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  • What I want to do this afternoon

    今個下午,我想做些

  • is something a little different than what's scheduled.

    與日程表中編排的有點兒不一樣的事。

  • Foreign policy, you can figure that out

    要知道外交政策的話,你大抵看看,

  • by watching, I don't know, Rachel Maddow or somebody,

    我不知道,雷切爾·瑪多 (Rachel Maddow) 或某誰,

  • but — (Laughter) —

    就可以了,不過 — (眾笑) —

  • I want to talk about young people and structure,

    我想談談年青人和結構,

  • young people and structure.

    年青人及結構。

  • This was last Wednesday afternoon

    上星期三的下午,

  • at a school in Brooklyn, New York,

    我在紐約市布魯克林區的一所學校,

  • at Cristo Rey High School, run by the Jesuits.

    是由耶穌會營辦的 Cristo Rey 高中。

  • And I was talking to this group of students, and take a look at them.

    我與這一班學生對話,並觀察他們。

  • They were around me in three directions.

    他們從三個方向面對着我。

  • You'll noticed that almost all of them are minority.

    你會注意到他們幾乎所有人都是少數族裔。

  • You'll notice that the building is rather austere.

    你會注意到建築物頗為簡樸。

  • It's an old New York school building, nothing fancy.

    那是個老舊的紐約市校舍建築,絕無花巧。

  • They still have old blackboards and whatnot.

    那裏仍有老舊的黑板,諸如此類。

  • And there are about 300 kids in this school,

    而這所學校,有約 300 名小孩子就讀,

  • and the school's been going now for four years,

    開辦迄今已有四年了,

  • and they're about to graduate their first class.

    而首屆學生亦即將畢業。

  • Twenty-two people are graduating,

    有二十二人將會畢業,

  • and all 22 are going to college.

    而當中全部人都會升讀大學。

  • They all come from homes where there is, for the most part,

    二十二位來自的家庭,大部份

  • just one person in the home,

    家中只有一位親人,

  • usually the mother or the grandmother, and that's it,

    通常是母親或祖母,就沒別人了,

  • and they come here for their education

    而他們來這裏,是為了接受教育,

  • and for their structure.

    以及他們的結構。

  • Now I had this picture taken, and it was put up

    拍了這幅照片之後,在上星期就放上了

  • on my Facebook page last week,

    我的 Facebook 頁面,

  • and somebody wrote in,

    有人寫道:

  • "Huh, why does he have him standing at attention like that?"

    「唔,為何包先生讓孩子這樣的向他立正?」

  • And then they said, "But he looks good." (Laughter)

    他們接着寫道:「但孩子看起來挺不錯的。」 (眾笑)

  • He does look good, because kids need structure,

    他的確頗好看,因為小孩子需要結構,

  • and the trick I play in all of my school appearances

    而每次我到訪學校,必定會耍個把戲,

  • is that when I get through with my little homily to the kids,

    就是當我與小孩子說完道理後,

  • I then invite them to ask questions,

    我就會邀請他們發問,

  • and when they raise their hands, I say, "Come up,"

    而當他們舉起手時,我就說:「上來」,

  • and I make them come up and stand in front of me.

    並讓他們排好隊在我面前站立。

  • I make them stand at attention like a soldier.

    我讓他們像士兵一樣立正。

  • Put your arms straight down at your side,

    雙手垂放在側,

  • look up, open your eyes, stare straight ahead,

    抬起頭,睜大眼睛,直視前方,

  • and speak out your question loudly so everybody can hear.

    大聲說出你的問題,讓每個人都能聽到。

  • No slouching, no pants hanging down, none of that stuff.

    不要曲起背,不要把褲子穿成大褲襠,不要碎唸。

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • And this young man, his name is -- his last name Cruz --

    而這位年青人,名字是 -- 他姓 Cruz -- 他很喜歡這樣。

  • he loved it. That's all over his Facebook page and it's gone viral.

    並在 Facebook 上說個不停,就像病毒般流傳。

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • So people think I'm being unkind to this kid.

    所以,人們以為我對這小子苛刻。

  • No, we're having a little fun.

    不,其實我們在享受一點兒樂趣。

  • And the thing about it, I've done this for years,

    而我想提一提,我這樣做已有多年了,

  • the younger they are, the more fun it is.

    小孩子年紀愈小,就愈有趣。

  • When I get six- and seven-year-olds in a group,

    當我有一班六、七歲的小孩子時,

  • I have to figure out how to keep them quiet.

    我要想辦法讓他們安靜下來。

  • You know that they'll always start yakking.

    你知道他們經常吵個不停。

  • And so I play a little game with them

    因此我與他們先玩個小遊戲

  • before I make them stand at attention.

    才讓他們立正。

  • I say, "Now listen. In the army,

    我說:「聽着。在軍隊裏,

  • when we want you to pay attention,

    當我們想引起你注意時,

  • we have a command. It's called 'at ease.'

    我們有個命令。就是叫「稍息」。

  • It means everybody be quiet and pay attention. Listen up.

    意思是每個人都安靜並留心。聽好。

  • Do you understand?"

    明白嗎?」

  • "Uh-huh, uh-huh, uh-huh." "Let's practice. Everybody start chatting."

    「唔,唔,唔。」「練習一下吧。大家開始聊天。」

  • And I let them go for about 10 seconds, then I go, "At ease!"

    之後我讓他們吵約十秒鐘,然後我說:「稍息!」

  • "Huh!" (Laughter)

    「唔!」(眾笑)

  • "Yes, General. Yes, General."

    「是,將軍。是,將軍。」

  • Try it with your kids. See if it works. (Laughter)

    不妨跟你的孩子試試。看看是否湊效。 (眾笑)

  • I don't think so.

    我想未必。

  • But anyway, it's a game I play, and it comes obviously

    無論如何,這是個我玩的遊戲,而且很明顯

  • from my military experience.

    是來自我的軍事經驗。

  • Because for the majority of my adult life,

    因為我成人的生命裏,大部分時間

  • I worked with young kids, teenagers with guns, I call them.

    我都與年青小伙子一起工作,我叫他們「持槍少年」。

  • And we would bring them into the army,

    而我們將他們帶進軍隊裏,

  • and the first thing we would do is to put them

    我們第一件會做的事,就是將他們

  • in an environment of structure, put them in ranks,

    放進有結構的環境裏,將他們放進軍階中,

  • make them all wear the same clothes,

    讓他們全都穿相同的衣服,

  • cut all their hair off so they look alike,

    剃光頭髮,讓他們看來都很相似,

  • make sure that they are standing in ranks.

    確保他們是按軍階站立。

  • We teach them how to go right face, left face,

    我們教導他們怎樣將頭往右、往左步操,

  • so they can obey instructions and know

    好讓他們懂得服從指示,

  • the consequences of not obeying instructions.

    並學懂不服從指示的後果。

  • It gives them structure.

    這給予他們結構。

  • And then we introduce them to somebody who they come to hate immediately, the drill sergeant.

    之後我們向他們介紹一個他們立即就會討厭的人,教官。

  • And they hate him.

    而他們討厭他。

  • And the drill sergeant starts screaming at them,

    教官開始向他們大聲呼喊,

  • and telling them to do all kinds of awful things.

    並指令他們做各種難為的事情。

  • But then the most amazing thing happens over time.

    但最奇妙的事情,隨着時間慢慢發生。

  • Once that structure is developed,

    當那種結構發展出來時,

  • once they understand the reason for something,

    當他們明白事情背後的理由,

  • once they understand, "Mama ain't here, son.

    當他們明白:「媽媽不在這裏,小子。

  • I'm your worst nightmare. I'm your daddy and your mommy.

    我是你最壞的惡夢。我是你的爸爸和媽媽。

  • And that's just the way it is. You got that, son?

    而這就是這裏的方式。收到嗎,小子?

  • Yeah, and then when I ask you a question, there are only three possible answers:

    沒錯,然後當我問你一條問題時,只有三種可能答案:

  • yes, sir; no, sir; and no excuse, sir.

    『是,長官』;『不是,長官』;和『沒有理由,長官』。

  • Don't start telling me why you didn't do something.

    不要開始告訴我,為何你沒做到。儘管說

  • It's yes, sir; no, sir; no excuse, sir."

    『是,長官』;『不是,長官』;『沒有理由,長官』。」

  • "You didn't shave." "But sir —"

    「你沒有刮鬍子。」「但是長官 —」

  • "No, don't tell me how often you scraped your face this morning.

    「不,不要告訴我今早你怎樣不斷刮傷臉皮。

  • I'm telling you you didn't shave."

    我在告訴你,你沒有刮鬍子。」

  • "No excuse, sir." "Attaboy, you're learning fast."

    「沒有理由,長官。」「不錯,真是快上手。」

  • But you'd be amazed at what you can do with them

    但你會驚訝,當你將他們放進那種結構中時,

  • once you put them in that structure.

    你能讓他們做到的事情。

  • In 18 weeks, they have a skill. They are mature.

    在十八週內,他們學到技巧。變得成熟。

  • And you know what, they come to admire the drill sergeant

    而你知道嗎?他們開始欽羡教官,

  • and they never forget the drill sergeant.

    然後他們永遠難忘教官。

  • They come to respect him.

    他們開始敬佩他。

  • And so we need more of this kind of structure and respect

    所以我們需要將多些這類型的結構和敬佩

  • in the lives of our children.

    放進我們兒女的生命中。

  • I spend a lot of time with youth groups,

    我有不少時間,常常與青年人一起,

  • and I say to people, "When does the education process begin?"

    而我對人們說:「教育的過程從何時開始?」

  • We're always talking about, "Let's fix the schools.

    我們常常在說:「讓我們來改善學校。

  • Let's do more for our teachers. Let's put more computers in our schools.

    為教師提供更多配套。在學校安裝更多電腦。

  • Let's get it all online."

    讓所有事物都步上軌道。」

  • That isn't the whole answer. It's part of the answer.

    那不是答案的全部。僅只包含一小部分。

  • But the real answer begins with bringing a child to the school

    但真正的答案,是從帶小孩上學開始,

  • with structure in that child's heart and soul to begin with.

    從那小孩心靈中的結構開始。

  • When does the learning process begin? Does it begin in first grade?

    學習的過程從何時開始?是從一年級開始嗎?

  • No, no, it begins the first time

    不,不,它的開始

  • a child in a mother's arms

    是小孩第一次在母親臂中

  • looks up at the mother

    仰視母親時,

  • and says, "Oh, this must be my mother.

    心想:「噢,這一定是我的母親。

  • She's the one who feeds me.

    她是哺養我的人。

  • Oh yeah, when I don't feel so good down there,

    沒錯,當我覺得有點兒不舒服的時候,

  • she takes care of me.

    她會照料我。

  • It's her language I will learn."

    我會學她的語言。」

  • And at that moment they shut out all the other languages

    而那個時候,他們就會將所有其他

  • that they could be learning at that age,

    那個年紀時可以學習的語言都拒諸門外,

  • but by three months, that's her.

    而首三個月,她就是一切。

  • And if the person doing it, whether it's the mother

    如果那個人,不管是母親

  • or grandmother, whoever's doing it,

    還是祖母,不管是誰做這件事,

  • that is when the education process begins.

    那就是教育過程的開始。

  • That's when language begins.

    那是語言的開始。

  • That's when love begins. That's when structure begins.

    那是愛的開始。那是結構的開始。

  • That's when you start to imprint on the child

    那是你開始在小孩中烙印

  • that "you are special,

    「你是特別的,

  • you are different from every other child in the world.

    你與世界上任何其他一位小孩都不同。

  • And we're going to read to you."

    而我們將會向你朗讀。」

  • A child who has not been read to

    得不到朗讀的小孩,

  • is in danger when that child gets to school.

    當小孩上學時可能會有風險。

  • A child who doesn't know his or her colors

    一個小孩,不知道自己的膚色,

  • or doesn't know how to tell time, doesn't know how to tie shoes,

    或者不知道如何報時間,不知道怎樣綁鞋帶,

  • doesn't know how to do those things,

    不知道怎樣做那些事情,

  • and doesn't know how to do something that

    也不知道如何去做那件

  • goes by a word that was drilled into me as a kid: mind.

    自小就紮根我的腦海中的字眼:注意。

  • Mind your manners! Mind your adults! Mind what you're saying!

    注意你的言行舉止!當心身邊的大人!小心你所說的話!

  • This is the way children are raised properly.

    這是正確養育兒童的方式。

  • And I watched my own young grandchildren now come along

    我現在看着自己年幼的孫兒,

  • and they're, much to the distress of my children,

    他們真令我的兒女頭疼,

  • they are acting just like we did. You know? You imprint them.

    他們就像我們當年一樣。你知道嗎?你要去烙印他們。

  • And that's what you have to do to prepare children for education and for school.

    而那就是你要做的事,去準備兒童接受教育和上學。

  • And I'm working at all the energy I have

    現在我正盡全力

  • to sort of communicate this message that

    希望將這個訊息宣揚:

  • we need preschool, we need Head Start,

    我們需要學前教育,我們需要「啟蒙計劃」,

  • we need prenatal care.

    我們需要產前檢查。

  • The education process begins even before the child is born,

    教育的過程,早在小孩誕生之前已經開始,

  • and if you don't do that, you're going to have difficulty.

    若你不這樣做的話,就可能會面對困難。

  • And we are having difficulties in so many of our communities

    而我們在很多社區中都面對困難,

  • and so many of our schools where kids are coming

    很多學校接收一年級新生,

  • to first grade and their eyes are blazing,

    那些學童雙眼發亮,

  • they've got their little knapsack on and they're ready to go,

    他們收拾好小背包準備上學,

  • and then they realize they're not like the other first graders

    然後他們發覺自己不像其他一年級生,

  • who know books, have been read to, can do their alphabet.

    其他人懂書,有人朗讀給他們聽,懂得英文字母。

  • And by the third grade, the kids who didn't have

    而到了三年級,那些一開始

  • that structure and minding in the beginning

    缺乏那種結構和思維的小孩子,

  • start to realize they're behind, and what do they do?

    開始發覺他們落後了,然後他們怎樣做?

  • They act it out. They act it out, and they're on their way

    他們行為出位。他們表現出來,然後他們就要

  • to jail or they're on their way to being dropouts.

    邁向一條鋃鐺入獄或是中途綴學的道路。

  • It's predictable.

    預料得到。

  • If you're not at the right reading level at third grade,

    若你到了三年級,閱讀能力不達標,

  • you are a candidate for jail at age 18,

    你就是十八歲時入獄的候選了,

  • and we have the highest incarceration rate

    而我們有最高的監禁率,

  • because we're not getting our kids the proper start in life.

    因為我們沒有讓我們的小孩子在生命中得到妥當的起步。

  • The last chapter in my book is called

    我的著作中最後一章,名為

  • "The Gift of a Good Start."

    「一份好的開始的禮物」。

  • The gift of a good start. Every child ought to have a good start in life.

    一份好的開始的禮物。每個小孩生命中都應該有個好開始。

  • I was privileged to have that kind of good start.

    我有幸能夠有這種好的開始。

  • I was not a great student.

    昔日的我不是個傑出的學生。

  • I was a public school kid in New York City,

    我是紐約市一個讀公立學校的學生,

  • and I didn't do well at all.

    而我各方面的表現都不好。

  • I have my entire New York City Board of Education transcript

    我從紐約市教育局拿到一副

  • from kindergarten through college.

    從幼稚園到大學的完整成績單。

  • I wanted it when I was writing my first book.

    我想索取的原因是,當時我在寫我第一本書。

  • I wanted to see if my memory was correct,

    我想看看我的記憶是否正確,

  • and, my God, it was. (Laughter)

    結果是,老天,果然沒錯。 (眾笑)

  • Straight C everywhere.

    各科一律都是 C。

  • And I finally bounced through high school,

    而我終於在高中時期翻身,

  • got into the City College of New York

    以平均分 78.3 進了紐約市立學院,

  • with a 78.3 average, which I shouldn't have been allowed in with,

    以這種分數我是無法被錄取的,

  • and then I started out in engineering,

    之後我專攻工程學,

  • and that only lasted six months. (Laughter)

    而這只維持了六個月。 (眾笑)

  • And then I went into geology, "rocks for jocks." This is easy.

    之後我轉攻地理學,「基礎地理學」。很簡單。

  • And then I found ROTC.

    之後我發現了預備軍官訓練團 (ROTC)。

  • I found something that I did well and something that I loved doing,

    我發現了一樣我做得好,同時喜歡做的事情,

  • and I found a group of youngsters like me who felt the same way.

    我也發現了一群年青人,像我一樣有相同的感覺。

  • And so my whole life then was dedicated to ROTC and the military.

    自此之後,我的人生就奉獻給預備軍官訓練團和軍方。

  • And I say to young kids everywhere, as you're growing up

    而我到處都跟年輕小伙子說,隨着你長大,

  • and as this structure is being developed inside of you,

    隨着這個結構在你身上發展時,

  • always be looking for that which you do well and that which you love doing,

    永遠試着找尋你做得好的事,以及你熱愛做的事,

  • and when you find those two things together, man, you got it.

    而當你能將兩者結合時,老兄,你找對了。

  • That's what's going on. And that's what I found.

    這是一路發生的過程。而我就找到了那一樣事物。

  • Now the authorities at CCNY were getting tired of me being there.

    此時,紐約市立學院當局開始厭倦我在那兒讀書了。

  • I'd been there four and a half going on five years,

    我在那兒讀了四年半,將近五年,

  • and my grades were not doing particularly well,

    而我的成績等級不太理想,

  • and I was in occasional difficulties with the administration.

    我中間與校方也有些過不去。

  • And so they said, "But he does so well in ROTC.

    之後他們說:「但他在預備軍官訓練團做得很好。

  • Look, he gets straight A's in that but not in anything else."

    看,他在那兒全部奪 A,但其他就完全沒有了。」

  • And so they said, "Look, let's take his ROTC grades

    之後他們說:「看,不如取他在預備軍官訓練團的成績,

  • and roll them into his overall GPA and see what happens."

    一併計進整體成積均點 (Overall GPA),看看如何。」

  • And they did, and it brought me up to 2.0. (Laughter)

    他們照做,結果讓我攀升到 2.0。 (眾笑)

  • Yep. (Laughter) (Applause)

    對。(眾笑) (掌聲)

  • They said, "It's good enough for government work.

    他們說:「這個成績足以打政府工。

  • Give him to the army. We'll never see him again. We'll never see him again."

    將他送給軍隊吧。我們不會再見到他了。我們不會再見到他了。」

  • So they shipped me off to the army,

    就此他們將我送到軍隊裏,

  • and lo and behold, many years later,

    時移世易,眾多年後,

  • I'm considered one of the greatest sons the City College of New York has ever had. (Laughter)

    我獲認為紐約市立學院歷屆最傑出的舊生之一。(眾笑)

  • So, I tell young people everywhere,

    所以,我四處都對年青人說,

  • it ain't where you start in life, it's what you do with life

    不是你在生命中的起點,而是你用生命做甚麼,

  • that determines where you end up in life,

    決定你人生的目的地,

  • and you are blessed to be living in a country that,

    而你生活在這個國家,實在是個祝福,

  • no matter where you start, you have opportunities

    無論你在哪裏起步,你都會有機會,

  • so long as you believe in yourself,

    只要你相信自己,

  • you believe in the society and the country,

    相信社會和國家,

  • and you believe that you can self-improve

    相信你可以自我提升

  • and educate yourself as you go along.

    並沿途可以教育你自己。

  • And that's the key to success.

    而那就是成功的關鍵。

  • But it begins with the gift of a good start.

    但一切源於這一份好開始的禮物。

  • If we don't give that gift to each and every one of our kids,

    若我們不給予我們每一個小孩子那份禮物,

  • if we don't invest at the earliest age,

    若我們不在最早階段作出投資,

  • we're going to be running into difficulties.

    我們將會走進困境中。

  • It's why we have a dropout rate of roughly 25 percent overall

    這是為何我們整體的綴學率接近百分之 25,

  • and almost 50 percent of our minority population

    而我們的少數族群人口將近一半

  • living in low-income areas,

    都活在低收入地區,

  • because they're not getting the gift of a good start.

    因為他們得不到一個好的開始作為禮物。

  • My gift of a good start was not only being in a nice family,

    我得到一個好的開始作為禮物,不單是生在不錯的家庭,

  • a good family, but having a family that said to me,

    一個好的家庭,而且亦是有家人會對我說:

  • "Now listen, we came to this country in banana boats

    「聽好了,早在 1920 和 1924 年,

  • in 1920 and 1924.

    我們乘坐香蕉船來到這個國家。

  • We worked like dogs down in the garment industry every single day.

    我們每一日都在製衣廠下做牛做馬。

  • We're not doing it so that you can stick something up your nose

    我們這麼辛苦,不是為了讓你吸毒追龍,

  • or get in trouble. And don't even think about dropping out."

    或是惹是生非。更休想中途綴學。」

  • If I had ever gone home and told those immigrant people

    若我試試回家,對着兩位第一代移民的父母說:

  • that, "You know, I'm tired of school and I'm dropping out,"

    「你知道嗎,我厭倦上學,我要綴學了」,