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  • January 1961, and a family of five Chinese citizens have left their village and are on

    1961年1月,一個由五名中國公民組成的家庭離開了他們的村莊,在

  • the road.

    路上。

  • What they've left behind is utter devastation.

    他們所留下的是徹底的破壞。

  • What's in front of them is most likely death.

    擺在他們面前的很可能是死亡。

  • First, they lost their home after it was torn down for scrap.

    首先,他們的房子被拆成廢品後,他們失去了房子。

  • Then, after the little food in the village ran out, they ate bark from the trees and

    然後,在村裡的一點食物用完後,他們吃了樹皮和

  • mud from the ground.

    地面上的泥土。

  • On their perilous journey to find something to eat, they sell most of their clothes for

    在尋找食物的危險旅程中,他們賣掉了大部分的衣服來換取食物。

  • morsels of food.

    食物的碎片。

  • They don't have any boots, having stewed and eaten them already.

    他們沒有任何靴子,已經燉好了,吃完了。

  • Just the other day a man offered to buy one of their children for a bowl of rice.

    就在前幾天,一個男人提出要買他們的一個孩子吃一碗飯。

  • That didn't happen, but those kids are already showing distended bellies.

    這並沒有發生,但那些孩子已經露出了脹大的肚子。

  • It is only a matter of time until starvation finishes them – a terrible way to die.

    飢餓終結他們只是時間問題,這是一種可怕的死亡方式。

  • Today you'll hear all about how that happens and when it's happened.

    今天你將聽到所有關於這種情況如何發生以及何時發生的資訊。

  • That story we just told you actually happened to scores of Chinese peasants back then.

    我們剛剛告訴你的那個故事實際上發生在當年的幾十個中國農民身上。

  • While we didn't choose one particular family, we based the story on events from the book,

    雖然我們沒有選擇一個特定的家庭,但我們根據書中的事件來編寫故事。

  • Mao's Great Famine.”

    "毛澤東的大饑荒"。

  • The book was mostly written after the author searched the Chinese government and local

    這本書主要是在作者搜索了中國政府和地方政府後寫成的。

  • government archives, but some of those starving kids did live to tell the tale of the horror

    政府檔案,但這些飢餓的孩子中的一些人確實活到了今天,講述了恐怖的故事。

  • that killed around 45 million people.

    導致約4500萬人死亡。

  • One of those people, now an elderly woman, was asked in an interview, “How did your

    其中一個人,現在是個老婦人,在一次採訪中被問到:"你是怎麼做到的?

  • sister die?”

    姐姐死了嗎?"

  • The woman replied, “She starved.”

    那位婦女回答說:"她餓死了"。

  • She adds, “My brother's name was Xiang WaHe starved to death.”

    她還說:"我哥哥叫向華......他是餓死的。"

  • The woman then makes a small circle with her thumb and finger and says to the camera, “His

    然後,該婦女用拇指和手指畫了一個小圈,並對著鏡頭說:"他的

  • arms were this thin.”

    胳膊都這麼細。"

  • Millions died like this, in what's been called the single biggest famine the world

    在被稱為世界上最大的一次饑荒中,數百萬人就這樣死去。

  • has ever seen.

    有史以來第一次見到。

  • In that book we just mentioned, there are plenty of details of what it's like to be

    在我們剛才提到的那本書中,有很多細節是關於什麼樣子的

  • on the brink of dying from starvation.

    瀕臨餓死的邊緣。

  • Not surprisingly, the lack of food makes people very ill, but as that happens desperation

    毫不奇怪,食物的缺乏使人們病得很重,但隨著這種情況的發生,絕望

  • like nothing else sets in.

    像什麼都沒發生過一樣。

  • It can be a long-drawn-out way to die.

    這可能是一種曠日持久的死亡方式。

  • People really did eat bark, so you could walk into one village and just stare out at a wasteland

    人們真的吃樹皮,所以你可以走進一個村莊,只是盯著一片荒地。

  • of stripped trees.

    剝落的樹木。

  • Some people ate shoots from the ground, and when they weren't available, they resorted

    有些人吃的是地上的嫩芽,當沒有這些嫩芽時,他們就會採用

  • to eating mud.

    到吃泥巴。

  • When you are starving, you'll eat almost anything.

    當你餓的時候,你幾乎什麼都會吃。

  • Mao Zedong's so-calledGreat Leap Forwardleft peasants with no crops, and even if little

    毛澤東的所謂 "大躍進 "使農民沒有任何農作物,即使有一點

  • was grown, it would often be shipped off.

    如果是種植的,往往會被運走。

  • If people complained or refused to work, or even got sick from lack of nutrition, they

    如果人們抱怨或拒絕工作,甚至因缺乏營養而生病,他們會

  • could be beaten to death or face severe punishment.

    可能會被毆打致死或面臨嚴重懲罰。

  • In a village in Hunan, a young boy stole a handful of grain.

    在湖南的一個村莊,一個小男孩偷了一把糧食。

  • As punishment, the local boss Xiong Changming forced the father to bury that kid alive.

    作為懲罰,當地老闆熊長明強迫父親活埋了那個孩子。

  • The father died soon after from what was stated asgrief”.

    父親很快就死了,據說是死於 "悲痛"。

  • We are giving you that example because we want to show you just how desperate starvation

    我們給你舉這個例子,是因為我們想告訴你,飢餓是多麼令人絕望。

  • makes people.

    使人。

  • That kid wasn't naughty, he was famished and dying.

    那孩子並不調皮,他是飢腸轆轆,奄奄一息。

  • Everyone knew the consequences if they caught stealing but some people still took the risk.

    每個人都知道偷竊被抓的後果,但有些人仍然冒著風險。

  • In other cases, when people died, they were eaten, sometimes by family members.

    在其他情況下,當人們死亡時,他們被吃掉,有時被家人吃掉。

  • Of course, it destroyed them to do such a thing, but one tries to hold on to life as

    當然,做這樣的事會毀了他們,但人要努力堅持生活,因為

  • long as one canespecially if you have children to protect.

    儘可能長的時間--特別是如果你有孩子需要保護。

  • There were many cases of people being exhumed and their rotten bodies feasted on.

    有很多人被挖出來,他們的腐爛的屍體被大吃特吃的情況。

  • In some cases, the starving went for the internal organs, likely because they were in a better

    在某些情況下,飢餓的人去找內臟,可能是因為他們的處境更好。

  • state than some other parts of the body.

    狀況比身體的其他一些部位要好。

  • In one of the archives dated 25 February 1960, it says a man named Yang Zhongsheng from Hongtai

    在1960年2月25日的一份檔案中,說有一個叫楊忠生的人來自洪泰

  • commune, Yaohejia village, killed Yang Ershun.

    公社姚河家村的楊二順被殺。

  • Status: poor farmer.

    身份:貧窮的農民。

  • Relationship with victim: brother.

    與受害者的關係:兄弟。

  • Manner of crime: killed and eaten.

    犯罪方式:被殺和被吃。

  • Reason: livelihood issues.

    理由是:生計問題。

  • With that in mind, we can safely say that not many people in this world truly know what

    考慮到這一點,我們可以肯定地說,這個世界上沒有多少人真正知道什麼是

  • it's like to really starve.

    真正捱餓的感覺。

  • Before we talk about what actually happens to the body, let's have a look at some more

    在我們談論身體實際發生的情況之前,讓我們再看一看一些

  • real-life cases of people starving to death.

    現實生活中人們餓死的案例。

  • There was a case not that long ago in the US where a 14-year old boy was kept in a basement

    不久前,美國發生了一起案件,一個14歲的男孩被關在地下室裡。

  • and hardly fed anything at all for many weeks.

    並在許多星期裡幾乎沒有餵過任何東西。

  • When he was found, still alive, he weighed only 55 pounds (25 kg).

    當他被發現時,仍然活著,他的體重只有55磅(25公斤)。

  • A news report said this about the state he was in:

    一份新聞報道對他當時的狀態是這樣說的。

  • He was severely and chronically malnourished, dehydrated, suffering from acute respiratory

    "他嚴重地長期營養不良、脫水、患有急性呼吸道疾病。

  • distress, shock, hypothermia, and hypothyroidism.”

    窘迫、休克、體溫過低和甲狀腺功能減退"。

  • He was covered in sores and other wounds and wasn't even able to speak.

    他身上長滿了瘡和其他傷口,甚至不能說話。

  • It was only after being connected to breathing and eating tubes that he began to recover,

    在連接了呼吸和飲食管後,他才開始恢復。

  • but it was touch and go for a while regarding whether he'd make it.

    但關於他是否能成功,有一段時間是一觸即發。

  • Basically, his body was shutting down.

    基本上,他的身體正在關閉。

  • His organs were failing.

    他的器官正在衰竭。

  • He was eating himself from the inside.

    他正在從內部吃掉自己。

  • There were more famines, where people died like that on a large scale.

    有更多的饑荒,人們像這樣大規模地死亡。

  • The Great Famine in Ireland killed many from starvation and a lot of more from diseases

    愛爾蘭的大饑荒使許多人死於飢餓,還有許多人死於疾病。

  • brought on by a lack of nutrition.

    由於缺乏營養而帶來的問題。

  • Sometimes this period is called, “The Great Hungeror theThe Great Starvation.”

    有時這個時期被稱為 "大饑荒 "或 "大飢餓"。

  • One man who went over to Ireland to try and help wrote this:

    一位前往愛爾蘭試圖提供幫助的人這樣寫道。

  • No pen can describe the distress by which I am surrounded.

    "任何筆墨都無法描述我被包圍的苦惱。

  • It has actually reached such a degree of lamentable extreme that it becomes above the power of

    它實際上已經達到了如此可悲的極端程度,以至於它變得超越了人類的力量。

  • exaggeration and misapprehension.”

    誇張和誤解"。

  • Over a million people starved to death or died from a famine-related illness.

    超過一百萬人餓死或死於與饑荒有關的疾病。

  • People fled to the cities, with one person calling those people, “walking masses of

    人們逃往城市,有一個人稱這些人是 "行走的人群"。

  • filth, vermin, and sickness.”

    穢物、害蟲和疾病"。

  • You've all likely seen what starvation looks like because you've seen images of famines

    你們都可能見過飢餓的樣子,因為你們看到過饑荒的影像

  • in Africa, or perhaps you've seen photos of Soviet prisoners in German prison camps

    在非洲,也許你已經看到了蘇聯囚犯在德國戰俘營中的照片

  • during the war.

    在戰爭期間。

  • And of course, you've seen the terrible state Jewish prisoners were in when they were

    當然,你也看到了猶太囚犯在被關押時的可怕狀況。

  • found barely alive in concentration camps.

    在集中營中被發現幾乎沒有生命。

  • Because of such images, you'll know that people who are starving don't always look

    因為這樣的影像,你會知道,捱餓的人並不總是看起來

  • like they are suffering from acute pain.

    像他們正在遭受急性疼痛。

  • Instead, they often look listless, gaunt, so weak that they can hardly move or even

    相反,他們往往看起來無精打采,面容憔悴,虛弱得幾乎不能動彈,甚至不能動彈。

  • speak.

    說。

  • So, what is actually happening to them?

    那麼,在他們身上究竟發生了什麼?

  • Ok, so during the Chinese great famine the people who were most at risk were children

    好吧,那麼在中國大饑荒期間,最危險的人是兒童

  • and old people.

    和老人。

  • The reason for that was children don't have as much stored fat as adults and so they wasted

    其原因是兒童沒有像成人那樣有很多儲存的脂肪,是以他們浪費了

  • away first.

    先離開。

  • Old people were also at times very frail and due to their age more vulnerable to disease

    老人有時也非常虛弱,由於年齡大,更容易受到疾病的影響。

  • and infections.

    和感染。

  • According to scientists, how people react to starvation, whether young or old, can be

    據科學家稱,人們對飢餓的反應,無論是年輕還是年老,都可以

  • very different.

    非常不同。

  • Some people might be more irritable, while others might be more lethargic.

    有些人可能更易怒,而另一些人可能更昏昏欲睡。

  • One thing that happens to everyone is the brain becomes damaged over time, but at the

    發生在每個人身上的一件事是,隨著時間的推移,大腦會受損,但在

  • beginning, it's more likely people will just start having problems concentrating.

    開始時,人們更有可能只是開始出現注意力不集中的問題。

  • There are different phases of starvation, with the first stage being what people experience

    飢餓有不同的階段,第一個階段是人們所經歷的

  • when they are fasting.

    當他們禁食的時候。

  • During this stage, the liver produces something called glycogen and this maintains blood glucose

    在這個階段,肝臟產生一種叫做糖原的東西,這可以維持血糖

  • levels.

    水準。

  • The thing is, your liver can only produce enough glycogen for a few hours.

    問題是,你的肝臟只能產生幾個小時的足夠的糖原。

  • After that, the body starts looking for glucose somewhere elsenamely in the breakdown

    此後,身體開始在其他地方尋找葡萄糖--即在分解過程中。

  • of fats and proteins.

    脂肪和蛋白質。

  • So, in the case of a starving person, they either have no food or just morsels of food

    是以,對於一個飢餓的人來說,他們要麼沒有食物,要麼只有零星的食物

  • each day.

    每一天。

  • Even if they have some crumbs to eat, it's not enough to give the body the energy it

    即使他們有一些麵包屑可以吃,也不足以給身體提供能量。

  • needs to function.

    需要發揮作用。

  • That's why the lethargy starts and why the brain can become muddled.

    這就是為什麼會開始昏昏欲睡,為什麼大腦會變得糊塗。

  • In simple terms, there's just not enough gas in the tank to keep the machine running.

    簡單地說,就是油箱裡的油不夠,無法維持機器運轉。

  • But as you know, if a human has water, they can survive without food for quite some time.

    但正如你所知,如果人類有水,他們可以在沒有食物的情況下生存相當長的一段時間。

  • People actually pay to do 30-day water fasts under supervision.

    人們實際上是花錢在監督下做30天的水禁食。

  • People have gone on hunger strikes for much longer.

    人們絕食的時間更長。

  • For instance, imprisoned IRA member Bobby Sands lasted 66 days before he died.

    例如,被監禁的愛爾蘭共和軍成員博比-桑茲在死亡前堅持了66天。

  • The coroner wrote that the cause of death wasstarvation, self-imposed.”

    驗屍官寫道,死因是 "餓死的,自己造成的"。

  • How long can we survive without food?

    沒有食物,我們能生存多久?

  • Well, it all depends on the person who's not eating and the environment they are in,

    嗯,這完全取決於不吃東西的人和他們所處的環境。

  • but an often-cited article in the British Medical Journal said that using data from

    但《英國醫學雜誌》上一篇經常被引用的文章說,使用來自

  • hunger strikes most people become severely ill around the 21 to the 40-day mark.

    大多數人在21天到40天左右會出現嚴重的疾病。

  • That's a big difference, but then some people have much more fat in reserve than others.

    這是一個很大的區別,但後來有些人的脂肪儲備比其他人多得多。

  • As for those Chinese peasants, many of them were forced to work while starving.

    至於那些中國農民,他們中的許多人被迫在飢餓中工作。

  • The upshot of that was they often collapsed and died in the fields.

    這樣做的結果是他們經常倒下,死在田裡。

  • During the second phase of starvation, the body uses stored fat as energy.

    在飢餓的第二階段,身體使用儲存的脂肪作為能量。

  • This happens when the liver turns fat into something called ketones.

    這發生在肝臟將脂肪轉化為一種叫做酮的東西。

  • But as the fat is stripped from the body, the body then starts taking proteins and turning

    但是,隨著脂肪從身體中剝離,身體開始吸收蛋白質,並將其轉化為蛋白質。

  • them into the glucose that the brain needs.

    它們被轉化為大腦所需的葡萄糖。

  • The muscles waste away and so do other body tissues.

    肌肉廢掉了,其他身體組織也是如此。

  • This is all to feed the brain, which has led some people to say that the body starts to

    這都是為了養活大腦,這導致一些人說,身體開始

  • cannibalize itself in order to keep the brain functioning.

    為了保持大腦的運作,會自我吞噬。

  • At this point, the heart has to work really hard because blood pressure is low.

    在這一點上,由於血壓低,心臟必須非常努力地工作。

  • At the same time, the person becomes emaciated.

    同時,這個人變得憔悴。

  • As those proteins are taken from tissues and blood vessels, fluids can start leaking.

    當這些蛋白質被從組織和血管中取出時,液體就會開始滲漏。

  • This can make the face, legs, and arms start to swell, as well as the stomach.

    這可以使臉部、腿部和手臂開始腫脹,也可以使腹部腫脹。

  • This is callededemaand when it's bad it can become really hard to move around.

    這被稱為 "水腫",當水腫嚴重時,會變得非常難以移動。

  • When the bloating is in the belly it is calledkwashiorkor.”

    當腹脹發生在腹部時,它被稱為 "腹脹症"(kwashiorkor)。

  • One Chinese survivor of the famine described it like this:

    一位饑荒的中國倖存者是這樣描述的。

  • “I was the first to come down with a serious case of edema.

    "我是第一個得了嚴重水腫的人。

  • I became emaciated, my ankles swelled, and my legs got so weak I often fell while walking

    我變得憔悴,我的腳踝腫脹,我的腿變得如此虛弱,我經常在走路時摔倒。

  • to the fields for forced labor.”

    到田裡做強迫勞動。"

  • To make matters worse, people were beaten in this state, and that could result in leakage.

    更糟糕的是,人們在這種狀態下被毆打,這可能會導致洩漏。

  • There was a common saying among Chinese peasants along the lines of they werebeaten until

    在中國農民中流傳著這樣一句話:他們被 "打到"。

  • all the water came out.”

    所有的水都出來了。"

  • When the local cadres hit them with batons, that's what happened.

    噹噹地幹部用警棍打他們時,就發生了這樣的事情。

  • There's another condition related to lack of insufficient calorie intake known asmarasmus

    還有一種與缺乏足夠的卡路里攝入有關的情況被稱為 "馬拉松"。

  • which comes from the wordwithering.”

    它來自於 "枯萎 "一詞。

  • These people might have shriveled skin and exposed ribs.

    這些人可能有乾癟的皮膚和暴露的肋骨。

  • Their throat might become so dry they can hardly speak.

    他們的喉嚨可能變得如此乾燥,幾乎無法說話。

  • They might just curl up into a ball on the floor as their facial skin seems to lose its

    他們可能會在地板上蜷縮成一團,因為他們的面部皮膚似乎失去了活力。

  • elasticity.

    彈性。

  • At this point, with eyes bulging, they may look as if they have been stripped of their

    在這一點上,他們的眼睛凸出,看起來好像被剝奪了他們的

  • thoughts.

    思想。

  • They are close to death.

    他們已經接近死亡。

  • With marasmus, there's something called a point of no return, which means even if

    對於瘧疾,有一種叫做不歸點的東西,這意味著即使

  • they received food they would still die.

    他們得到了食物,但仍會死亡。

  • Their hair might change color and then fall out, and at the same time, the skin might

    他們的頭髮可能會改變顏色,然後脫落,同時,皮膚可能會

  • become scaly and just flake off.

    變得有鱗片,並直接剝落。

  • With all those tissues and organs breaking down they are super-susceptible to disease,

    隨著所有這些組織和器官的分解,他們對疾病的敏感性超強。

  • which is likely what will finish them off if infection doesn't.

    如果不進行感染,這很可能會使他們完蛋。

  • Even if the person is somehow brought back from the dead, it's possible they will have

    即使這個人以某種方式起死回生,也有可能他們會有

  • suffered irreparable brain damage.

    遭受了不可挽回的腦損傷。

  • One interesting case we found was from 1993 when a woman in a hospital dying of cancer

    我們發現的一個有趣的案例是在1993年,一位在醫院裡因癌症而死亡的婦女

  • said she just wanted it over with and asked not to be given any food and drink.

    她說她只想結束這一切,並要求不給她任何食物和飲料。

  • She was observed by Dr. Robert Sullivan who worked at Duke University Medical Center.

    她被在杜克大學醫療中心工作的羅伯特-沙利文醫生觀察。

  • The strange thing is, the doctor noted that during the final stages of this woman's

    奇怪的是,醫生指出,在這個女人的最後階段

  • life she didn't feel any pain, although it must be said she may also have been taking

    生活中,她沒有感到任何疼痛,儘管必須說她可能也在服用

  • painkillers.

    止痛藥。

  • Nonetheless, once she had totally given herself up to death, she was chatty on the way out

    儘管如此,一旦她把自己完全交給了死神,她在離開時還很健談。

  • and then one day slipped into a coma and died after her organs failed.

    然後有一天陷入昏迷,在她的器官衰竭後死亡。

  • Still, it's the ones who survive on little bits of food who hurt the mostmentally

    然而,靠一點一滴的食物生存的人,才是最痛苦的人--精神上的痛苦

  • and physically.

    和身體上。

  • According to that doctor, being ravenous all the time and trying to make it to the next

    根據該醫生的說法,一直處於飢腸轆轆的狀態,並試圖使其達到下一個目標。

  • day is incredibly painful.

    日子是令人難以置信的痛苦。

  • Starvation can lead to all sorts of ailments, including chronic watery diarrhea, fever,

    飢餓會導致各種疾病,包括慢性水樣腹瀉、發燒。

  • disease, bleeding under the skin, loss of eyesight, hallucinations, convulsions, skin

    疾病、皮下出血、視力喪失、幻覺、抽搐、皮膚

  • conditions, and irritation in many regions of the body.

    狀況,以及身體許多區域的刺激性。

  • It's just during those very last stages when someone has nothing left in them they

    只是在那些最後的階段,當一個人身上什麼都不剩的時候,他們才會去做。

  • seem to resign themselves to death and perhaps some of the pain recedes.

    似乎認命了,也許有些痛苦就會消退。

  • In the Holocaust, Jewish prisoners were fed very, very little and they soon became terribly

    在大屠殺中,猶太囚犯得到的食物非常、非常少,他們很快就變得非常可怕。

  • emaciated.

    憔悴了。

  • Some of those people in the very last stages were said to lose their will to live and even

    據說其中一些人在最後階段失去了生存的意志,甚至是

  • seemed apathetic about death.

    似乎對死亡漠不關心。

  • The name given to these people was, “Muselmann.”

    給這些人起的名字是:"穆塞爾曼"。

  • Holocaust survivor and writer, Primo Levi, described them like this:

    大屠殺倖存者和作家普里莫-萊維這樣描述他們。

  • Non-men who march and labor in silence, the divine spark dead within them, already

    "在沉默中行進和勞作的非人,神聖的火花在他們體內已死,已經

  • too empty to really suffer.

    太過空虛,無法真正受苦。

  • One hesitates to call them living: one hesitates to call their death, death, in the face of

    人們猶豫不決地稱他們為活人:人們猶豫不決地稱他們的死亡,死亡,在面對

  • which they have no fear, as they are too tired to understand.”

    他們沒有恐懼,因為他們太累了,無法理解。"

  • You can only imagine the absolute pain and turmoil a person would have to endure to get

    你可以想象,一個人要忍受多大的痛苦和動盪才能得到

  • to this point.

    到這一點。

  • As you've seen today, people can hang on through the most unimaginable tortures, but

    正如你們今天看到的,人們可以在最難以想象的折磨中堅持下去,但

  • little by little the body breaks down and the brain accepts that there's no turning

    漸漸地,身體崩潰了,大腦也接受了這一事實。

  • back.

    背面。

  • This is why it's one of the worst ways to die.

    這就是為什麼它是最糟糕的死亡方式之一。

  • Now you need to watch, “Impalement - Worst Ways to Die.”

    現在你需要觀看,"刺殺--最糟糕的死亡方式"。

  • Or, have a look at this...

    或者,看一下這個...

January 1961, and a family of five Chinese citizens have left their village and are on

1961年1月,一個由五名中國公民組成的家庭離開了他們的村莊,在

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B1 中級 中文 饑荒 死亡 食物 身體 脂肪 農民

餓死--人類歷史上最糟糕的死亡方式 (Starve to Death - Worst Ways to Die in the History of Mankind)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 05 日
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