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  • I want you to think about the image that you see when I say one word migrant.

    我想讓你想一想,當我說一個字移民的時候,你看到的畫面。

  • You may have pictured a crowded boat in rough waters, people clinging to the top of a freight train or crossing a desert wearing worn out shoes.

    你可能想象過在波濤洶湧的水域中擁擠的船隻,人們緊緊抓住貨運列車的頂部,或者穿著破舊的鞋子穿越沙漠。

  • This is what we see in the news cycle 24 hours a day after day, story after story.

    這就是我們一天24小時、一個故事接一個故事的新聞循環。

  • People who are desperate, fleeing wars, fleeing climate change, fleeing poverty.

    逃離戰爭、逃離氣候變化、逃離貧困的絕望的人們。

  • But in reality, most people move for more common reasons.

    但實際上,大多數人搬家的原因比較普遍。

  • To get a good education, to find a job, to find family members or to fall in love.

    為了獲得好的教育,為了找工作,為了找家人,或者為了談戀愛。

  • And this is nothing new.

    而這並不是什麼新鮮事。

  • Archaeologists like me have been studying migration and finding that people for hundreds and even thousands of years have been moving around the globe, from Europe's earliest farmers, to Vikings to pirates, Roman gladiators and even Neanderthal caveman and people like you and me.

    像我這樣的考古學家一直在研究移民,發現幾百年甚至幾千年來,人們一直在全球範圍內遷徙,從歐洲最早的農民,到維京人,再到海盜、羅馬角鬥士,甚至尼安德特人穴居人和你我這樣的人。

  • Mobility is one of the things that makes us human People move, and we know this because of something that you brought with you here tonight.

    移動性是讓我們人類移動的東西之一,我們知道這一點,是因為你今晚帶來的東西。

  • You carry it with you too many places to work, to the gym to bed, and even in the shower.

    你帶著它去了太多的地方工作,去健身房睡覺,甚至在洗澡的時候。

  • It's not your cell phone and it's not in your purse or your pockets.

    它不是你的手機,也不在你的錢包或口袋裡。

  • It's you.

    是你啊

  • It's your body and your bones.

    這是你的身體和你的骨頭。

  • All 206 of them.

    全部206個。

  • I brought mine.

    我帶了我的。

  • And in case for some reason, you didn't bring years along.

    而萬一因為某些原因,你沒有帶著年。

  • We do have an extra one here because your bones will tell the story of your life, even a single tooth.

    我們這裡確實多了一個人,因為你的骨頭會講述你的人生故事,哪怕是一顆牙齒。

  • And we know that teeth tell us many things for your dentist.

    而且我們知道,牙齒能告訴我們很多東西,讓你的牙醫。

  • For example, he or she can see if you floss or if, like me, really like candy, and you might end up with some cavities.

    例如,他或她可以看到你是否使用牙線,或者像我一樣,是否真的喜歡吃糖,你可能最終會有一些蛀牙。

  • And if my dentist is here tonight, yes, I will see you Monday and I've been very good.

    如果我的牙醫今晚在這裡,是的,我會看到你週一,我一直很好。

  • But your teeth also tell you something about migration.

    但你的牙齒也能告訴你一些關於移民的事情。

  • If you take your tongue and run it along your incisors, these front teeth the back of those will be flat if you have European or African ancestry.

    如果你把你的舌頭沿著你的門牙,這些前牙的後面會是平的,如果你有歐洲或非洲的血統。

  • If you feel a sort of scoop shovel shape, your ancestors may have been Native American or migrated from Asia.

    如果你感覺到一種瓢鏟形狀,你的祖先可能是美洲土著人,或者是從亞洲移民過來的。

  • If we go inside the tooth to the pulp cavity, we may be able to extract the D N A and see if your ancestors came from Egypt or England or both.

    如果我們進入牙齒內部的牙髓腔,我們也許可以提取D N A,看看你的祖先是來自埃及還是英國,或者兩者都有。

  • But we're not interested as much in your family's migration history as yours and where that's where we go to the tooth enamel, what it's made out of to try and find out if a person moved and even when they moved.

    但我們對你們家族的遷徙史並不像對你們家族的遷徙史那麼感興趣,而這就是我們要去研究牙釉質,牙釉質是由什麼構成的,試圖找出一個人是否遷徙過,甚至是何時遷徙過。

  • And it's based on one simple idea that you are what you eat, all the minerals and elements in the food, like calcium oxygen, which is the O and H 20 sodium.

    而它的基礎是一個簡單的想法,你就是你吃的東西,食物中所有的礦物質和元素,比如鈣氧,就是O和H 20鈉。

  • And salt can tell us something about your diet so we know if you let corn bread or white bread if you prefer pork, chicken or if you really like seafood.

    和鹽可以告訴我們一些關於你的飲食,所以我們知道如果你讓玉米麵包或白麵包,如果你喜歡豬肉、雞肉或如果你真的喜歡海鮮。

  • There are other elements that tell us where that food came from, and that includes sulfur, astronomy, oxygen and even lead, Which, of course, you don't want very much of.

    還有其他元素告訴我們食物的來源 There are other elements that tell us where that food came from, 包括硫磺 天文學 氧氣甚至是鉛 and that includes sulfur, astronomy, oxygen and even lead, 當然你也不太想要 Which, of course, you don't want very much of.

  • But these tell us where the food comes from and that can tell us where you were when you were eating it.

    但這些可以告訴我們食物的來源,可以告訴我們你吃的時候你在哪裡。

  • And that is what archaeologists use to identify ancient migration.

    而這也是考古學家用來識別古代移民的方法。

  • If we look inside the tooth enamel, we can see, for example, in your first Mueller, this is the one that was forming along with your baby teeth, but it's the only one you still have, and that tells us where you were living as an infant.

    如果我們從牙釉質裡面看,我們可以看到,比如說你的第一顆穆勒牙,這個是和你的小牙一起形成的,但是你現在只有這一顆牙還在,這就告訴我們你嬰兒時期的生活環境。

  • If we look at the wisdom tooth, which is the last tooth, the form that enamel would have been mineral izing just before you hit your teenage years.

    如果我們看一下智齒,也就是最後一顆牙齒,在你進入青春期之前,牙釉質就會出現礦化的形態。

  • So we know where you're living.

    所以我們知道你住在哪裡

  • Then if we look at your bones and in that pause, you just formed some new bone cells that's telling us what you're eating and what you're doing and just about the past decade of life so we can really track where people moved.

    那麼如果我們看看你的骨頭,在這個停頓中,你剛剛形成了一些新的骨細胞,它告訴我們你在吃什麼,你在做什麼,只是關於過去十年的生活,所以我們可以真正地跟蹤人們移動的地方。

  • And we've looked at this for hundreds and thousands of individuals to identify migration in the past.

    而我們在過去已經為成百上千的人研究過這個問題,來識別移民。

  • So I'd like to introduce you to some ancient migrants.

    所以我想給大家介紹一些古代移民。

  • If we go back in time 1600 years, we can go to the city of Copan, where the Maya people lived in what's now Honduras.

    如果我們回到1600年前,我們可以去科潘市,那裡的瑪雅人生活在現在的洪都拉斯。

  • If we came around the year 400 a d, we might have walked into broad plazas under a really hot tropical sun that was shining onto bright red painted buildings that alters and carved statues in front of them.

    如果我們來到了400年左右,我們可能已經走進了寬闊的廣場,在非常炎熱的熱帶陽光下,照射到鮮紅的油漆建築上,改變和雕刻的雕像在他們面前。

  • If we come on the right day, we might have seen the inauguration of ruler in a trash truck, Mo.

    如果我們在合適的日子裡來,我們可能會在垃圾車上看到統治者的就職典禮,莫。

  • Roughly translated, that means son faced first macaw.

    粗略翻譯一下,就是兒子面對第一隻金剛鸚鵡。

  • The Maya rulers had really great names.

    瑪雅統治者有非常偉大的名字。

  • Bird, Jaguar, dark Sun Lady, great skull.

    鳥、美洲虎、黑太陽女、大頭骨。

  • But what was really neat about Yash Cook Mo is that he established a dynasty that lasted for more than 400 years, and every depiction we have of him, as you see here, show him in foreign clothing.

    但雅士庫克莫真正整潔的地方在於,他建立了一個持續了400多年的王朝,我們對他的每一個描寫,就像你看到的這裡,都顯示他穿著外國的衣服。

  • This is what people wore in Central Mexico, which was not in the my region and actually hundreds of miles away.

    這是墨西哥中部地區人們的穿著,墨西哥中部地區不在我的地區,實際上離我有幾百裡之遙。

  • So for a long time, archaeologists thought that this was a foreign king.

    所以在很長一段時間裡,考古學家都認為這是一個外國國王。

  • But his teeth told a different story by sampling his first Mueller, his wisdom, tooth and bone.

    但他的牙齒通過抽查他的第一個穆勒,他的智慧,牙齒和骨頭告訴了一個不同的故事。

  • We found that he, in fact, probably came from somewhere in the Maya region, so he was a migrant.

    我們發現,其實他可能來自瑪雅地區的某個地方,所以他是一個移民。

  • But he may have lived in multiple places before coming to live at Copan, even though he dressed like he was a foreigner, someone from Mexico.

    但他在來科潘居住之前,可能在多個地方生活過,儘管他的穿著打扮就像一個外國人,一個來自墨西哥的人。

  • And now let's think about when the Chicago Cubs win the World Series and people went out and bought Cubs gear, even though maybe they'd never been to Chicago.

    現在讓我們想一想,當芝加哥小熊隊贏得了世界大賽,人們出去買了小熊隊的裝備,即使他們可能從來沒有去過芝加哥。

  • It's a good look, but let me take you to another Maya city, and this is where I work culture Nantou niche.

    雖說好看,但讓我帶你去另一個瑪雅城市,這是我工作文化南投小眾的地方。

  • In 2016, archaeologists found the largest tomb ever discovered in the country.

    2016年,考古學家發現了國內有史以來最大的墓葬。

  • In Belize, that's where she 19 inches.

    在貝裡斯,這是她19英寸的地方。

  • And inside that tomb there was the remain the remains of a ruler, but also jade, the kind of plates and the kind of vessels that you might see in a museum and Jaguar bones, which symbolized possibly royal power.

    墓裡有統治者的遺蹟,也有玉器,那種你在博物館裡可能看到的盤子和器皿,還有美洲虎的骨頭,它們可能象徵著皇權。

  • This person may have actually even been wearing a Jaguar pelt cape, but then it was a fairly small city, so there was a possibility that this was a foreign ruler.

    這個人可能真的連捷豹皮斗篷都穿上了,但那是一個相當小的城市,所以有可能這是一個外來的統治者。

  • But in fact, looking at the DNA and looking at the tooth enamel, this was no foreign king.

    但事實上,看DNA,看牙釉質,這不是異族王。

  • She was a Maya queen or some other royalty who was probably local.

    她是瑪雅女王或其他可能是當地的皇室成員。

  • We actually don't usually find foreign kings and queens, but I told you the story was about migrants.

    其實我們一般不會找外國的國王和皇后,但我告訴你這個故事是關於移民的。

  • And it is because, in fact, it was the commoners who moved up to 25% of the population of every village, and every city consisted of migrants, men, women and Children who had moved, sometimes for multiple places.

    而這是因為,事實上,是老百姓遷走了每一個村子裡高達25%的人口,每一個城市都是由遷走的男女老少組成的,有時是多地遷走。

  • to live in the same household migration seem to be common among the Maya and many ancient civilizations.

    住在同一個家庭的遷移似乎是瑪雅人和許多古代文明之間的共同點。

  • But we can move forward in time to the 14 93 when Christopher Columbus set off on his second voyage to establish a trading outpost.

    但我們可以把時間向前推,到93年14月 克里斯托弗-哥倫布第二次出海建立貿易前哨。

  • He left with 17 ships and 1200 men, nobility, clergy, sailors and craftsman to establish what we now know Isla Isabela, named after Queen Isabel in the northern part of the Dominican Republic, or La Espanola, as they called it.

    他帶著17艘船和1200名貴族、神職人員、水手和工匠離開,建立了我們現在所知道的伊莎貝拉島,以伊莎貝爾女王的名字命名,位於多米尼加共和國北部,也就是他們所說的La Espanola。

  • Then things were not good.

    然後事情就不好辦了。

  • Food was scarce.

    食物匱乏。

  • Disease was rampant in Columbus may not have been the best manager, so mortality rates were high.

    疾病橫行的哥倫布可能不是最好的管理者,所以死亡率很高。

  • And by the 19 eighties and nineties, when archaeologists began to excavate the settlement and then the cemetery, they started to wonder.

    而到了19世紀八九十年代,當考古學家開始挖掘這個聚落,然後是墓地的時候,他們開始懷疑。

  • Did the ship's rosters leave include everyone who was buried here who actually lived at least Sabella.

    船上的花名冊上留下的是否包括所有被埋在這裡的人,他們至少實際生活在薩貝拉。

  • My job came a bit later as a graduate student, when I was tasked with going around the island to try and collect samples that could serve as proxies for human teeth.

    我的工作是後來當研究所學生的時候才有的,當時我的任務是在島上到處去嘗試收集可以作為人類牙齒代理的樣本。

  • What would the enamel look like of the people who were living?

    活著的人的琺琅會是什麼樣子?

  • Atl Isabella, Someone else got to go to Spain.

    亞特蘭-伊莎貝拉,有人要去西班牙了。

  • But I rented a car, drove around, went into the mountains, drove toward the river valleys.

    但我租了一輛車,兜兜轉轉,進了山,開向河谷。

  • And of course, I went to a beach or two and everything was going really well until the last day, when I came to what was supposed to be a bridge and saw a river and a herd of cows.

    當然,我也去了一兩個海灘,一切都很順利,直到最後一天,我來到應該是一座橋的地方,看到了一條河和一群牛。

  • So it was getting dark.

    所以天色漸漸暗了下來。

  • I was by myself.

    我是一個人。

  • I was low on gas and after I saw some cowboys on the other side of the river kind of waving their hands, I just rolled down the window and gunned it, and I made it across and I had the samples, which was a good thing, because there were some surprises.

    我當時油量很低,我看到河對岸的一些牛仔在揮舞著雙手,我就搖下車窗,開了槍,我過了河,我拿到了樣品,這是件好事,因為有一些意外。

  • We did find soldiers and people from Spain, probably Andalusia, where Columbus sailed from, and maybe other parts of the Mediterranean.

    我們確實發現了來自西班牙的阿兵哥和人民,可能是安達盧西亞,哥倫布航行的地方,也可能是地中海的其他地方。

  • But we also found an indigenous Taino woman, a local one and other women who came from Europe and one person who, if we can get some DNA to see if this is actually true, may have been from Africa.

    但我們還發現了一個土著泰諾婦女,一個當地的婦女和其他來自歐洲的婦女,還有一個人,如果我們能得到一些DNA,看看這是不是真的,可能來自非洲。

  • None of these people were on the ship's rosters.

    這些人都不在船上的名冊上。

  • Teeth can tell us things that the history books leave out Our final story brings us back closer to Mississippi to an abandoned cemetery just west of Jackson, where we can learn about the lives of the settlers who lived here in the early 18 hundreds.

    牙齒可以告訴我們一些歷史書上沒有提到的事情 我們的最後一個故事讓我們回到了密西西比州,來到了傑克遜以西的一個廢棄的公墓,在那裡我們可以瞭解到18世紀初生活在這裡的移民的生活。

  • Now some of them came with wealth.

    現在有些人是帶著財富來的。

  • They could erect tombstones and write their life histories on their graves if they were married, whether they had Children, where they came from and sometimes even how they died.

    他們可以立墓碑,在墓上寫下自己的生平事蹟,是否結婚,是否有子女,從哪裡來,有時甚至是怎麼死的。

  • As cholera and yellow fever epidemic swept through the region.

    隨著霍亂和黃熱病的流行席捲整個地區。

  • Richard lived until age 56.

    理查德一直活到56歲。

  • He died in 18 49.

    他死於1849年。

  • Charles had a shorter life in 18 55.

    查爾斯在18年55歲時壽命較短。

  • He'd survived only to age 29.

    他只活到了29歲。

  • But these men were planters, and we know that they brought enslaved people with them.

    但這些人都是種植者,我們知道他們帶著被奴役的人。

  • Where were they buried?

    他們被埋在哪裡?

  • And what about the poor farmers and the sharecroppers?

    那貧下中農和佃農呢?

  • There were more than 350 graves in the cemetery.

    墓園裡有350多座墳墓。

  • And so we decided to do our best to solve these historic forensic cases and reconstruct the lives of the people who lived there.

    於是,我們決定盡最大努力解決這些歷史遺留的法醫案件,重建生活在那裡的人們的生活。

  • And one of these people, One of the migrants was a man buried in grade three.

    而這些人中,有一個移民是被埋在三年級的人。

  • He was of African descent.

    他是非洲裔。

  • Um, he lived into middle maybe even old age.

    嗯,他活到中年甚至老年。

  • By the time he died in the early 19 hundreds, he was probably born into slavery.

    到19世紀初他死的時候,他可能是出生在奴隸制度下。

  • And so we wonder, Was he brought to Mississippi?

    所以我們想知道,他是被帶到密西西比來的嗎?

  • Was he taken from his family like so many enslaved Children were?

    他是否像許多被奴役的孩子一樣被從家裡帶走?

  • Or did he come after the Civil War to make a new life for himself?

    還是說他在內戰後來為自己創造新的生活?

  • Refined family?

    煉家?

  • He and the men with similar life histories, migrants who are buried in graves 18 and grave, 219.

    他和那些有著相似生活經歷的人,移民們被埋在18號墓和219號墓。

  • They made a good enough living that their families were able to give them nice burials, maybe even expensive ones.

    他們的生活足夠好,他們的家人能夠給他們不錯的葬禮,甚至可能是昂貴的葬禮。

  • So even if we can't say their names, we can at least tell something of their stories.

    所以,即使我們不能說出他們的名字,至少也能講出一些他們的故事。

  • And migration is part of my story to my grandparents came from Germany, my grandpa in 1923 to join his uncle and my grandma.

    而移民也是我故事的一部分,我的爺爺奶奶從德國來,我的爺爺在1923年加入了他的叔叔和奶奶。

  • A few years later, we just found their travel documents and a picture of my grandma on a lounge chair on one of the big ships that sailed across the Atlantic.

    幾年後,我們才找到了他們的旅行證件,還有一張我奶奶在一艘橫渡大西洋的大船上坐在躺椅上的照片。

  • We actually don't know exactly why they came, but I imagine it's for the same reason that people come today to the United States because they had a hunger and hope, if not to make life better for themselves to do it for their kids.

    其實我們也不知道他們到底為什麼來,但我猜想和今天人們來美國的原因是一樣的,因為他們有一種飢餓和希望,如果不是為了讓自己生活得更好,就是為了自己的孩子。

  • They met in Chicago, got married and had two boys.

    他們在芝加哥相識,結婚,生了兩個兒子。

  • One of those was my dad.

    其中一個是我爸。

  • I'm the third generation of my family to be here, and I'm also a migrant.

    我是我們家第三代,也是移民。

  • I've come less than 10 years ago from the Midwest to live in Mississippi.

    我從中西部來到密西西比州生活還不到10年。

  • So whether your family has an ancient migration story or whether you look in the mirror and see yours, remember that every time you smile and show your teeth, you're sharing that.

    所以,不管你的家族是否有古老的遷徙故事,也不管你照鏡子看到的是你的故事,請記住,你每一次微笑,每一次齜牙,都是在分享。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

  • Mhm.

  • Mhm.

I want you to think about the image that you see when I say one word migrant.

我想讓你想一想,當我說一個字移民的時候,你看到的畫面。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 移民 牙齒 考古學家 生活 故事

牙齒中隱藏的歷史|卡洛琳-弗裡瓦爾德(Carolyn Freiwald) (The hidden history found in your teeth | Carolyn Freiwald)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 12 日
影片單字