we might be able to make our mission, but that's not good

    如果我們降低品質,是的,我們也許能完成我們的任務,但這不是好事。

  • for the organization.”

    為本組織"。

  • 33.

    33.

  • In 2020, the Pentagon's budget meant $178 billion would go to the Army, $207.1 billion

    在2020年,五角大樓的預算意味著1780億美元將用於陸軍,2071億美元的

  • for the Navy and Marine Corps, a further $191.8 billion for the Air Force, and just $15.4

    海軍和海軍陸戰隊的費用為1918億美元,空軍的費用為15.4億美元。

  • billion for the Space Force.

    億美元用於太空部隊。

  • 32.

    32.

  • Who first looked at the Grand Canyon and thought, wow, nice, can't wait to tell everyone about

    誰第一次看到大峽谷就想,哇,不錯,等不及要告訴大家了

  • this and put it on a map?

    這並把它放在地圖上?

  • It was the army.

    這是軍隊的事。

  • You see, the US army was responsible for mapping much of the USA.

    你看,美國軍隊負責繪製美國大部分地區的地圖。

  • In the early 1800s the US government wanted to map the entirety of the USA, which was

    19世紀初,美國政府希望繪製美國全境的地圖,這就是

  • no easy feat.

    這不是一件容易的事。

  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition was the solution, and that was led by the U.S. army.

    劉易斯和克拉克遠征是解決辦法,那是由美國軍隊上司的。

  • 31.

    31.

  • George Washington didn't actually want to be the commander of the army.

    喬治-華盛頓實際上並不想成為軍隊的指揮官。

  • He didn't think he was up to the task.

    他不認為自己能勝任這項工作。

  • He was happy when the war was over, but then he resigned.

    戰爭結束後,他很高興,但後來他辭職了。

  • This is what he told Congress: “Happy in the confirmation of our independence

    這是他對國會所說的話。"為確認我們的獨立而高興

  • and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable

    和主權,並對美國有機會成為一個受人尊敬的國家而感到高興。

  • nation, I resign with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in

    國家,我滿意地辭去了我滿懷信心地接受的任命;這種信心是在

  • my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task.”

    我有能力完成如此艱鉅的任務"。

  • A man of humility!

    謙虛的人!"。

  • As you'll soon see, there were many more great military leaders.

    你很快就會看到,還有很多偉大的軍事領導人。

  • 30.

    30.

  • After World War Two and for many years on, the US army had a dump-athon.

    二戰結束後,在以後的許多年裡,美國軍隊都有一個垃圾場馬拉松。

  • In total, the army admitted to secretly dumping 64 million pounds of nerve and mustard gas

    軍隊總共承認祕密傾倒了6400萬磅的神經和芥子氣

  • agents in the sea.

    海中的代理人。

  • Also thrown in were 400,000 chemical-filled bombs, landmines and rockets, and with that

    此外,還有400,000枚裝滿化學品的炸彈、地雷和火箭,以及與此相關的

  • 500 tons of radioactive waste.

    500噸的放射性廢物。

  • It was revealed that storage was expensive and dangerous and destroying was difficult,

    據透露,儲存的費用很高,而且很危險,銷燬也很困難。

  • so overboard the stuff went.

    所以,這些東西就越過了界限。

  • 29.

    29.

  • During World War One the German military was unhappy with the US Army.

    在第一次世界大戰期間,德國軍方對美國軍隊很不滿意。

  • It didn't much like the shotguns the army were using, claiming that being hit by a shotgun

    它不太喜歡軍隊使用的霰彈槍,聲稱被霰彈槍打中後

  • was unnecessarily painful.

    是不必要的痛苦。

  • 28.

    28.

  • The US hasn't fully banned the use of landmines.

    美國還沒有完全禁止使用地雷。

  • Under President Obama there was a ban on the use of landmines except for the defense of

    在奧巴馬總統執政期間,曾禁止使用地雷,但用於防衛的地雷除外。

  • South Korea, but under the Trump administration restrictions were lifted.

    韓國,但在特朗普政府下,限制被取消了。

  • In 1997, the Mine Ban Treaty was signed by most countries, but the US, along with China,

    1997年,大多數國家都簽署了《禁雷條約》,但美國與中國一起簽署。

  • Egypt, India, Israel, Pakistan and Russia did not sign.

    埃及、印度、以色列、巴基斯坦和俄羅斯沒有簽署。